ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0312.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Tasmania; Australia; herbivory; macropods; soil moisture; grazing; blazing
Online: 24 May 2022 (03:25:50 CEST)
Very few multi-species or ecosystem comparisons of post-fire vertebrate herbivore activity and food preference exist to inform fire-management and conservation strategies. We inferred post-fire (1-3 years) native and introduced vertebrate herbivore activity and attraction to six diverse temperate vegetation communities (grassland to rainforest) from scat counts. We hypothesised that where fire reduced herbaceous and grassy vegetation (‘fodder’), vertebrate herbivores would decline, and that post-fire preferences of native versus exotic herbivores would differ significantly. Instead, we found evidence for a ‘fire and fodder reversal phenomenon’ whereby native macropod and exotic rabbit scats were more abundant after fire in consistently ‘fodder-poor’ vegetation types (e.g wet forests) but more less abundant after fire in previously fodder-rich vegetation communities (e.g. grassland). Fodder cover predicted native macropod, wombat, and introduced deer activity and bareground cover was strongly associated with introduced herbivore activity only, with the latter indicating post-fire competition for food sources due to their abundance in high altitude open ecosystems. We therefore found environmental and vegetation predictors for each individual species/group and suggest broadscale multi-environment, multispecies observations to be informative for conservation management in potentially overlapping post-fire niches.
Mon, 23 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0309.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: steel shot; iron; soil; environmental risk; shooting activity
Online: 23 May 2022 (12:28:40 CEST)
This study is follow-up of the steel shot transformation under the influence of environmental factors research (Lisin et al., 2022) and is the initial stage of investigating the iron behavior in soils during steel shot corrosion under a number of factors: the metallic lead in soils, atmospheric precipitation, excess organic matter. The results obtained show that corrosion of steel ammunition is a continuous process, including the formation of a poorly soluble rust crust on the surface of the steel and the mineralization of the metal until it is destroyed. As a result, the metal transformed into rust form, is a constant source of iron ions and dispersed rust particles migrating in soil waters and accumulating in soils. In addition, the aggregation of corrosion products of steel ammunition is the cause of a change in physical and mechanical properties of soils, which leads to a violation of the air and water migration regime of soils and an increase in surface runoff from the territories of shooting activity. The highest environmental risks are observed when steel ammunition is used on shooting areas where metallic lead intensifies steel shot corrosion rate, while the deposited steel shot activates the deterioration of previously encapsulated metal and — if steel and lead ammunition are used at the same time — slows down the encapsulation of newly deposited metallic lead, which catalyses the accumulation and migration of lead in environmental components.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0287.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agroforestry activities; anthropogenic global warming; conservation policies; forest management; forest products
Online: 23 May 2022 (06:09:21 CEST)
Indigenous trees have great economic potential and ecological benefits for enhancing environmental prosperity, mostly in forestry and the forest products sector in the developing countries of Sub-Sahara Africa. The baobab (Adansonia Digitata L.) is known as the African green jewel in both fruit production and medicinal benefits also remarkable for so many forest products exported across the world. Research conducted in the different Sub-Saharan African sub-regions has shown this iconic tree with a majestic outlook has a priority tree species for local and foreign use and conservation. However, data on the benefits and conservation of baobab trees in Africa, especially the Sub-Saharan countries is limited. This study aimed to assess the predominant geo-graphical distribution of the tree, the indigenous (cultural, socio-economic, ecological, and medical/health) benefits, and the conservation strategies of the baobab resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. The baobab tree's succulent roots, bulbs, branches, fruit, pods, foliage, and petals are all nourishing. Baobab parts have been used for diverse reasons in Africa, some countries of Asia, and Europe for the past two centuries due to their medicinal well-being properties. In addition, the medicinal applications of the plant parts are discussed. Many authors have highlighted the baobab tree as one of the most important trees to be saved and localized in Africa because of its high indigenous usage and commercial worth. Anthropogenic global warming may induce a drop in baobab species, which could inflict negative impacts on African economies. As a result, it's critical to research the species' likely future distribution and develop conservation policies. Literature was consulted for records and availability of this tree in the Western, Central, Eastern, and Southern African species records and it was also analyzed what percentage of the current environment would be appropriate in the future. Recent studies suggested that farmers and the locals be provided free seeds and seedlings to encourage biological rejuvenation to maximize the plant's potential, people should be informed about the additional uses of baobab that have been discovered. Individuals must also be educated on simple sustainable agroforestry activities that can be performed in plant and forest management.
Fri, 20 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0273.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: irrigation; remote sensing; Sentinel-2; grasslands; leaf area index; land use classification
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:14:55 CEST)
Conventional methods of crop mapping need ground truth information to train the classifier. Thanks to the frequent acquisition allowed by recent satellite missions (Sentinel 2), we can identify temporal patterns that depend on both phenology and crop management. Some of these patterns are specific to a given crop and thus can be used to map it. Thus, we can substitute ground truth information used in conventional methods with agronomic knowledge. This approach was applied to identify irrigated permanent grasslands (IPG) in the Crau area (Southern France) which play a crucial role in groundwater recharge. The grassland is managed by making three mows during the May-October period which leads to a specific temporal pattern of leaf area index (LAI). The mowing detection algorithm was designed using the temporal LAI signal derived from Sentinel 2 observations. The algorithm includes some filtering to remove noise in the signal that might lead to false mowing detection. A pixel is considered a grassland if the number of detected mows is greater than 1. A data set covering five years (2016-2020) was used. The detection mowing number was done at the pixel level and then results are aggregated at the plot level. A validation data set including 780 plots was used to assess the performances of the classification. We obtained a Kappa index ranging between 0.94-0.99 according to the year. These results were better than other supervised classification methods that include training data sets. The analysis of land-use changes shows that misclassified plots concern grasslands managed less intensively with strong intra-parcel heterogeneity due to irrigation defects or year-round grazing. Time series analysis, therefore, allows us to understand different management practices. Real land-use change in use can be observed, but long time series are needed to confirm the change and remove ambiguities with heterogeneous grasslands.
Thu, 19 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0250.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: beach; coastal sand; fecal contamination; FIB; microbial source tracking (MST)
Online: 19 May 2022 (04:18:30 CEST)
Beach sand may act as a reservoir for numerous micro-organisms, including enteric pathogens. Several of these pathogens originate in human or animal feces, which may pose a public health risk. In August 2019, high levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were detected in the sand of the Azorean beach Prainha, Terceira Island, Portugal. Remediation measures were promptly implemented, including sand removal and the spraying of chlorine to restore the beach sand quality. To determine the biological source of the contamination, during the first campaign, supratidal sand samples were collected from several sites along the beach, followed by microbial source tracking (MST) analyses of Bacteroides markers for five animal species, including humans. Some of the sampling sites revealed the presence of marker genes from dogs, seagulls, and ruminants. Making use of the information on biological sources originating partially from dogs, the municipality enforced restrictive measures for dog-walking at the beach. Subsequent sampling campaigns detected low FIB contamination due to the mitigation and remediation measures that were undertaken, thereby no longer requiring MST marker-gene analysis. This is the first case study where the MST approach was used to determine the contamination sources in the supratidal sand of a coastal beach. Our results show that MST can be an essential approach to determine sources of fecal contamination in the sand. This study shows the importance of holistic management of beaches that should go beyond water quality monitoring for FIB, putting forth evidence for the need for sands also to be monitored.
Wed, 18 May 2022
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0201.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Carbon sequestration; Elemental stoichiometry; Energy use efficiency; First principle
Online: 18 May 2022 (15:49:05 CEST)
This study analyzed and compared several major methods of carbon sequestration based on the first principles, namely energy use efficiency and elemental stoichiometry. This study suggested that wood burial is the only currently feasible carbon sequestration method because it can be implemented immediately on a large scale, is low cost, efficient, has a long sequestration time, has low technical requirements, and has relatively little impact on agriculture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0236.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: flood warning; intelligence; information; response; FEWRS
Online: 18 May 2022 (03:46:53 CEST)
Deaths and property damage from the flood have increased drastically in the past two decades due to various reasons such as increased population, unplanned development and climate change. Losses from floods can be reduced by having accurate intelligence of an emerging flood situation in order to make timely decisions for issuing early warnings and responding efficiently. This paper presents a thorough analysis of the types and sources of intelligence required for flood warning and response processes and technology solutions that can be used for capturing such intelligence. A structured review, covering a more comprehensive range of published literature on Flood Early Warning and Response Systems (FEWRS), was conducted to identify the necessary intelligence and the technology that can be used to capture intelligence required for various phases of a flood hazard as it develops. Twenty-seven different types of key intelligence required in the flood cycle were identified. A conceptual architecture was identified that illustrates how relevant technology solutions can be used to extract intelligence at various stages of a flood event for decision making for early warnings and response.
Tue, 17 May 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0227.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Coastal storm; Wind wave; Storm surge; Extreme coastal water level; Boulder dynamics; Geomorphological proxy; Interdisciplinary climate research
Online: 17 May 2022 (10:28:58 CEST)
In this review, the potential of an emerging field of interdisciplinary climate research, that is the Coastal Boulder Deposits (CBDs) as natural archives for intense storms, is explored with particular reference to the Mediterranean region. First, the identification of the pertinent scientific articles was performed by using Web of Science (WoS) engine. Thus, the selected studies have been analysed to feature CBDs produced and/or activated during the last half century. Then, the meteorological events responsible to the literature reported cases were analysed in some details using the web archives of the Globo-Bolam-Moloch model cascade. The study of synoptical and local characteristics of the storms involved in the documented cases of boulder production/activation proved useful to assess the suitability of selected sites as geomorphological storm proxies. It is argued that a close and fruitful collaboration involving several scientific disciplines is required to develop this climate research field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0222.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: multimedia; geoscience videos; geoscience education; GEGVL; earth systems science education; educational technology; place-based education; active learning
Online: 17 May 2022 (04:37:00 CEST)
Place-based education (PBE) and active learning are effective strategies for geoscience education. However, traditional PBE via field trips requires significant resources, time, physical abilities, and expertise of teachers. We provide an alternative PBE experience by showing how different kinds of geoscience videos can be spatially organized into one digital interactive virtual environment. Here, we present the Google Earth Geoscience Video Library (GEGVL) which uses Google Earth and location specific videos about Earth events to create a virtual PBE experience. Using Google Earth, GEGVL organizes place-based videos by locations and links pertinent non-place-based videos and allows users to roam the globe in search of geoscientific videos that are pertinent to them or their students. Currently GEGVL contains 150 videos organized into ten different geoscience disciplines: Plate Tectonics, Minerals, Structural Geology, Metamorphism, Magmatism, Hydrology, Environmental Science, Sedimentology, Paleontology, and Paleomagnetism. Despite stability challenges with Google Earth integration, results of user surveys among lower division undergraduates show that the design logic of GEGVL is promising virtual PBE organizer for interesting students in and helping them learn about Earth sciences.
Mon, 16 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0210.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Nitrogen sink; sedimentation; nitrogen fixation; management; tropical reservoir; phosphorous sedimentation
Online: 16 May 2022 (12:25:44 CEST)
Nitrogen and phosphorous loading drives eutrophication of aquatic systems. Lakes and reservoirs are often effective N and P sinks, but information is needed on the variability of their biogeochemical dynamics, especially for tropical systems. A long-term N and P mass balance (2003-2018) in a small tropical eutrophic reservoir lake, Valle de Bravo (VB), Mexico, showed it is a net sink of N (-41.7 g N m-2 y-1), and P (-2.7 g P m-2 y-1), mainly through net sedimentation, equivalent to 181% and 68% of their respective loading (23.0 g N m-2 y-1 and 4.2 g P m-2 y-1). N mass balance showed that VB has a high net N atmospheric influx (31.6 g N m-2 y-1), which was 1.3 times the external load, and likely dominated by N2 fixation. During a period of high water level fluctuations (WLF), the net N atmospheric flux decreased by half compared to high level years. WLF can be a useful management tool to improve the trophic status of water bodies by decreasing anoxic conditions and net atmospheric fluxes, possibly through decreasing nitrogen fixation and/or promoting denitrification and other microbial processes that alleviate the N load.
