REVIEW Download: 37| View: 228| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: patient confidentiality; privacy; data protection; Saudi Arabia
Online: 22 August 2019 (10:50:10 CEST)
The concept of patient confidentiality is nearly as old as the practice of health professions and, has evolved and transformed over the years, from one jurisdiction to the other. Patient confidentiality can be a fundamental human right, an ethical duty or, a legal duty. The Saudi laws have evolved around its Shari’ah-based legal culture, its history and the international human right laws (IHRLs). These elements have moulded the Saudi Arabia’s unique perspective on patient confidentiality. Its confidentiality laws are found scattered in several legislations. Is the Saudi patient confidentiality law able to adequately deal with the contemporary challenges? The study reviewed the relevant Saudi laws in the light the International Humana Rights Laws. Findings suggest that there are issues bordering on the lack of quality comprehensive data protection laws, on clarity and foreseeability of the existing laws, and on the accessibility of the courts. Furthermore, the lack of a system of law reporting and stare decisis potentially gave the judges a wider latitude of discretion in interpreting the laws. Therefore, the study recommends for a comprehensive data protection law with a clear definition of “confidential information”, of data controllers and their role, and of specific safeguards against potential abuses. Others include defining legitimate purposes for using the patient’s data, and his role, and the extent to which he can control the use of his own data. Consistency in legal interpretations, and an improved law reporting system could positively enhance the overall outcome.
Mon, 5 August 2019
ARTICLE Download: 56| View: 162| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: risk distribution; Mulawarman village; coal mining; environmental justice; Indonesia
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:27:43 CEST)
This study is aimed to explore the environmental risk posed by the unsustainable mining activities in Mulawarman village, East Kalimantan, and articulate the disproportionate impact from the perspective of environmental justice on how mining regulations affect the lives of a vulnerable community. A qualitative comparative analysis based on the legislation and administrative rules on coal mining, and a case study of Mulawarman village were adopted. The information was framed based (participatory) observation, and in-depth interview, and purposively conducted to six selected respondents. The result shows how the laws and regulations disadvantage the community and expose them to unequal treatment. The adverse effects of mining activities change the socio-environmental dynamics in this village. Being the breadbasket in 1997, Mulawarman villagers experience the loss of food self-sufficiency, and turn to the government and mining company for social welfare, and clean water. Also, inconsistent and incomplete regulations pertaining to mining, favor to serve the business interests before the environment and the local community. This results in severe encroachment upon community rights and leads to long-term conflicts between mining companies and local communities, and has weakened the capacity of local authorities to help the affected community to recover their rights.
Mon, 3 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 59| View: 176| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: entrepreneurial culture, persistence, innovation capability, patent, high-tech industry
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:51:32 CEST)
Currently the rapid growth of global economy has the competition among high-tech industries develop from regional to global, and the competition becomes fierce. In face of such fierce competition in global high-tech industry, it is realized that tangible assets could no longer be the differentiation basis, but intangible assets are regarded as the differentiation capital. An enterprise with sustainable innovation would dominate the world market and enhance the international competitiveness of domestic economy. When internal entrepreneurial culture is prevalent, an enterprise would naturally promote the innovation capability. Such a point of view also explains more popular of the innovative products or services of some enterprises than those with larger scales. Aiming at employees in high-tech industry in Guanxi Province, total 500 copies of questionnaire are randomly distributed, and 337 valid copies are retrieved, with the retrieval rate 67%. The research results reveal significantly positive correlations between 1.entrepreneurial culture and sustainable innovation capability, 2.sustainable innovation capability and patent, and 3.entrepreneurial culture and patent. According to the results, suggestions are proposed, expecting to explain how a high-tech business outperforms in the changeable digital era and acquires the sustainable innovation capability and patent to grasp the opportunity.