Fri, 13 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0428.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ALOS-3; Land Cover; Vegetation; Machine learning; Classification; Mapping; Ge-nus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem level
Online: 13 May 2022 (14:45:48 CEST)
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is going to launch Advanced Land Observing Satellite 3 (ALOS-3) after 2022. ALOS-3 satellite is capable of observing global land areas with wide swath (4000 km along-track direction and 70 km cross-track direction) at high spatial resolution (panchromatic: 0.8m, multispectral: 3.2m). Maintenance and updating of land cover and vegetation information at national level is one of the major goals of the ALOS-3 mission. This paper presents the potential of simulated ALOS-3 images for the classification and mapping of land cover and vegetation types at Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem (GPE) level. We acquired and simulated WorldView-3 images according to the configuration of the ALOS-3 satellite sensor and the simulated ALOS-3 images were utilized for the classification and mapping of land cover and vegetation types in three sites (Hakkoda, Zao, and Shiranuka) in northern Japan. This research dealt with 17 land cover and vegetation types in Hakkoda site, 25 land cover and vegetation types in Zao site, and 12 land cover and vegetation types in Shiranuka site. Ground truth data were newly collected in three sites, and we employed eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost) classifier with the implementation of 10-fold cross-validation method for assessing the potential of ALOS-3S images. The classification accuracies obtained in Hakkoda, Zao, and Shiranuka sites in terms of f1-score were 0.810, 0.729, and 0.805 respectively. The fine scale (3.2m) land cover and vegetation maps produced in the study sites showed clear and detailed view of the distribution of plant communities. Regardless of the limited number of the temporal images, ALOS-3S images showed high potential (at least 0.729 F1-score) for the land cover and vegetation classification in all three sites. The availability of more cloud free temporal scenes is expected for improved classification and mapping in the future.
Thu, 12 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0172.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CO2 residence-time; CO2 lifetime; carbon cycle; CO2 atmospheric flux; anthropogenic emissions; global warming; climate change
Online: 12 May 2022 (14:24:08 CEST)
Whereas many carbon cycle models track CO2 perturbations relative to a pre-industrial equilibrium, this paper uses absolute quantities to describe atmospheric CO2 sinks, source and flow rates. This method, when combined with the notion of source and sink resistance, and a finite biospheric reservoir, accurately describes 14C levels between 1820 and 2020 using only five external parameters. The inputs are:- global records of fossil-fuel emissions, records of CO2 mixing-ratio and listings of atmospheric atomic weapons tests. Over the same period 13C flows are also accurately described given a ð13C value for fossil fuel and a ð13C value for the initial background. This top-down approach differs from complex climate models since it circumvents the necessity to catalogue individual processes. The paper proceeds to use the method to examine the anthropogenic fossil-fuel emissions contributions during the period 1750 to 2020, deducing that around 24% remains in the atmosphere, while 76% has been absorbed in the land, terrestrial biosphere and surface ocean. During the same period 13% of the total CO2 atmospheric concentration is due to fossil fuels. However, regarding the increase, fossil fuels contributed to 38% of the rise during this period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0162.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: anastomosing; erodibility; planform; Fourier transform; power spectral density; sample entropy; approximate entropy
Online: 12 May 2022 (08:03:34 CEST)
The Brahmaputra is one of the largest rivers in the world, ranking fifth in average discharge. As a result, it is heavily braided with various intricate paths in order to dissipate its huge energy. Although this river is normally classed as a braided river, it has recently been classified as an anastomosing river due to its multi-channel features over alluvial plains. Additionally, the Brahmaputra river’s morphology is random in nature as a result of its high flow variability and bank erodibility. Its anastomosing planform changes in response to seasonal water and sediment waves, resulting in a morphology that is extremely complex. The purpose of this study is to examine the Brahmaputra river’s anastomosing planform entropy as a measure of complexity, power spectral density as a measure of fluctuation and their relationship to the energy expenditure as an imprint of flflow rate of river systems on alluvial landscapes.
Mon, 9 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0106.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: seepage characteristics; single fracture; roughness; numerical simulation; Fluent
Online: 9 May 2022 (06:13:55 CEST)
A single fracture is the basic unit of fracture medium, and the roughness of fracture wall surface is an important factor influencing hydraulic characteristics of the ﬂow in bedrock fracture. However, effects of the shape and density of roughness elements (various bulges/pits on rough fracture wall surfaces) on water ﬂow in a single rough fracture have not been thoroughly discovered. Thus the water ﬂow in single fracture with different shapes and densities of roughness elements was simulated by using Fluent software in this study. The results show that in wider fractures the flow rate mainly depends on fracture aperture, while in narrow and close fracture medium the surface roughness of fracture wall is the main factor of head loss of seepage; there is a negative power exponential relation between the hydraulic gradient index and the average fracture aperture, i.e. with the increase of fracture aperture, the relative roughness of fracture and the influence weight of hydraulic gradient both decrease; and in symmetrical-uncoupled fractures there is a super-cubic relation between the discharge per unit width and average aperture. Above results would help to deepen the understanding of rough fracture seepage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0105.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: low-cost particle monitors; calibration factor; PurpleAir; particles; PM2.5; ALT-CF3; algorithm; PMS1003; PMS5003
Online: 9 May 2022 (06:05:19 CEST)
Large quantities of real-time particle data are becoming available from low-cost particle monitors. However, it is crucial to determine the quality of these measurements. The largest network of monitors in the United States is maintained by the PurpleAir company, which offers two monitors: PA-I and PA-II. PA-I monitors have a single sensor (PMS1003) and PA-II monitors employ two independent PMS5003 sensors. We determine a new calibration factor for the PA-I monitor and revise a previously published calibration algorithm for PA-II monitors (ALT-CF3). From the PurpleAir API site, we downloaded 83 million hourly average PM2.5 values in the PurpleAir database from Washington, Oregon, and California between January 1, 2017 and September 8, 2021. Daily outdoor PM2.5 means from 194 PA-II monitors were compared to daily means from 47 nearby Federal regulatory sites using gravimetric Federal Reference Methods (FRM). We find a revised calibration factor of 3.4 for the PA-II monitors. For the PA-I monitors, we determined a new calibration factor (also 3.4) by comparing 26 outdoor PA-I sites to 117 nearby outdoor PA-II sites. These results show that PurpleAir PM2.5 measurements can agree well with regulatory monitors when an optimum calibration factor is found.
Sat, 7 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0086.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmosphere; high-level clouds; ice particles; polarization lidar; interpretation of lidar data; radiosonde observations; ERA5 reanalysis.
Online: 7 May 2022 (03:12:44 CEST)
This article presents results of the polarization laser studies of the optical and microphysical characteristics of the high-level clouds (HLC). The high-altitude matrix polarization lidar (HAMPL; Tomsk, Russia) is described. HAMPL measures vertical profiles of all elements of the backscattering phase matrix (BSPM) of the HLC. Based on the joint analysis of lidar and radiosonde observations it is shown that the spatial structure of the HLC containing oriented ice crystals is inhomogeneous in the horizontal wind direction. It includes local areas with oriented particles; the sizes of such areas are estimated together with the most probable meteorological conditions of their formation. The shortcomings of the radiosonde observations performed closest to the location of the HAMPL are described. The applicability of the ERA5 reanalysis data of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts for use as an alternative source of information on the vertical profiles of meteorological quantities for the interpretation of HLC lidar sensing data in Western Siberia was checked.
Fri, 6 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0063.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: socio-economic determinants; agricultural technologies; climate-smart; integrated pest management technologies (CS-IPM)
Online: 6 May 2022 (08:41:24 CEST)
Following the development and dissemination of new climate-smart agricultural technologies to farmers globally, there has been an increase in the number of socio-economic studies on the adoption of climate-smart integrated pests’ management (CS-IPM) technologies over the years. In this study, we review empirical evidence on adoption determinants of CS-IPM technologies and identify possible science-policy interfaces. Generally, our review shows that socioeconomic and institutional factors are influential in shaping CS-IPM adoption decisions of farmers. More specifically, income was found to positively influence the adoption of CS-IPM technologies while land size owned influences CS-IPM adoption negatively. Registered land tenure (registered secure rights) positively influences CS-IPM technologies’ adoption, implying that efficient land markets that enable competitive and fair distribution and access to land, more so by the vulnerable but efficient smallholder producers do indeed increase the adoption of CS-IPMs technologies. Social capital, achieved via farmers’ organizations is also central in fostering CS-IPM technologies’ adoption, just as markets reforms that minimize market failures regarding access to credit, labor, and agricultural information, which could indirectly hinder farmers’ use of CS-IPM practices. Functional extension systems that improve farmers’ awareness of CS-IPM do also improve CS-IPM technologies’ adoption. However, the adoption of CS-IPM technologies in Ghana and Benin is slow-paced because of factors like lack of access to farm inputs that facilitate uptake of these technologies, lack of credit facilities, and limited extension services among others. Interestingly, our review confirms that CS-IPM technologies do indeed reduce and minimize the intensity of pesticide usage and foster ecosystem (environmental and human) health. Therefore, this review unearths strategic determinants of CS-IPM adoption and makes fundamental guidance around climate-smart innovations transfer and environmental policies that should be prioritized to curb environmental pollution and ensure agricultural ecosystems’ sustainability.
Thu, 5 May 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0052.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Ogallala aquifer; Groundwater quality; Statistical analysis; High plains region; Permian Basin; Texas
Online: 5 May 2022 (16:13:04 CEST)
The purposes of this study are to analyze the groundwater quality of Ogallala Aquifer and evaluate the hydrological characteristics in the southern High Plains region of the Permian Basin, Texas. Levels of chloride, fluoride, nitrate, pH, selenium, and total dissolved solids (TDS) were analyzed through the years 1990-2016. A total of 133 wells were collected from the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) which is an open database by the US government. Statistical analysis was utilized to evaluate the groundwater quality and propose trends. The average levels of the contaminants were compared to their respective Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Potential human health risks that each contaminant possesses were described. Possible sources of each contaminant were discussed with oil/gas activities, agricultural practices, and other human actions impact its conditions. This research provides important information for groundwater quality of Ogallala aquifer and contributes on understanding the response to development in the Permian Basin, Texas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: circular economy; eco-design; business education; economics education; competencies; Management Education; ADKAR
Online: 5 May 2022 (15:57:09 CEST)
The Circular Economy is matter of recent discussions and quite popular, however the meaning has not been understood by most Business stakeholders. This Case study proposes to illustrate the Circular Economy importance and its status now. The contribution that UAE education sector can make to the Circular Economy is immense and is the focus of this study. Circular Economy awareness and its inner meaning can be only spread by the education sector and the author emphasizes the role of the education can play in implementing the Circular Economy. The study shows the way for the future Managers and Business stakeholders to participate in this crucial endeavor of Businesses to follow the Circular Economy. The ADKAR change management can be adopted to inspire the CE initiatives of the UAE Education sector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0226.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: paleomagnetic mapping; paleomagnetic profiling; radiometric dating; tectonic-structural interpretation; integrated study
Online: 5 May 2022 (05:00:57 CEST)
The easternmost Mediterranean is a distinct transition zone from the ocean to the continent located at the junction between the largest Earth's lithospheric segments: Eurasian and African. The methodology of paleomagnetic mapping of such transition zones is based on integrating the mapping techniques for both continental and oceanic platforms: paleomagnetic reconstructions, results of radiometric dating of magnetized rocks, tectonic-structural reconstructions, biogeography, and utilization of the results of various geophysical surveys. The geodynamic-paleomagnetic mapping makes it possible to reveal the multilevel structural heterogeneity and display complex elements of the geodynamics of different ages inherent in this transition zone. Northern Israel is obviously the most complex area in the easternmost Mediterranean. For the combined paleomagnetic mapping, well-studied paleomagnetically and radiometrically areas were selected: (1) the Carmel area, (2) the Atlit area (internal part of the Carmel area), (3) the Sea of Galilee with the adjoining zones (primarily, the Kinnarot Valley), and (4) the area of the Hula Basin with adjacent areas of the Golan Plateau, Hermon Mt., and Galilea uplift. The constructed paleomagnetic profiles for the Carmel area (on the top of the accumulative surface of the Lower Cretaceous traps), and the Kinnarot Valley – Sea of Galilee – Hula Basin, evidently indicate the complex history of the paleogeodynamic evolution of the region. These studies demonstrate the effectiveness of paleomagnetic mapping integrated with paleomagnetic profiling, crossing these geologically complex areas.
Fri, 29 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0290.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Fire Weather Index (FWI); Continuous Haines Index (CHI); Burning Index (BI); Keetch-Byram drought index (KBDI); Fire Danger index (FDI); Spread Component (SP); Wildfires; Portugal
Online: 29 April 2022 (08:02:54 CEST)
Forest fires though part of a natural forest renewal process, when frequent and assuming large-scale proportions have detrimental impacts on biodiversity, agroforestry systems, soil erosion, air and water quality, infrastructures, and economy. Portugal (PT) endures extreme forest fires, with a record of burned area in 2017. These extreme wildfire events (EWE) concentrated in few days but with high burned areas, are among other factors, linked to severe fire weather conditions. In this study a comparison between several fire danger indices is performed for a reference period 2001‒2021 and 2017 (May‒October) for the Fire Weather Index (FWI), Continuous Haines Index (CHI), Keetch-Byram drought index (KBDI), Burning Index (BI) and Fire Danger index (FDI). A daily analysis for the so-called Pedrogão Grande wildfire (June 17th) and the October major fires (October 15th) included the Spread Component (SP) and Ignition Component (IC). Results revealed high above average values for all indices for 2017 in comparison with 2001‒2021 particularly, for October. High statistically significant monthly correlations between FWI, FDI and BI were found, along with lower between FWI and CHI. These correlations are depicted in the spatial patterns between FWI and FDI for the two EWE. The spatial distribution of FDI, SC and IC had the best performance in capturing the locations of the occurrence of the two EWEs’. The outcomes allowed to conclude, that since fire danger depends on several factors a multi-index’s diagnosis is highly relevant, though calibration and scale adjustment are needed for PT. The implementation of a Multi-index’s Prediction System should be able to further enhance the ability of tracking and forecast unique EWE, since the shortcomings of some indices are compensated by the information retrieved by others as shown in this study. Overall, a new forecast system can help ensuring the development of appropriate spatial preparedness plans, proactive responses by the civil protection regarding firefighter’s management, suppression efforts to minimize the detrimental impacts of wildfires in Portugal.
Thu, 28 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0283.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: molecular ecology; functional diversity; DNA sequencing
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:31:56 CEST)
Wildfires have continued to increase in frequency and severity in Southern California due in part to climate change. To gain a further understanding of microbial soil communities’ response to fire and functions that may enhance post-wildfire resilience, soil fungal and bacterial microbiomes were studied from different wildfire areas in the Gold Creek Preserve within the Angeles National Forest using 16S, FITS, 18S, 12S, PITS, and CO1 amplicon sequencing. Sequencing datasets from December 2020 and June 2021 samplings were analyzed using DNA Subway, ranacapa, stats, vcd, EZBioCloud, and mixomics. Significant differences were found among bacterial and fungal taxa associated with different fire areas in the Gold Creek Preserve. There was evidence of seasonal shifts in the alpha diversity of the bacterial communities. In the sparse partial least squares analysis, there were strong associations (r>0.8) between longitude, elevation, and a defined cluster of Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs). The Chi-square test revealed differences in fungi:bacteria (F:B) proportions between different trails (p=2*10^-16). sPLS results focused on a cluster of Green Trail samples with high elevation and longitude. Analysis revealed the cluster included the post-fire pioneer fungi Pyronema, and Tremella. Chlorellales algae, and pathogenic Fusarium sequences were elevated. Bacterivorous Corallococcus, which secretes antimicrobials, and bacterivorous flagellate Spumella, were associated with the cluster. There was functional redundancy in clusters that were differently composed, but shared similar ecological functions. These results implied a set of traits for post fire resiliency. These included photo-autotrophy, mineralization of pyrolyzed organic matter and aromatic/oily compounds, pathogenicity and parasitism, antimicrobials, and N-metabolism.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0277.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agriculture; agri-food sector; analytical methods; Colombia; pesticides residues
Online: 28 April 2022 (08:49:49 CEST)
The growing production and use of multiple types of pesticides in the agri-food sector has caused strong concern on the part of many organizations worldwide, which question the degree of safety and quality of the products being supplied to the population. Colombia, a geographically privi-leged country with extensive areas of agricultural use, is not apathetic to this situation. Therefore, this review article aims to give a citrus and updated vision of the use of pesticides worldwide and subsequently in the Colombian agricultural sector. As a result, a sector that is currently growing and contributing to the national economy was identified. However, with a strong tendency to use pesticides to maximize production yields and minimize associated costs. Currently, many pesti-cide residues are identified in transitional and high value crops, such as vegetables and fruits. This causes chronic and/or acute intoxication scenarios in populations that meet these substances. Finally, academia and the public sector seek to update knowledge that promotes the regulation and management of this type of substances, promoting the transformation of the sector towards organic and regenerative agri-food models that prohibit the implementation of pesticides for pest and disease control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0267.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: sporadic E; Es; amateur radio reporting networks; ionosphere; mesosphere-lower thermosphere; citizen science
Online: 28 April 2022 (03:30:55 CEST)
A case study is presented which demonstrates the value and validity of a novel approach to the use of consolidated amateur (‘ham’) radio reception reports as indicators of the presence of intense ionospheric sporadic E (Es). It is shown that the use of amateur data can provide an important supplement to other techniques, allowing the detection and tracking of Es where no suitable ionosonde or other measurements are available. The effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by reference to ionosonde data, and the advantages and limitations of the technique are discussed.
Wed, 27 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0261.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: PM2.5; Aerosol Optical Depth; Data assimilation; MODIS; satellite data; Objective analysis
Online: 27 April 2022 (11:32:49 CEST)
We used the objective analysis method in junction with the successive correction method to assimilate MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data into Chimère model in order to improve the modeling of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and AOD field over Europe. A data assimilation module was developed to adjust the daily initial total column aerosol concentrations based on a forecast-analysis cycling scheme. The model is then evaluated during one-month winter period to examine how such data assimilation technique pushes the model results closer to surface observations. This comparison showed that the mean biases of both surface PM2.5 concentrations and AOD field could be reduced from -34 to -15% and from -45 to -27%. The assimilation however leads to false alarms because of the difficulty to distribute AOD550 over different particles sizes. The impact of the influence radius is found to be small and depends on the density of satellite data. This work, although preliminary, is important in terms of near-real time air quality forecasting using Chimère model and can be further developed to improve modeled PM2.5 and ozone concentrations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0260.v1
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:46:45 CEST)
Bluecat is a recently proposed methodology to upgrade a deterministic model (D-model) into stochastic (S-model), based on the hypothesis that the information contained in a time series of observations and the concurrent predictions by the D-model is sufficient to support this upgrade. Prominent characteristics of the methodology are its simplicity and transparency, which allow easy use in practical applications, without sophisticated computational means. Here we utilize the Bluecat methodology and expand it in order to be combined with climatic model outputs, which often require extrapolation out of the range of values covered by observations. We apply the expanded methodology to the precipitation and temperature processes in a large area, namely the entire territory of Italy. The results showcase the appropriateness of the method for hydroclimatic studies, as regards the assessment of the performance of the climatic projections, as well as their stochastic conversion with simultaneous bias correction and uncertainty quantification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0257.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: remote sensing; air quality; NOx emissions; S5P/TROPOMI; MAX-DOAS; LOTOS-EUROS
Online: 27 April 2022 (10:42:05 CEST)
In this article, we aim to show the capabilities, benefits, as well as restrictions, of three different air quality-related information sources, namely the Sentinel-5Precursor TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) space-born observations, the Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) ground-based measurements and the LOng Term Ozone Simulation – EURopean Operational Smog (LOTOS-EUROS) chemical transport modelling system simulations. The tropospheric NO2 concentrations between 2018 and 2021 are discussed as air quality indicators for the Greek cities of Thessaloniki and Ioannina. Each dataset was analysed in an autonomous manner and, without disregarding their differences, the common air quality picture that they provide is revealed. All three systems report a clear seasonal pattern, with high NO2 levels during winter-time and lower NO2 levels during summer-time, reflecting the importance of photochemistry in the abatement of this air pollutant. The spatial patterns of the NO2 load also showed, in both space-born observations and model simulations, the undeniable variability of the NO2 load within the urban agglomerations. The diurnal variability was furthermore clearly identified by the ground-based measurements, which also unquestionably revealed a Sunday minimum NO2 load effect, alongside the rest of the sources of air quality information. Within their individual strengths and limitations, the space-born observations, the ground-based measurements and the chemical transport modelling simulations, demonstrate unequivocally their ability to report on the air quality situation in urban locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0250.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: soil salinity; EC; Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2A
Online: 27 April 2022 (05:40:14 CEST)
Soil salinity is a severe soil degradation problem mainly faced in arid and semi-arid regions. About 11 million ha of land in the arid, semi-arid, and desert parts of Ethiopia is salt-affected, especially in the Awash River basin, including Afambo irrigated area. Remote sensing approaches are significant tools for accurately predicting and modeling accurately predicting and modeling soil salinity in various world regions. This study aims to analyze and model soil salinity status in the case of Afambo irrigated areas using Landsat-8 and sentinel-2A, Afar region, Ethiopia, by applying remote sensing with field measurements. Thirty-two soil samples were collected from the topsoil (0-30 cm); out of these, 25 soil samples with various EC ranges were selected for modeling, and the remaining 7 samples were utilized to validate the model. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A images acquired in the same month were used to extract soil salinity indices. Linear regression analyses correlated the EC data with corresponding soil salinity spectral index values derived from satellite images. The best-performing model was selected for salinity mapping. The soil salinity indices extracted from both Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2A bands estimated soil salinity with high acceptable accuracy of R2 values of SI, 0.78 and 0.81, respectively. The model results in three salinity classes with varying degree of salinity, namely, highly saline, moderately saline, and slightly saline, which covers 15.1%, 39.8% and 45.1% of the total area for Landsat-8, respectively and 26.1%, 32%, and 41.9% for sentinel 2A, respectively. Generally, the results revealed that the expansion rate of salt-affected soils has been increasing. From this study, it is possible to infer that if the present irrigation practice continues, it is expected that total the cultivated lands will become sterile within a short period. Thus, it needs to be monitored regularly to secure up-to-date knowledge of their extent to improve management practices and take appropriate actions.