Mon, 8 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 73| View: 125| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0098.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Dumping, Unfair procedures, Antidumping, World Trade Organization (WTO)
Online: 8 April 2019 (13:05:35 CEST)
As one of the unfair procedures, dumping acts as a tool for illegal competition used by some of enterprises in foreign market and it can destruct domestic production sectors of importer countries. Whereas general regulations of World Trade Organization (WTO) have emphasized on accepting of free trade system and thus reducing of tariff barriers and required member states to coordinate their economic and legal structures with regulations of this organization so the risk has been increased for occurrence of dumping. The antidumping WTO agreement includes some measures e.g. enforcement and imposing of additional levies to fight against this anti-competitive activity that is taken usually with the request from domestic producers by the governments. The unfair trade procedures are some measures based on unfair method in which the goal and result are creation of disorder in the market and injury to benefits of commercial partners. In these procedures, the competitive potential is noticeably increased for the goods that enjoyed unfair measures. The government may not play role in dumping while the commercial enterprises import their products at price lower than usual value to capture market from their rivals. Thus, this main research question is proposed: What are the foremost strategies in WTO to tackle with dumping problem? In response to the major hypothesis, it has been emphasized on this point that presentation of countervailing duties, subsidies and civil liability are the foremost solution to fight against dumping in WTO.
Tue, 11 December 2018
ARTICLE Download: 141| View: 106| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Knighthood; international law; Canon Law; order of knighthood; sovereign; royal family; jus honorum; fons honorum; jure sanguinis
Online: 11 December 2018 (09:28:56 CET)
Legal debates on the deposed sovereigns’ rights have emerged since 20th century. Among them, the right to appoint knights by heads of deposed royal families is one of the focal points. The author begins with a comprehensive review of legal debates on the subject. Six principles on the appointment are extracted from the review. Then, a new interpretation is proposed, wherein the legitimacy to confer honours and the legitimacy of the orders of knighthood themselves have to be considered separately. Under this method of interpretation, the criterion to judge the legitimacy of an appointment of knight is both the jus honorum of the head of the family and the order of knighthood itself being legitimate.
ARTICLE Download: 61| View: 86| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Commercial agency, Exclusivity, Agency termination, Agency disputes, Agency committee, Jordan, GATS, Competitive markets, Monopolization
Online: 11 December 2018 (08:59:38 CET)
The Jordanian Law of Commercial Agents and Intermediaries No. 28 of 2001 and the Emirati Commercial Agency Law No. 2 of 2010 cover all forms of sale contracts through intermediaries. These Laws provide express restrictions and protective provisions on the conduct by local agents of internal commercial agency activities. However, these statutory protections are granted only to registered agencies conducted by national agents.The Jordanian legislator does not regulate the issue of agency exclusivity, which can constitute a restraint of trade and leads to a state of market monopolization. Courts in Jordan have exclusive jurisdiction in settling disputes arising out of agency agreements. However, this exclusive jurisdiction does not cover unregistered commercial agencies which are treated as enforceable commercial contracts under the general provisions prescribed in the Commercial Code.Under the Jordanian Law the principal cannot terminate the agency agreement at any time, but he can dismiss its renewal upon the expiry of its date without justified grounds. Certain statutory protections provided by the Jordanian laws raise barriers to entry to their national markets. This statutory policy violates the specific commitments made by Jordan with respect to market access and national treatment established by the GATS.
Thu, 29 November 2018
ARTICLE Download: 49| View: 144| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0618.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: WTO, Jordan, customs law, free trade, imports, tariffs
Online: 29 November 2018 (10:54:29 CET)
Customs law and procedures are important part of the trade system in Jordan. They regulate the flow of goods across the borders. The purpose of this paper is to examine Jordan's import regime by analyzing customs law, rules of origin, free trade zones, and tariffs reform.