Tue, 26 April 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0226.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: paleomagnetic mapping; paleomagnetic profiling; radiometric dating; tectonic-structural inter-pretation; integrated study
Online: 26 April 2022 (04:24:45 CEST)
The easternmost Mediterranean is a distinct transition zone from the ocean to the continent located at the junction between the largest Earth's lithospheric segments: Eurasian and African. The methodology of paleomagnetic mapping of such transition zones is based on integrating the mapping techniques for both continental and oceanic platforms: paleomagnetic reconstructions, results of radiometric dating of magnetized rocks, tectonic-structural reconstructions, biogeography, and utilization of the results of various geophysical surveys. The geodynamic-paleomagnetic mapping makes it possible to reveal the multilevel structural heterogeneity and display complex elements of the geodynamics of different ages inherent in this transition zone. Northern Israel is obviously the most complex area in the easternmost Mediterranean. For the combined paleomagnetic mapping, well-studied paleomagnetically and radiometrically areas were selected: (1) the Carmel area, (2) the Atlit area (internal part of the Carmel area), (3) the Sea of Galilee with the adjoining zones (primarily, the Kinnarot Valley), and (4) the area of the Hula Basin with adjacent areas of the Golan Plateau, Hermon Mt., and Galilea uplift. The constructed paleomagnetic profiles for the Carmel area (on the top of the accumulative surface of the Lower Cretaceous traps), and the Kinnarot Valley – Sea of Galilee – Hula Basin, evidently indicate the complex history of the paleogeodynamic evolution of the region. These studies demonstrate the effectiveness of paleomagnetic mapping interated with paleomagnetic profiling, which crosses these geologically complex areas.
Mon, 25 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0137.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Aquaculture; Davao Oriental; management; Mati City; shrimp farms; water quality
Online: 25 April 2022 (05:52:22 CEST)
The shrimp industry in the Philippines play a vital role in the local and national economy through exports with markets abroad such as in South Korea, Japan, the USA, and others. This study aimed to describe the various cultural and operational characteristics of small-holder and commercial shrimp farms (P. vannamei) in the Davao region. It also evaluated the current risks and challenges faced by the shrimp farmers. A semi-structured questionnaire that focused on shrimp farmers, and operators in the region was used to collect data with N=41 farmers and operator. The results showed that respondents were engaged in small-holder farming activities which had an average yield of 10 tons/ha. On the other hand, the commercial farms that operate intensively had an average yield of 24 tons/ha. Most small-holder operators used electric generator machines to conduct aeration in their farms using paddlewheels and blowers. For the commercial farms, more paddlewheels and blowers were employed per pond compared to small-holder farms. Generally, the income of a farm was related to the yield of farms or the number of fries rather than social factors or size of farms cultivated. In terms of input costs, feeds were found to have the highest input costs, followed by the fry, fuel, labor, and others (fertilizers and water treatment chemicals). Most of the farmers mentioned that they are affected by diseases such as white spot syndrome (60%), black gills (35%), and red tail (5%). They perceived that the main contamination come from the water source (31%). The main threats mentioned are declining shrimp prices in the market, source of fry, water disposal, and overstocking, and water quality. Based on this study, farmers should follow good shrimp aquaculture practices and there is a need for them to regularly monitor their water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0218.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Agriculture; climate change; energy emission; forest transformation; policy actions; livelihood; wood fuel; Zero-Deforestation
Online: 25 April 2022 (05:24:42 CEST)
Uganda possesses natural rainforests that serve enormous environmental ecosystems and biodiversity services. Moreover, the country is known for its various tropical rainforest hardwoods, birds, and animal species. Over the years, the trend in the natural forest land has declined at an alarming rate; hence need to investigate the possible drivers. The loss of such biodiversity and ecosystems risks desertification and extreme climatic condition. As the world moves towards Zero Deforestation 2030, understanding the determinants of deforestation and forest degradation is paramount. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to understand the impact and relationships between net forest conversion, energy emission, agriculture, and forest production of Roundwood. We used data from FAO for the period 2004-2016. Using the ADF and KPSS test, we checked for the unit root presence in the variables. Also, the study used two different regression models: multiple linear regression and dynamic linear model. To analyze the determinants of deforestation, we used net forest conversion in Uganda. There was 94 % variation in the dependent variable (Net Forest conversion). The outcome of the dynamic linear regression showed that agriculture and energy emission positively impact net forest conversion. Based on our findings, this study recommended the modernization of agriculture by the government of Uganda to stop cutting down the forests on a big scale. Also, the study suggested that the government strictly legislate Roundwood and wood fuels/charcoal and firewood to reduce huge dependency on forests toward Zero-Deforestation by 2030. If well-structured and implemented, government policies could solve the unnecessary over dependency on the rainforest, the heart of the region's climatic conditions.
Fri, 22 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0211.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: fine particulate matter; biomass burning; black carbon; smoke; smoke injection height; 3D distribution of aerosols; Australian fire; TROPOMI
Online: 22 April 2022 (10:53:18 CEST)
We present a novel passive satellite remote sensing approach for observing the three-dimensional distribution of aerosols emitted from wildfires. This method, called AEROS5P, retrieves vertical profiles of aerosol extinction from measurements of the TROPOMI satellite sensor onboard the Sentinel 5 Precursor mission. It uses a Tikhonov-Phillips regularization which iteratively fits cloud-free near-infrared and visible selected reflectances to simultaneously adjust the vertical distribution and abundance of aerosols. The information on the altitude of the aerosol layers is provided by TROPOMI measurements of the reflectance spectra at the oxygen A-band near 760 nm. In the present paper, we use this new approach for observing the daily evolution of the three-dimensional distribution of biomass burning aerosols emitted by Australian wildfires on 20-24 December 2019. Aerosol optical depths (AOD) derived by vertical integration of the aerosol extinction profiles retrieved by AEROS5P are compared with MODIS, VIIRS and AERONET coincident observations. They show a good agreement in the horizontal distribution of biomass burning aerosols, with a correlation coefficient of 0.86 and a mean absolute error of 0.2 with respect to VIIRS. A fair agreement is found between coincident transects of vertical profiles of biomass burning aerosols derived from AEROS5P and from the CALIOP spaceborne lidar. The mean altitude of these aerosols derived from these two measurements show a good agreement, with a small mean bias (185 m) and a correlation coefficient of 0.83. Moreover, AEROS5P observations reveal the height of injection of the biomass burning aerosols in 3D. The highest injection heights during the period of analysis are coincident with the largest fire radiative power derived from MODIS. Consistency is also found with respect to the vertical stability of the atmosphere.
Thu, 21 April 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0012.v3
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Nature-Positive; Quantified Benefit Assessment; Security; Wellness; Viability; Gain
Online: 21 April 2022 (17:37:36 CEST)
The needs for environmental reporting to include positive outcomes considering differences between creation of less harm, benefits and net benefits are explored. To become mainstream, nature-positive development needs positive messaging, measures and metrics to guide, plan and assess urban outcomes. With the accelerating climate crisis and negative messages getting the upper-hand, it’s important to avoid paralysis by bad news. Whilst striving for a nature-positive world, more effort should be on moving beyond zero to qualify and quantify benefits, gains, and regenerative outcomes instead of oscillating around damage and loss sticking points. Life Cycle Benefit Assessment (LCBA) is a method to measure gains in accelerating restoration and climate security. It enables a good news focus as its reach is to quantify and show positive gains beyond the negative and zero loss outcomes. The paper aims to clarify concepts, challenges and quantitative methods then review real-world third-party-certified case studies. Climate security, human wellness and resource viability gains inside safe operating space within planetary boundaries are quantified as positive benefits. Contrary to conventional Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) LCBA assigns damage and loss as negative debts and benefit as positive gains. It concludes that LCBA offers business and design a new environment assessment tool, with research needed on economic and other outcomes.
Wed, 20 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0187.v1
Online: 20 April 2022 (08:53:55 CEST)
Global warming is one of the problems of human civilization and decarbonization policy is the main solution to this problem. In this work, we propose an alternative method of using the gravity-assist by the asteroids to increase the orbital distance of the Earth from the Sun. We can manipulate the orbit of asteroids in the asteroid belt by solar sailing and propulsion engines to guide them towards the Mars orbit and a gravitational scattering can put asteroids in a favorable direction to provide an energy loss scattering from the Earth. The result would be increasing the orbital distance of the earth and consequently cooling down the Earth’s temperature. We calculate the increase in the orbital distance of the earth for each scattering and investigate the feasibility of performing this project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0186.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: arid regions; Kazakhstan; irrigated soils; soil salinity; heavy metals
Online: 20 April 2022 (08:53:15 CEST)
A single paragraph of about 200 words maximum. For research articles, abstracts should give a pertinent overview of the work. We strongly encourage authors to use the following style of structured abstracts, but without headings: (1) Background: Place the question addressed in a broad context and highlight the purpose of the study; (2) Methods: briefly describe the main methods or treatments applied; (3) Results: summarize the article's main findings; (4) Conclusions: indicate the main conclusions or interpretations. The abstract should be an objective representation of the article and it must not contain results that are not presented and substantiated in the main text and should not exaggerate the main conclusions.
Tue, 19 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0054.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: generative adversarial networks; NDVI; green areas; orthophoto; artificial datasets.
Online: 19 April 2022 (10:11:20 CEST)
Generative adversarial networks (GAN) opened new possibilities for image processing and analysis. Inpainting, dataset augmentation using artificial samples or increasing spatial resolution of aerial imagery are only a few notable examples of utilizing GANs in remote sensing. This is due to a unique construction and training process expressed as a duel between GAN components. The main objective of the research is to apply GAN to generate an artificial Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) using panchromatic images. The NDVI ground-truth labels were prepared by combining RGB and NIR orthophoto. The dataset was then utilized as input for a conditional generative adversarial network (cGAN) to perform an image-to-image translation. The main goal of the neural network was to generate an artificial NDVI image for each processed 256px × 256px patch using only information available in the panchromatic input. The network achieved 0.7569 ± 0.1083 Structural Similarity Index Measure (SSIM), 26.6459 ± 3.6577 Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PNSR) and 0.0504 ± 0.0193 Root-Mean-Square Error (RSME) on the test set. The perceptual evaluation was performed to verify the usability of the method when working with a real-life scenario. The research confirms that the structure and texture of the panchromatic aerial remote sensing image contains sufficient information for NDVI estimation for various objects of urban space. Even though these results can be used to highlight areas rich in vegetation and distinguish them from urban background, there is still room for improvement in terms of accuracy of estimated values. The purpose of the research is to explore the possibility of utilizing GAN to enhance panchromatic images (PAN) with information related to vegetation. This opens interesting possibilities in terms of historical remote sensing imagery processing and analysis. The panchromatic orthoimagery dataset was derived from RGB orthoimagery.
Tue, 12 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0107.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: atmospheric aerosol; chemical composition; secondary aerosol; source apportionment; ultrafine particles; oxidative potential; exposure; toxicology; forecasting; micrometeorology
Online: 12 April 2022 (09:54:57 CEST)
The RHAPS project was launched in 2019 with the major objective to identify specific properties of the fine atmospheric aerosol from combustion sources that are responsible for toxicological effects and can be used as new metrics for health-related outdoor pollution studies. In this paper, we present the overall methodology of RHAPS, and introduce the phenomenology and the first data observed. A comprehensive physico-chemical aerosol characterization has been achieved by means of high-time resolution measurements (e.g. number size distributions, refractory chemical components, elemental composition,) and low-time resolution analyses (e.g. oxidative potential, toxicological assays, chemical composition,…). Preliminary results show a high complexity in the relations observed, the link between air quality and toxicological endpoints being not obvious. We explore data from different points of view: source apportionment of PM1 and the role of source emissions on aerosol toxicity, the oxidative potential as a predictive variable for PM1 toxicity with focus on the secondary organic aerosol possessing redox-active capacity, exposure-response relationships for PM1, and air quality models to forecast PM1 toxicity. We provide a synthesis of results with the outlook to companion papers where data are analyzed in more detail.
Mon, 11 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0089.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climatology; paleoclimatology; temperature; precipitation; climographs; elevational gradients; global warming
Online: 11 April 2022 (08:57:11 CEST)
The varved sediments of the Pyrenean Lake Montcortès (Pallars Sobirà, Lleida) embody a unique continuous high-resolution (annual) paleoarchive of the last 3000 years for the circum-Mediterranean region. A variety of paleoclimatic and paleoecological records have been retrieved from these uncommon sediments that have turned the lake into a regional reference. Present-day geographical, geological, ecological and limnological features of the lake and its surroundings are reasonably well known but the lack of a local weather station has prevented characterization of current climate, which is important to develop modern-analog studies for paleoclimatic reconstruction and to forecast the potential impacts of future global warming. Here, the local climate of the Montcortès area for the period 1955-2020 is characterized using a network of nearby stations situated along an elevational transect in the same river basin of the lake. The finding of statistically significant elevational gradients for annual and monthly average temperature and precipitation has enabled to estimate these parameters and their seasonal regime for the lake site. A representative climograph has been shaped with these data that can serve as a synthetic descriptive and comparative climatic tool. The same analysis has provided climatic data for modern-analog studies useful to improve the interpretation of sedimentary records in climatic and ecological terms. In addition, the seasonal slope shifting of the climatic elevational gradients has been useful to gain insights about possible future climatic trends under a warming scenario.
Wed, 6 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0036.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Cyhalofop-butyl; Zebrafish; Liver development; Hepatotoxic; RNA-Seq
Online: 6 April 2022 (08:33:09 CEST)
Cyhalofop-butyl is a highly effective aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicide and widely used for weed control in paddy fields. With the increasing residue of herbicides, it poses a threat to the survival of aquatic organisms. Here, we evaluated the effect of cyhalofop-butyl on zebrafish to explore its potential hepatotoxic mechanism. The results showed that cyhalofop-butyl (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/L) induced hepatocyte degeneration, vacuolation and necrosis of larvae after embryonic exposure for 4 days and caused liver atrophy after exposure for 5 days. Meanwhile, the activities of enzymes related to liver function named alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) were significantly increased by 0.2 mg/L cyhalofop-butyl and higher. And the contents of triglyceride (TG) involved in lipid metabolism was significantly decreased by 0.4 mg/L cyhalofop-buty. The effects of cyhalofop-butyl on zebrafish larvae were further demonstrated by GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG pathway analysis. Cyhalofop-butyl (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/L) altered the expression of 116, 154, 397 genes in liver，these genes are mainly enriched in metabolism (such as lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism), immune system (Toll-like receptor signaling pathway) and endocrine system (PPAR signaling pathway). Furthermore, the expression of key genes related to liver development combined with RNA-Seq results, indicated that cyhalofop-butyl might damage the liver development of zebrafish larvae and cause metabolic disorders. To sum up, our research results reveal the physiological and molecular responses of zebrafish liver to cyhalofop-butyl and provide new insights for further studying the mechanism of cyhalofop-butyl toxicity to aquatic organisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0032.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Great Filter; Climate Change; Earth; Humanity
Online: 6 April 2022 (07:51:30 CEST)
Climate change is the long-term shift in global weather patterns, largely caused by anthropogenic activity of greenhouse gas emissions. Global climate temperatures have unmistakably risen and naturally-occurring climate variability alone cannot account for this trend. Human activities are estimated to have caused about 1.0 °C of global warming above the pre-industrial baseline and if left unchecked, will continue to drastically damage the Earth and its inhabitants. Globally, natural disasters and subsequent economic losses have become increasingly impactful as a result of climate change. Both wildlife ecosystems and human habitats have been negatively impacted, from rising sea levels to alarming frequency of severe weather events around the world. Attempts towards alleviating the effects of global warming have often been at odds and remain divided among a multitude of strategies, reducing the overall effectiveness of these efforts. It is evident that collaborative action is required for avoiding the most severe consequences of climate change. This paper evaluates the main strategies (industrial/energy, political, economic, agricultural, atmospheric, geological, coastal, and social) towards both mitigating and adapting to climate change. As well, it provides an optimal combination of seven solutions which can be implemented simultaneously, working in tandem to limit and otherwise accommodate the harmful effects of climate change. Previous legislation and deployment techniques are also discussed as guides for future endeavors.
Tue, 5 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Ophiuroidea; microfossils; fossil record; new species; Cenozoic
Online: 5 April 2022 (08:41:15 CEST)
The fossil record of the Ophiuroidea is still patchy, especially in the Cenozoic. Only four species have been described from the entire Oligocene, which is in stark contrast to the present-day diversity counting more than 2000 species. Here, we describe two new species of ophiuroid, Ophiura tankardi sp. nov. and Ophiodoris niersteinensis sp. nov., from the Lower Oligocene of the Mainz Basin. The species are based on microfossils extracted from the sieving residues of bulk sediment samples from a flush drill in Nierstein, Rhineland-Palatinate. The new species belong to extant genera and add to the poor Oligocene fossil record of the class. Based on present-day distributions, the occurrence of Ophiodoris suggests deep sublittoral to shallow bathyal palaeodepths for the Nierstein area of the Mainz Basin.
Mon, 4 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0007.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: individual fruit tree (IFT); individual pomelo tree (IPT) detection; deep learning; transfer learning; YOLOv5; remote sensing; unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); spatial distribution
Online: 4 April 2022 (13:35:43 CEST)
The location and number data of individual fruit trees are critical for planting area investigation, fruit yield prediction, and smart orchard management and planning. These data are conventionally obtained through manual investigation and statistics with time-consuming and laborious effort. Object detection models in deep learning used widely in computer vision could provide an opportunity for accurate detection of individual fruit trees, which is essential for rapidly obtaining the data and reducing human operations errors. This study proposes an approach to detecting individual fruit trees and mapping their spatial distribution by integrating deep learning with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing. UAV remote sensing collected high-resolution true-color images of fruit trees in the experimental pomelo tree orchards in Meizhou city, South China. An image dataset of deep learning samples of individual pomelo trees (IPTs) was constructed through visual interpretation and field investigation based on the fruit tree images captured by UAV remote sensing. Four different scales of YOLOv5 (YOLOv5s, YOLOv5m, YOLOv5l, and YOLOv5x) for object detection were selected to train, validate, and test on the image dataset of pomelo trees. The results show that the average precision ([email protected]) of the four YOLOv5 models for validation reach 87.8%, 88.5%, 89.1%, and 90.7%, respectively. The larger the model scale, the higher the average accuracy of the detection result of validation. It suggests that YOLOv5x is a preferred high-accuracy model among the YOLOv5 family and is suitable to realize the detection of IPTs. The number of the IPTs in the study area was counted using YOLOv5x, and their spatial distribution map was made using the non-maximum suppression method and ArcGIS software. This study will provide primary data and technical support for smart orchard management in Meizhou city and other fruit-producing areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0123.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Sentinel-2; Land cover; Vegetation; Mapping; Plant communities; Machine learning; Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem; Gradient Boosting Decision Trees; Solar panel; Vegetation disturbance
Online: 4 April 2022 (10:40:26 CEST)
This research introduces Genus-Physiognomy-Ecosystem (GPE) mapping at a prefecture level through machine learning of multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite images at 10m spatial resolution, and later integration of prefecture wise maps into country scale for dealing with 88 GPE types to be classified from a large size of training data involved in the research effectively. This research was made possible by harnessing entire archives of Level-2A product, Bottom of Atmosphere reflectance images collected by MultiSpectral Instruments onboard a constellation of two polar-orbiting Sentinel-2 mission satellites. The satellite images were pre-processed for cloud masking and monthly median composite images consisting of 10 multi-spectral bands and 7 spectral indexes were generated. The ground truth labels were extracted from extant vegetation survey maps by implementing systematic stratified sampling approach and noisy labels were dropped out for preparing a reliable ground truth database. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementation of Gradient Boosting Decision Trees (GBDT) classifier was employed for classification of 88 GPE types from 204 satellite features. The classification accuracy computed with 25% test data varied from 65-81% in terms of F1-score across 48 prefectural regions. This research produced seamless maps of 88 GPE types first time at a country scale with an average 72% F1-score. In addition, mapping of solar panels and vegetation disturbance are added.
Fri, 1 April 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0007.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: individual fruit tree (IFT); individual pomelo tree (IPT) detection; deep learning; transfer learning; YOLOv5; remote sensing; unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV); spatial distribution
Online: 1 April 2022 (12:34:02 CEST)
The location and number data of individual fruit trees is critical for planting area investigation, fruit yield prediction, and smart orchard management and planning. These data are conventionally obtained through manual investigation and statistics with time-consuming and laborious effort. Object detection models in deep learning used widely in computer vision could provide an opportunity for accurate detection of individual fruit trees, which is essential for obtaining the data rapidly and reducing errors of human operations. This study aims to propose an approach to detecting individual fruit trees and mapping their spatial distribution by integrating deep learning with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) remote sensing. UAV remote sensing was used to collect high-resolution true-color images of fruit trees in the experimental pomelo tree orchards in Meizhou city, South China. An image dataset of deep learning samples of individual pomelo trees (IPTs) was constructed through visual interpretation and field investigation based on the fruit tree images captured by UAV remote sensing. Four different scales of YOLOv5 (YOLOv5s, YOLOv5m, YOLOv5l, and YOLOv5x) for object detection were selected to train, validate, and test on the image dataset of pomelo trees. The results show that the average precision ([email protected]) of the four YOLOv5 models for validation reaches 87.8%, 88.5%, 89.1%, and 90.7%, respectively. The larger the model scale, the higher the average accuracy of the detection result of validation. It suggests that YOLOv5x is a preferred high-accuracy model among the YOLOv5 family and is suitable to realize the detection of IPTs. The number of the IPTs in the study area was predicted and counted using YOLOv5x and their spatial distribution map was made using the non-maximum suppression method and ArcGIS software. This study is desired to provide primary data and technical support for smart orchard management in Meizhou city and other fruit-producing areas.