Mon, 26 November 2018
ARTICLE Download: 155| View: 108| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0578.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: WTO, Arab countries, international trade, free trade, accession, dispute settlement
Online: 26 November 2018 (09:57:36 CET)
The WTO is here to stay. Institutions are never perfect. The way the WTO, as an institution, runs its business may not be perfect either. Arab countries are attempting to broaden their engagement in the multilateral trading system in a manner that has many implications. This engagement includes accession to the WTO, participation in WTO dispute resolution mechanism, and representations at the WTO.
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 114| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: corporate governance, Jordan, board of directors, compensation, board independence
Online: 26 November 2018 (09:48:49 CET)
Corporate governance is developing rapidly in many countries across the world. In this article, the existing state of corporate governance in Jordan is examined. Jordan does not have a corporate governance code per se. The article reveals that overall Jordan has in place some of the features of corporate governance best practice, but that there remains further progress to be made in areas such as independence of directors, compensation, and correlation between shareholding and entitlement to seats on the board. The article recommends legal reforms in order to enhance corporate governance in Jordan.
Thu, 8 November 2018
ARTICLE Download: 130| View: 94| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: corporate social responsibility; environment; employment; R&D; annual reports; financial and non-financial statements; competition.
Online: 8 November 2018 (12:06:32 CET)
The commitment of the EU to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is projected in the EU law about annual reporting by businesses. Since EU member states further develop this framework by their own domestic laws, annual reporting with CSR information is not unified and just partially mandatory in the EU. Do all European businesses report CSR information and what public declaration to society do they provide with it? The main dual purpose of this paper is identifying the parameters of this annual reporting duty and studying the CSR information provided by the ten largest Czech companies in their annual statements for 2013-2017. Based on legislative research and the teleological interpretation, the current EU legislative framework with Czech particularities is presented and, via a case study exploring 50 annual reports, the data about the type, extent and depth of the CSR is dynamically and comparatively assessed. It appears that, at a minimum, large Czech businesses satisfy their legal duty and e-report on CSR in a similar extent, but in dramatically different quality. Employee matters and adherence to international standards are used as a public declaration to society more than the data on environmental protection, while social matters and R&D are played down.
Tue, 10 July 2018
ARTICLE Download: 132| View: 224| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0183.v1
Online: 10 July 2018 (14:20:50 CEST)
This paper sets out to reconsider the Hohfeldian framework of rights in celebration of the centenary anniversary of Hohfeld's death. It begins by conceptualising each of the Hohfeldian incidents or rights before outlining the molecular or complex structure of rights to ‘things’. I adopt a broad use of the term of ‘right’ and apply it to Legal, Moral, Equitable and Human conceptions and constructions. It sets out an argument in favour of a further definitional model - in addition to Hohfeld’s scheme of opposites and correlatives – which focuses on the function of these conceptual rights. Finally, it will consider the broader implications of how rights are held and the relationships which these rights govern. Ultimately, this paper seeks to demonstrate the benefit, and indeed necessity, of the Hohfeldian model in any discussion of rights. Without it ‘rights talk’ is debased and impoverished.
Thu, 28 June 2018
ARTICLE Download: 2155| View: 366| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0474.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Legal artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Deep Learning; Image Processing; Matlab
Online: 28 June 2018 (15:13:31 CEST)
Over the years, artificial intelligence (AI) is spreading its roots in different areas by utilizing the concept of making the computers learn and handle complex tasks that previously require substantial laborious tasks by human beings. With better accuracy and speed, AI is helping lawyers to streamline work processing. New legal AI software tools like Catalyst, Ross intelligence, and Matlab along with natural language processing provide effective quarrel resolution, better legal clearness, and superior admittance to justice and fresh challenges to conventional law firms providing legal services using leveraged cohort correlate model. This paper discusses current applications of legal AI and suggests deep learning and machine learning techniques that can be applied in future to simplify the cumbersome legal tasks.