Thu, 31 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0406.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: aerosols; clouds; inversion; optimal estimation
Online: 31 March 2022 (11:47:56 CEST)
The Combined Inversion of Surface and AeRosols (CISAR) algorithm for the joint retrieval of surface and aerosol single scattering properties has been further developed in order to extend the retrieval to clouds and overcome the need for an external cloud mask. Pixels located in the transition zone between pure cloud and pure aerosol are often discarded by both aerosol and cloud algorithms, despite being essential for studying aerosol-cloud interactions, which still represent the largest source of uncertainty in climate predictions. The proposed approach aims at filling this gap and deepening the understanding of aerosol properties in cloudy environments. The new CISAR version is applied to Sentinel-3A/SLSTR observations and evaluated against different satellite products and ground measurements. The spatial coverage is greatly improved with respect to algorithms processing only pixels flagged as clear sky by the SLSTR cloud mask. The continuous retrieval of aerosol properties without any safety zone around clouds opens new possibilities for studying aerosol properties in cloudy environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0395.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air quality; nitrogen oxides; dispersion modelling; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 31 March 2022 (05:55:45 CEST)
Road vehicles are a large contributor to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) pollution. The routine road-side monitoring stations, however, may underrepresent the severity of personal exposure in urban areas, because long-term average readings cannot capture the effects of momentary, high peaks of air pollution. While numerical modelling tools historically have been used to propose an improved distribution of monitoring stations, ultra-high resolution Computational Fluid Dynamics models can further assist the relevant stakeholders in understanding the important details of pollutant dispersion and exposure at local level. This study deploys a 10 cm-resolution CFD model to evaluate actual high peaks of personal exposure to NOx from traffic, by tracking the gases emitted from the tailpipe of moving vehicles being dispersed towards the roadside. The investigation shows that a set of four Euro 5-rated diesel vehicles travelling at constant speed may generate momentary road-side concentrations of NOx as high as 1.25 mg/m3, with 25% expected increase for doubling the number of vehicles and approximately 50% reduction when considering Euro 6-rated vehicles. The paper demonstrates how the numerical tool can be used to identify the impact of measures to reduce personal exposure, such as protective urban furniture, as traffic patterns and environmental conditions change.
Tue, 29 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0383.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: ombrian curves; intensity-duration-frequency curves; rainfall extremes; regionalization; regional frequency analysis; spatial rainfall; design rainfall
Online: 29 March 2022 (13:39:12 CEST)
Ombrian curves, i.e. curves linking rainfall intensity to return period and time-scale, are well-established engineering tools, crucial to the design against storm waters and floods. Whereas at-site construction of such curves is considered a standard hydrological task, it is a rather challenging one when large regions are of interest. Regional modelling of ombrian curves is particularly complex due to the need to account for spatial dependence together with the increased variability of rainfall extremes in space. We develop a framework for the parsimonious modelling of the extreme rainfall properties at any point in a given area. This is achieved by assuming a common ombrian model structure except for a spatially varying scale parameter which is itself modelled by a spatial smoothing model for the 24 h average rainfall maxima that employs elevation as an additional explanatory variable. The fitting is performed on the pooled all-stations data using an advanced estimation procedure (K-moments) that allows both for reliable high-order moment estimation and simultaneous handling of space-dependence bias. The methodology is applied in the Thessaly region, a 13 700 km2 water district of Greece characterized by varying topography and hydrometeorological properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0381.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Rossby wave; quasi-stationary wave; stratosphere; Arctic; ozone
Online: 29 March 2022 (11:26:45 CEST)
The purpose of this work is to study Rossby wave parameters in total ozone over Arctic in 2000–2021. We consider the averages in the January–March period, when stratospheric trace gases (including ozone) in sudden stratospheric warming events are strongly disturbed by planetary waves. To characterize the wave parameters, we analyzed ozone data at the latitudes of 50° N (the sub-vortex area), 60° N (the polar vortex edge) and 70° N (inner region of the polar vortex). Total ozone column (TOC) measurements during 22-year time interval were used from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) / Earth Probe and Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI) / Aura satellite observations. The total ozone zonal distribution and variations in the parameters of the Fourier spectral components with zonal wave numbers m = 1–5 are presented. Daily and interannual variations in TOC, amplitudes and phases of spectral wave components, and linear trends of the quasi-stationary wave 1 (QSW1) amplitudes are discussed. The positive TOC peaks inside the vortex in 2010 and 2018 alternate with negative ones in 2011 and 2020. The latter TOC anomalies correspond to severe depletion of stratospheric ozone over the Arctic in the strong vortex conditions due to anomalously low activity of planetary waves. Variations in TOC in sub-vortex region exhibit the statistically significant negative trend –4.8±5.4 DU decade–1 in QSW1 amplitude, while the trend is statistically insignificant at the vortex edge region due to increased TOC variability. Processes associated with polar vortex dynamics are discussed, including quasi-stationary vortex asymmetry and quasi-circumpolar migration of the wave-1 phase at the vortex edge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0379.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SDGs; Green Deal; simulation modeling; soil survey interpretation; land evaluation
Online: 29 March 2022 (09:57:22 CEST)
Reaching the land-related UN-Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and similar goals articulated by the EU-Green Deal (GD) by 2030 presents a major challenge and requires a pragmatic approach to be focused on joint learning by land users (mostly farmers), researchers and other stakeholders in “Living Labs” and system experiments at experimental farms of research organizations. Defining specific indicators and thresholds for ecosystem services in line with land-related SDGs, are crucial to establish: “Lighthouses” that can act as inspiring examples if they meet the various thresholds. This exploratory paper discusses indicators and thresholds for an arable farm operating on marine, calcareous light clay soils in the Netherlands. Studies of a system experiment are used to discuss and test operational methodology to be widely applied when characterizing many “Living Labs” in future as planned by the European Union. The important role of soils, contributing to ecosystem services, is discussed in terms of soil health. Recommendations are made for innovative methodology to be associated with all land-related SDGs. Satisfying thresholds of ecosystem services, that will vary by soil type, region and farm-type, can be the basis for farm subsidies such as the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). Research on Living Labs and in system experiments has to be judged by different criteria than those associated with traditional linear research. Important contributions by soils to achieve ecosystem services are framed in terms of soil health and are the most effective way to promote soil science in a by now widely desired inter- and transdisciplinary context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0373.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: raindrop size distributions (DSD) from Doppler radar; computing radial power spectra using radar Doppler spectra; vertical pointing Doppler rain observations
Online: 29 March 2022 (04:04:49 CEST)
A realistic approach for gathering high-resolution observation of the rainfall rate, R, in the vertical plane is to use data from vertical pointing Doppler radars. After accounting for the vertical air velocity and attenuation, it is possible to determine the fine, spatially resolved drop size spectra and to calculate R for further statistical analyses. The first such results in a vertical plane are reported here. Specifically, we present results using MRR-Pro Doppler radar observations at resolutions of ten meters in height over the lowest 1.28 km as well as ten seconds in time over four sets of observations using two different radars at different locations. Both correlation functions and power spectra are useful for translating observations and numerical model outputs of R from on one scale down to other scales that may be more appropriate to particular applications such as flood warnings and soil erosion, for example. However, it was found in all cases that while locally applicable radial power spectra could be calculated, because of statistical heterogeneity, most of the power spectra lost all generality and proper correlation functions could not be computed in general except for one 17 minute interval. Nevertheless, these results are still useful since they could be combined to develop catalogs of power spectra over different meteorological conditions and in different climatological settings and locations. Furthermore, even within the limitations of these data, this approach is being used to gain a deeper understanding of rainfall to be reported in a forthcoming paper.
Mon, 28 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0118.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: spatial heterogeneity; AOD-PM2.5; respiratory-cardiovascular; lag grids; urban-rural; season
Online: 28 March 2022 (13:52:49 CEST)
Optimal use of Hierarchical Bayesian Model (HBM) assembled aerosol optical depth (AOD)-PM2.5 fused surfaces in epidemiologic studies requires homogeneous temporal and spatial fused surfaces. No analytical method is available to evaluate spatial heterogeneity. The temporal case-crossover design was modified to assess the spatial association between four experimental AOD-PM2.5 fused surfaces and four respiratory-cardiovascular hospital events in 12 km2 grids. The maximum number of adjacent lag grids with significant odds ratios (ORs) identified homogeneous spatial areas (HOSAs). The largest HOSA included 5 grids (lag grids 04; 720 km2) and the smallest HOSA contained 2 grids (lag grids 01; 288 km2). Emergency department asthma and inpatient asthma, myocardial infarction, and heart failure ORs were significantly higher in rural grids without air monitors than in urban grids with air monitors at lag grids 0, 1, and 01. Rural grids had higher AOD-PM2.5 concentration levels, population density, and poverty percent than urban grids. Warm season ORs were significantly higher than cold season ORs for all health outcomes at lag grids 0, 1, 01, and 04. The possibility of elevated fine and ultrafine PM and other demographic and environmental risk factors synergistically contributing to elevated respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in persons residing in rural areas was discussed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0361.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Induced seismicity Monitoring; seismic arrays; sensor network technology; microearthquake detection
Online: 28 March 2022 (11:12:18 CEST)
Seismic monitoring in areas where induced earthquakes could occur is a challenging topic for seismologists due to generally very low signal to noise ratio. Therefore, the seismological com-munity is devoting several efforts to the development of high-quality networks around the areas where fluid injection and storage and geothermal activities take place, also following the national induced seismicity monitoring guidelines. The use of advanced data-mining strategy, such as template matching filters, auto-similarity search and deep-learning approaches is recently further fostering such a monitoring enhancing the seismic catalogues and lowering the magnitude of completeness of these areas. In this framework, we carried out an experiment where a small-aperture seismic array was installed around the gas reservoir of Collalto, in North Italy. The continuous velocimetric data, acquired for 25 days, were analysed through the application of the optimized auto-similarity search technique FAST. The array was conceived as a cost-effective network, aimed at integrating, right above the gas storage site, the permanent high-resolution Collalto Seismic Network. The analysis allowed to detect micro-events down to magnitude Ml=-0.4 within a distance of ~15km from the array. Our results confirmed that the system based on the array installation and the FAST data-analysis might contribute to lower the magnitude of completeness around the site of about 0.7.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0356.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: estuaries; zone of initial dilution; allocated impact zone; wastewater; modelling; water quality standards; water pollution control
Online: 28 March 2022 (08:44:53 CEST)
A discharge mixing zone (DMZ) is a defined geographical area or volume of water in the receiving environment of a discharge where initial dilution of the effluent occurs and where exceedance of water quality criteria may be permitted. DMZs are essential to inform determination of discharge consent conditions and an important element of risk management frameworks to reduce any effects of the discharges on the environment and human health. In this review, we describe the principles and technical application of DMZs. We present an overview of the physical processes that govern the dispersion and dilution of wastewater discharges and the fate of contaminants in coastal environments and define key criteria for determining the size of DMZs. We summarize DMZ requirements in international legislation and guidance and exemplify their application to different types of discharges by means of case studies. The selected case studies illustrate different modelling tools for defining DMZs and different monitoring approaches to assess their effectiveness in achieving ecological and human health objectives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0004.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: sea ice; Cryosphere; Arctic Ocean; Arctic sea ice change; Arctic climate change; remote sensing retrieval; satellite remote sensing; APP; APP-x; trend study
Online: 28 March 2022 (04:13:23 CEST)
Arctic sea ice characteristics have been changing rapidly and significantly in the last few decades. Using a long-term time series of sea ice products from satellite observations - the extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x), trends in sea ice concentration, ice extent, ice thickness, and ice volume in the Arctic from 1982 to 2020 are investigated. Results show that the Arctic has become less ice-covered in all seasons, especially in summer and autumn. Arctic sea ice thickness has been decreasing at the rate of -3.24 cm per year, resulting in about a 52% reduction in thickness from 2.35 m in 1982 to 1.13 m in 2020. Arctic sea ice volume has been decreasing at the rate of -467.7 km3 per year, resulting in about a 63% reduction in volume, from 27590.4 km3 in 1982 to 10305.5 km3 in 2020. These trends are further examined from a new perspective, where the Arctic Ocean is classified into open water, perennial, and seasonal sea ice-covered areas based on the sea ice persistence. The loss of the perennial sea ice-covered area is the major factor in the total sea ice loss in all seasons. If the current rates of sea ice changes in extent, concentration, and thickness continue, the Arctic is expected to have ice-free summer by the early 2060s.
Fri, 25 March 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0346.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: ; ow-cost air quality sensors; air quality assessment; sensing technologies (STs); fabrication; measurement; configurations; sensor assemblies; gas sensors calibration systems (GSCS); evaluation; mach
Online: 25 March 2022 (15:14:37 CET)
Air quality and environmental fairness have always been an area of prime interest across the globe. The significance low-cost air quality sensing and practices spikes during the time of pan-demic and epidemics when the air becomes a threat to living beings especially human beings. The gradual innovation and enrichment in low-cost air quality sensing sensors, nodes or devices, and systems are exponentially increasing for the last three decades. This work reviews the major contributions in a) low-cost scalable air quality assessment; b) low-cost air quality sensors, sensing approaches and technologies; c) low-cost state-of-the-art gas sensors fabrication methods (MEMS and CMOS); d) low-cost gas sensors measurement configurations and assemblies; e) low-cost air quality sensors calibration and testing systems; f) low-cost air quality measurement evaluation methods and key performance indicators; and g) machine learning-based evaluation for air quality sensors and measurements. A systematic review of past work with a goal to assist end-users, public health facilities, state agencies, researchers, scientists and air quality protection agencies has been rendered in this work. Starting from sensors electrodes to IoT based mobile smart nodes; all have been introduced in this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0337.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: landslide susceptibility; stacking ensemble; machine learning; random forest; gradient boosting decision tree; extreme gradient boosting
Online: 25 March 2022 (03:43:32 CET)
The current study aims to apply and compare the performance of six machine learning algorithms, including three basic classifiers: random forest (RF), gradient boosting decision tree (GBDT), and extreme gradient boosting (XGB), as well as their hybrid classifiers, using the logistic regression (LR) method (RF+LR, GBDT+LR, and XGB+LR), in order to map the landslide susceptibility of Zhangjiajie City, Hunan Province, China. First, a landslide inventory map was created with 206 historical landslide points and 412 non-landslide points, which was randomly divided into two datasets for model training (80%) and model testing (20%). Second, 15 landslide conditioning factors (i.e., altitude, slope, aspect, plane curvature, profile curvature, relief, roughness, rainfall, topographic wetness index (TWI), normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI), distance to roads, distance to rivers, land use/land cover (LULC), soil texture, and lithology) were initially selected to establish a landslide factor database. Thereafter, the multicollinearity test and information gain ratio (IGR) technique were applied to rank the importance of the factors. Subsequently, we used a series of metrics (e.g., accuracy, precision, recall, f-measure, area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve (AUC), kappa index, mean absolute error (MAE), and root mean square error (RMSE)) to evaluate the accuracy and performance of the six models. Based on the AUC values derived from the models, the GBDT+LR model with the highest AUC value (0.8168) was identified as the most efficient model for mapping landslide susceptibility, followed by the XGB+LR, XGB, RF+LR, GBDT, and RF models, which achieved AUC values of 0.8124, 0.8118, 0.8060, 0.7927, and 0.7883, respectively. The results from this study suggest that the stacking ensemble machine learning method is promising for use in landslide susceptibility mapping in the Zhangjiajie area and is capable of targeting the areas prone to landslides.
Tue, 22 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0041.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: coastal inundation; historical tsunami records; hazard exposure; impacts; BG-Flood; RiskScape
Online: 22 March 2022 (11:56:13 CET)
The 26 June 1917 tsunamigenic earthquake in Samoa is considered the largest historical event on record to have impacted this region in terms of earthquake magnitude and intensity. Yet, very little is known about the scale and distribution of tsunami impacts compared with the recent 2009 event which originated about 150 km east along the subduction zone bend of the Northern Tonga Trench (NTT). In this study we set out to: 1) reconstruct the 1917 tsunami from source to inundation to understand its hazard risk characteristics in the Samoan islands of Savai’i and Upolu; and 2) assess the hazard implications of tsunamis sourced from different locations along the subduction zone bend of the NTT on present-day exposure of coastal assets relative to the 2009 tsunami benchmark. We use the BG-Flood numerical modelling suite to produce model outputs representing inundation extent and hazard depth intensities at spatially flexible grid resolution (10 m, 20 m and 40 m). These are validated using available tide gauge records in Apia harbour and limited observations of runup that were derived from historical records. We then combine the inundation model with available digital distributions of buildings in the RiskScape multi-hazard risk analysis software, to produce exposure metrics for understanding the likely impacts on present-day coastal asset and population distributions if a similar tsunami were to occur. Results of the tsunami modelling indicate variable modelled-to-observed consistency using available source models, wave and runup validation data. Discrepancies in recorded vs modelled wave arrival time at Apia of between 30—40 mins are observed, with modelled runup underestimated in southeast Upolu Island compared with the rest of the country where runup observations are available (e.g., Savai’i Island). These differences likely reflect complexities in the tsunami source mechanism which might not currently be represented in our modelling. Nevertheless, our results suggest that a larger proportion of people would be exposed in Savai’i island (71% of exposure total), compared with Upolu island if a characteristic 1917-type event were to occur. While this study provides the first detailed inundation model of the 1917 tsunami in the Samoan region, the observed discrepancies suggest that further investigation is required to constrain potential tsunami source complexities which might not be accounted for in this study. Notwithstanding these limitations, our findings help to reinforce an appreciation of the risk to the greater Samoan region faced by local tsunamis sourced at different locations along the subduction zone bend of the NTT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0291.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: climate change; drought analysis; statistical corrections; ensemble of scenarios
Online: 22 March 2022 (02:53:39 CET)
Climate change is expected to increase the occurrence of droughts with the hydrology in alpine systems being largely determined by snow dynamics. In this paper we propose a methodology to assess the impact of climate change on both meteorological and hydrological droughts taking into account the dynamics of the snow cover area (SCA). We will also analyse the correlation between these types of droughts. We have generated ensembles of local climate scenarios based on regional climate models (RCMs) representative of potential future conditions. We have considered several sources of uncertainty: different historical climate databases, simulations obtained with several RCMs, and some statistical downscaling techniques. We then used a stochastic weather generator (SWG) to generate multiple climatic series preserving the characteristics of the ensemble scenario. These were simulated within a cellular automata (CA) model to generate multiple SCA future series. They were used to calculate multiple series of meteorological drought indices, the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI)) and a novel hydrological drought index (Standardized Snow Cover Index (SSCI)). A linear correlation analysis was applied to both types of drought to analyse how they propagate and the time delay between them. We applied the proposed methodology to the Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) where we estimated a general increase in meteorological and hydrological drought magnitude and duration for the horizon 2071-2100 under the RCP 8.5 emission scenario. The SCA droughts also revealed a significant increase in drought intensity. The meteorological drought propagation to SCA droughts is reflected in an immediate or short time (1 month), obtaining significant correlations in lower accumulation periods of drought indices (3 and 6 months). This will allow us to obtain information about meteorological drought from SCA deficits and vice versa.
Thu, 17 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0253.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: soil reflectance composites; digital soil modeling; soil organic carbon; GEOBIA, Landsat; terrain analysis
Online: 17 March 2022 (11:42:28 CET)
There is a growing need for an area-wide knowledge of SOC contents in agricultural soils at field scale for food security, monitoring long-term changes related to soil health and climate change. In Germany, large-scale SOC maps are mostly available with a spatial resolution of 250 m to 1 km2. The nationwide availability of both digital elevation models at various spatial resolutions and multi-temporal satellite imagery enables the derivation of multi-scale terrain attributes and Landsat-based multi-temporal soil reflectance composites (SRC) as explanatory variables. On the example of an Bavarian test of about 8000 km2, the scale-specific dependencies between the representativeness of 220 soil samples and different aggregation levels of the explanatory variables were analyzed for their scale-specific predictive power. The aggregation levels were generated by applying a region-growing segmentation procedure, the SOC content prediction was realized by the Random Forest algorithm. In doing so, established approaches of (geographic) object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) and machine learning were combined. The modeling results revealed scale-specific differences. Compared to terrain attributes, the use of SRC parameters lead to a significant model improvement at large field-related scale levels. The joint use of both terrain attributes and SRC parameters resulted in further model improvements. The best modeling variant is characterized by an accuracy of R2=0.84 and RMSE=1.99.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0207.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Aquaculture; Climate change; Davao Oriental; FishVool; Management; Mati City; Shrimp culture
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:58:39 CET)
The impacts of climate change on shrimp aquaculture can vary widely and can have environmental and socioeconomic consequences. This study assessed the vulnerability to climate change impacts of selected small-scale shrimp farms of Penaeus vannamei and shrimpfish market vendors in Davao region, Philippines using a modified Fisheries Vulnerability Assessment Tool (FishVool). Shrimp farmers and vendors were interviewed using two separate semi-structured questionnaires. A total of thirty-nine (N=39) shrimp farmers and forty-eight (N=48) market vendors from various market areas within the region were interviewed. Data regarding exposure (E), sensitivity (S), and adaptive capacity (AC) were collected following the FishVool parameters with modifications. Results revealed that overall climate change vulnerability of the shrimp farmers was medium (M), where both exposure and adaptive capacity were low (L) while sensitivity was medium (M). In addition, the shrimp market vulnerability of the various sites examined revealed medium (M) scores for markets in Pantukan, Mabini, Tagum, Maco, Lupon, Davao City, and Digos. But high (H) vulnerability scores for the markets in Panabo and Sta Cruz. Overall, the study provided a better understanding about shrimp farming in relation to climate change impacts and vulnerability and provided information for future shrimp farm management, marketing and climate change adapation in the region.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0240.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: calibration; uncertainty quantification; numerical modeling; groundwater hydrology
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:48:38 CET)
Groundwater models serve as support tools to among others: assess water resources, evaluate management strategies, design remediation systems and optimize monitoring networks. Thus, the assimilation of information from observations into models is crucial to improve forecasts and reduce uncertainty of their results. As more information is collected routinely due to the use of automatic sensors, data loggers and real time transmission systems; groundwater modelers are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of using sophisticated tools to perform model calibration in combination with sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Despite their usefulness, available approaches to perform this kind of analyses still present some challenges such as non-unique solution for the parameter estimation problem, high computational burden and a need of a deep understanding of the theoretical basis for the correct interpretation and use of their results, in particular the ones related to uncertainty analysis. We present a brief derivation of the main equations that serve as basis for this kind of analysis. We demonstrate how to use them to estimate parameters, assess the sensitivity and quantify the uncertainty of the model results using an example inspired by a real world setting. We analyze some of the main pitfalls that can occur when performing such kind of analyses and comment on practical approaches to overcome them. We also demonstrate that including groundwater flow estimations, although helpful in constraining the solution of the inverse problem as shown previously, may be difficult to apply in practice and, in some cases, may not provide enough information to significantly constrain the set of potential solutions.