Tue, 12 June 2018
REVIEW Download: 167| View: 162| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0182.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: intellectual property, geographic indication, cashew nuts, Mozambique
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:18:52 CEST)
The protection of Geographic Indications (GIs) is part of the intellectual property (IP) rights described in the Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) after the Uruguay Round (1986-1994). The members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), including Mozambique, have adopted it. This country legislated GI under Decree 18/99 (04/05/1999, title II, chapter VI) of the national Industrial Property Code, harmonised with TRIPS. However, there is little information about its enforcement and impact in the industry. This review analyses the possibility of protecting the Mozambican cashew nuts industry under the GI act. The industry, with major participation of smallholders and employing mostly women, produces one of the most profitable export commodities, though it has suffered colossal losses over the last thirty-five years. The analysis has shown that it is suitable and probably advantageous to protect the cashew nuts under the Decree 18/99. On the other hand, other local trade policies from 1991 are negatively impacting the entire industry and these might create the illusion of inefficacy of the new IP rights including the protection of GIs.
Mon, 16 April 2018
ARTICLE Download: 198| View: 283| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: port state control; Paris MoU; Montenegrin accession; sustainable shipping
Online: 16 April 2018 (06:20:07 CEST)
In order to ensure the sustainability of the shipping industry and marine ecosystem of Montenegro, it is necessary that Montenegro becomes a full member of the Paris Memorandum of Understanding (Paris MoU) on Port State Control. The reasons for doing so are numerous: the full adoption of standards stipulated by the Memorandum in relation to ship control; continuous keeping the pace with and development of new standards in compliance with turbulent changes in the maritime industry and operation (including the increasing scope of maritime transport); decrease in the number of detained ships which meet the requirements stipulated in international conventions and elimination of substandard ships in perspective; prevention of environmental pollution, sea and port incidents. This justified endeavour is supported by the fact that Montenegro is one out of two countries in Europe that are not the full members of the Paris MoU. Additionally, in this context it is necessary to emphasise the fact that the marine ecosystem of Montenegro makes an integral part of the world ocean. Accordingly, the improvement of the quality of national legislation which is compliant with international requirements is an imperative which has positive implications on the regional and global sustainability.
Fri, 17 November 2017
ARTICLE Download: 368| View: 339| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0113.v1
Online: 17 November 2017 (03:27:14 CET)
The International tax regime (ITR) has been transformed after the Great Recession of 2008–2009. The G20/Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)’s Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) project (2013–2015) has fundamentally changed the ITR, giving new life to the single tax principle (income should be taxed once, i.e., no double taxation and no double non taxation). Reaction to BEPS has varied dramatically between the EU and the US, the two largest markets in the world. In the EU BEPS is taken very seriously, as shown for example by the new Anti-Tax Avoidance Directives that implement the single tax principle. In the US BEPS is almost invisible; while the US model tax treaty has been amended to incorporate it the US has refused to sign the Multilateral Instrument to implement BEPS in its treaties and the only other BEPS action that the US has taken is country by country reporting. It thus appears that the future of BEPS and the ITR depends on whether the EU or the US view prevails, i.e., whether multinationals can be forced to pay significant tax on the 160–240 billion that are currently not taxed annually because of BEPS. While US multinationals as well as EU multinationals are exposed to the EU ATAD and related measures while operating in Europe, they are less subject to EU anti BEPS measures elsewhere in the world. It therefore is crucial to assess the reaction to BEPS in the other large economy that was involved in its development, namely China. This article attempts to assess China’s reaction to BEPS based on Chinese sources. It shows that China takes BEPS seriously. Therefore, given the reactions of China (as well as India, which is even more aggressive than China for example in taxing the digital economy) it seems likely that eventually the EU view of BEPS will prevail and US based multinationals will eventually be forced to pay tax on the over 100 billion they shift offshore each year.
Tue, 18 April 2017
ARTICLE Download: 3206| View: 783| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: tax taxation power; principles of tax; tax adjudication; constitutional tax rules; Ethiopian constitution; Turkish Constitution
Online: 18 April 2017 (02:41:03 CEST)
Constitutions as supreme legal authorities enshrine the principles of taxation which are often used as the guidance to the legislations related to fiscal aspect, requires to be explored critically so as to provide clear understanding on taxation. This article has explored the tax provisions in the constitutions of Ethiopia and Turkey from comparative perspective through the method of doctrinal legal analysis. Both the latest constitution of Turkey and Ethiopia comprise relatively related principles regarding taxation in spite of the disparities of taxation system in these two countries due to the fact that Turkey is a unitary state whereas Ethiopia is federal. In-fact, there are some disparities within these constitutions. For instance, the 1982 Constitution of Turkey specifies the citizens' duties to pay tax and the adjudication system of tax in different way than the Ethiopian 1995 constitution. The Ethiopian constitution enshrines the taxation power in detail among other things in line with the federal system of government.
Fri, 17 March 2017
ARTICLE Download: 595| View: 798| Comments: 3 | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: entrepreneur, individual entrepreneur, sole proprietor, economic subject
Online: 17 March 2017 (21:53:12 CET)
An entrepreneur is a business-able physical person who performs activities to gain the profit and who is registered according to law. Starting from the national and theoretical and legal solutions and court practice from comparative law, the authors analyze the concept and the legal position of an individual entrepreneur noticing the problems and inconsistencies in legal regulations. The authors of the work make a few conclusions and suggestions: 1) terminology is not coordinated with legal terminology from comparative law. In our law, the legal term is “entrepreneur”, which is a too wide and unspecified term because in economic profession this term represents the genus term for individual and collective entrepreneurship; 2) analyze all forbidden activities for entrepreneurs, judge the reasons pro et contra and work on eliminating prohibitions and favouring legal entities; 3) set by law the bankruptcy of an individual entrepreneur i.e. the individual bankruptcy of a physical person; 4) work on passing a separate legislation in the field of the individual entrepreneurship, especially on passing and changing the laws which would regulate handicrafts (including old crafts and jobs of home industry), free professions as well as agricultural activity.
Thu, 22 December 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1099| View: 911| Comments: 1 | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0112.v1
Online: 22 December 2016 (09:48:05 CET)
This paper advances privacy theory through examination of online shaming, focusing in particular on persecution by internet mobs. While shaming is nothing new, the technology used for modern shaming is new and evolving, making it a revealing lens through which to analyze points of analytical friction within and between traditional conceptions of privacy. To that end, this paper first explores the narrative and structure of online shaming, identifying broad categories of shaming of vigilantism, bullying, bigotry and gossiping, which are then used throughout the paper to evaluate different angles to the privacy problems raised. Second, this paper examines shaming through three dominant debates concerning privacy - privacy’s link with dignity, the right to privacy in public places and the social dimension of privacy. Certain themes emerged from this analysis. A common feature of online shaming is public humiliation. A challenge is to differentiate between a humbling (rightly knocking someone down a peg for a social transgression) and a humiliation that is an affront to dignity (wrongly knocking someone down a peg). In addition, the privacy concern of shamed individuals is not necessarily about intrusion on seclusion or revelation of embarrassing information, but rather about the disruption in their ability to continue to participate in online spaces free from attack. The privacy interest therefore becomes more about enabling participation in social spaces, enabling connections and relationships to form, and about enabling identity-making. Public humiliation through shaming can disrupt all of these inviting closer scrutiny concerning how law can be used as an enabling rather than secluding tool.
Tue, 25 October 2016
COMMENTARY Download: 704| View: 873| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: degrowth; sustainable consumption; sustainable production; inequality; sustainability; employment
Online: 25 October 2016 (09:50:29 CEST)
“De-[Constructing] Growth” is offered as a deeper and more useful conceptualization that avoids the negative connotations of, and resistance to, “degrowth” by decoupling profit from unsustainable consumption, production, and inequality.