Tue, 15 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0215.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Modified Archie model; Water-flooded layers; Oil saturation; “Double ratio” model; the same sedimentary layer
Online: 15 March 2022 (12:38:53 CET)
Archie model is the basis of calculating oil saturation, but there are some limitations when using this model to calculate oil saturation in water-flooded layer. The main reason is that the main parameters, such as rock resistivity and formation water resistivity, are constantly changing dynamic parameters in the underground with the influence of injected water. Considering that water-flooded layers changes with injection waters, influence factors of rock resistivity and formation water resistivity of primary parameters are analyzed. Considering the dynamic data of water cut is the most reactive underground fluid characteristics of real information, combined with dynamic and static, and the “double ratio” model of later development by the same sedimentary layer is established, which realizes the inversion of rock resistivity and formation water resistivity, then modified Archie model relating to water-flooded layers of the same sedimentary explaining formation. The explanation of actual data indicates that the “double ratio” model well considers the dynamic variation of production data, which makes the inversion of the flooded rock resistivity relatively accurate, besides, the modified Archie model can accurately calculate the oil saturation of water-flooded layers with a reasonable result, which offers scientific basis for the predicting of remaining oil distribution rules.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0205.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: heavy metals; abandoned mine; soil pollution; potential ecological risk; multivariate analysis; health index; soil; sediments
Online: 15 March 2022 (10:58:46 CET)
A recent survey that determined heavy metal concentrations in an abandoned Hg mine in Palawan, Philippines, found the occurrence of Hg with As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl, V, and Zn. While the Hg originated from the mine waste calcines as supported by previous studies, the critical knowledge about the origin of the other heavy metals remains to be unknown. Our study investigated the sources of heavy metal pollution surrounding the abandoned Hg mine; and assessed the soil and sediment quality, ecological risks, and health risks associated with these toxic metals. Multivariate analyses, such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and Pearson correlation analysis, were used to identify the heavy metal sources from the results of a previous paper. Our results showed that Fe, Ni, Cr, Co, and Mn are associated with the ultramafic geology of the study, whereas As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sb, Tl, V, and Zn are likely due to historical mining and processing of cinnabar from 1953-1976. The mine waste calcines were used as construction material for the wharf and as land filler for the adjacent communities. The modified contamination factor (mCdeg) showed that the coast of Honda Bay is highly contaminated, while the inland areas, including the rivers, are very- to ultra-highly contaminated. There is a considerable ecological risk associated with the heavy metals, wherein Ni, Hg, Cr, and Mn contribute an average of 46.3 %, 26.3 %, 11.2 %, and 9.3 % to the potential ecological risk index (RI), respectively. The overall mean hazard index (HI) for both adults (1.4) and children (12.1) exceeded 1, implying the probability of non-carcinogenic adverse effects. The mean total cancer risk over a lifetime (LCR) for both adults (1.19×10-3) and children (2.89×10-3) exceeded the tolerable threshold of 10-4, suggesting a potentially high risk for developing cancer mainly by Ni, Co, and Cr exposure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0198.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forest carbon; carbon stock; roundwood harvest; climate change mitigation; life cycle assessment; scenarios; modelling
Online: 15 March 2022 (07:23:46 CET)
Fossil-based emissions can be avoided through using wood in place of non-renewable raw materials as energy and materials. However, increasing wood harvest influences forest carbon stocks. This effect may reduce the overall climate benefit of wood use significantly but is widely overlooked. We carried out a systematic review of simulation studies and compared differences in forest carbon and amount of wood harvested between more and less intensive wood harvest scenarios for three different time perspectives; short (1-30 years), mid (31-70 years) and long (71-100 years). Out of more than 450 reviewed studies 44 provided adequate data. Our results show that increased harvesting reduced carbon stocks over 100 years in temperate and boreal forests roughly 1.6 (stdev 0.9) tC per tC harvested. The value proved to be robust when outliers explicitly influenced by other factors than change in harvest rate, such as increase in fertilization or forest area, were removed. Interestingly, no significant difference in carbon impacts was found for average values of boreal and temperate forests or between short and long time-horizons. However, impacts tend to be greatest in the mid-term. This carbon balance indicator that we estimated can be interpreted as carbon debit of wood harvest in forests. It is significant compared with the typical GHG credits in technosphere generated by avoiding fossil emissions in substitution and increase in carbon storage in harvested wood products, and should not be ignored. Our estimates provide default values that can directly be included in GHG balances of products or assessment of mitigation policies and measures related to wood use. However, more systematic scenarios and transparent data in which different factors influencing forest carbon stocks are separately studied are clearly required to provide better constrained estimates for specific forest types.
Mon, 14 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0173.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: heat conduction; thermal properties; geothermal heat pump; damping depth
Online: 14 March 2022 (03:34:10 CET)
Undisturbed ground temperature (UGT), thermal conductivity (TC) and heat capacity (HC) are essential parameters for the design of borehole heat exchanger (BHE) and borehole thermal energy storage systems. However, field methods to assess the thermal state and properties of the sub-surface are costly and time consuming. Moreover, HC is often not evaluated but arbitrarily selected from literature considering the geological materials intercepted by boreholes. Therefore, this work aims at proposing a field heat tracing method to infer the thermal diffusivity (TD) and HC with assumption of natural transient heat conduction in the subsurface. Empirical equations were developed to reproduce a UGT profile measured along a BHE. Experimental coefficients are found with a non-linear least square solver optimization and used to calculate the damping depth and TD. Subsequently, the TD is used to evaluate HC considering TC obtained from a thermal response test (TRT). Results from this proposed heat tracing method were verified and validated against a set of TRT results and oscillatory TRT analysis using a field dual probe concept to infer HC. The example here described highlights the advantages and novelty of this fast and simple field method relying only on a single UGT profile measured before a TRT.
Fri, 11 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: national park; social-ecological system; ecosystem services; tea cultivation; protected area management
Online: 11 March 2022 (14:47:43 CET)
A healthy park-people relation depends essentially on the fair and sustainable maintenance of rural livelihood. When protected area is designated, rural people may face restrictions of access to land and resource use for multiple ecosystem services. In Wuyishan of China, we analysed the role of traditional tea cultivation during consistent protected area management to find ways to maintain stability of this social-ecological system in the new national park era. We used an intensive social survey to investigate tea’s role, perception of ecosystem services and impacts on tea cultivation from consistent conservation policies. Results showed that tea cultivation brought major household income and associated with multiple culture services. Protected area management affected land use and conservation outcomes were more obvious to farmers than economic and social ones. From the perspective of a social-ecological system, tea cultivation in national should be conservation-compatible activities from which the potentially lost economic value is remedied by ecological and cultural valorisation. To sustain the resilience of the social-ecological system, we proposed a three-scale management framework to regulate biophysical elements at land plot scale, to link production and market at the mountain level, and to secure tenure and encourage community participation at the landscape level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0159.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: insecticidal wastes; waste disposal; incineration; waste pit; environment; testing facility; climate
Online: 11 March 2022 (03:53:00 CET)
Insecticide testing facilities that evaluate a variety of vector control products may generate large amount of hazardous wastes from routine operations. These wastes originate from degraded technical grade materials, sprayed substrates, redundant stock or working insecticidal solutions. The washing of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) during preparation for laboratory and experimental hut trials also contribute to waste water with insecticide content. Human and environmental exposure to insecticidal waste can occur during transport, categorization, storage and disposal in resulting in environmental pollution and potential health effects. Various national and international guidelines have been devised for safe disposal and should be strictly followed to avoid adverse effects on humans or environment. The current paper describes a case study from insecticide test facility in north-eastern Tanzania in management of insecticidal waste.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0158.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: air quality management; biomass burning; carbon; PCA; PM0.1; trace elements
Online: 11 March 2022 (03:02:33 CET)
The concentration of total suspended particles (TSP) and nanoparticles (PM0.1) over Hat Yai city, Songkhla province, southern Thailand was measured in 2019. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were evaluated by carbon aerosol analyzer (IMPROVE-TOR) method. Thirteen trace elements including Al, Ba, K, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Ti, Pb, and Zn were evaluated by ICP-OES. Annual average TSP and PM0.1 mass concentrations were determined to be 58.3 ± 7.8 and 10.4 ± 1.2 µg/m3, respectively. The highest levels of PM occurred in the wet season with the corresponding values for the dry seasons being lower. The annual average OC/EC ratio ranged from 3.8 - 4.2 (TSP) and 2.5 - 2.7 (PM0.1). The char to soot ratios were constantly less than 1.0 for both TSP and PM0.1, indicating that land transportation is the main emission source. A principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that road transportation, industry, and biomass burning are the key sources of these particles. However, PM arising from Indonesian peatland fires causes an increase in the carbon and trace element concentrations in southern Thailand. The findings make useful information for air quality management and strategies for controlling this problem, based on a source apportionment analysis.
Thu, 10 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: aerosol; CALIPSO; desert dust; Eastern Mediterranean; North Africa; Middle East
Online: 10 March 2022 (13:57:26 CET)
Turkey is located in the heart of complex transition geography between Eurasia and the Middle East. In the grand scheme, the so-called Eastern Mediterranean Basin is almost amidst the dusty belt and a hot spot of climate change. The downstream location of dust carrying winds from the closer desert sources reveals Turkey as an open plane to particulate matter exposure throughout the year. In order to clarify this phenomenon, it is aimed to find out the desert dust climatology of Turkey via CALIPSO onboard Lidar. This prominent instrument enables us to understand clouds, aerosols and their types and relatedly climatic systems with its valuable products. In this study, 9-year CALIPSO derived pure dust product is formed to explain horizontal and vertical distributions, transport heights and case incidences. Results indicated mass and conditional abundancy are higher with the location shifts from west to east. In the same direction, dominant spring months change to summer and autumn. Mountain range systems surrounding Anatolia are the main obstacles against lofted and buoyant dust particles travelling to northern latitudes. Even if high ridges accumulate mass load on the southern slopes, it also enables elevated particles to reach the ground level of the inner cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0142.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: gold; fluid inclusions; quartz; stable isotopes; gold deposits; Western Tuva
Online: 10 March 2022 (09:26:02 CET)
We examined PT parameters, geochemical peculiarities, and fluid sources of the Ulug-Sair ore occurrence attributable to class of intrusion-related gold deposits and according to ore mineral assemblages corresponding to Au-Bi type with wide Bi minerals (AgBiTe, Bi2Te2Se, Cu3,07BiS3, Bi), tellurides (Au and Ag), Se-tellurides (Ag and Bi), and selenides (Au, Ag, and Hg). We identified that ‘pre-gold’ quartz-tourmaline veins were deposited using an aqueous Mg-Na-K-chloride fluid with a salinity of 8–10 wt % NaCl eq. At 325–370 °C; host breasts were formed due to a CO2-water fluid containing CH4 and N2, with a salinity of 0,18–6,1 wt % NaCl eq. at least 200–400 °C. Gold-bearing mineral assemblages were formed at P ~ 0,75–1,0 kbar (~ 2,3–3 km) due to CO2-water chloride (Na-K±Fe, Mg) fluid with CH4, Na2SO4, and Na2B2O5, and salinities 1,7–12,5 wt % NaCl eq. during the decreasing temperatures from 360 up to 115 °C (gold-sulfide-quartz veins – 360–130 °С, and gold-telluride-sulfide-quartz veins – 330–115 °C) and variations fO2, fS2, fSe2, and fTe2. The isotopic composition of δ34SH2S fluid (-0,7…+2,5 ‰) indicates the juvenile or magmatic origin of fluid and ore elements. The δ34OH2O fluid indicates that, at an early substage, the formation of ore occurrence involved a fluid of magmatic or metamorphic origin (+7,3…+11,4 ‰), and, in the later substage, it mixed with meteoric waters (-2,3…+9,1 ‰).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0137.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Aquaculture; Davao Oriental; management; Mati City; shrimp farms; water quality
Online: 10 March 2022 (03:17:27 CET)
Shrimp industry in the Philippines plays a vital role in the economy by contributing a total production in the fisheries sector of 60,000 tons of production and 7,000 tons of shrimp exported in overseas markets such as South Korea, Japan, USA and others. This study aimed to describe the various cultural and operational characteristics of a shrimp farm (Penaeus vannamei) in Davao region, and assessed the current risk and challenges experienced by shrimp farmers during the time of pandemic. This study made use of semi-structured questionnaire and focused on shrimp farmers, operators in the provinces of Davao Oriental, Davao del Sur and Davao de Oro as respondents (N=41 farmers). Results showed that small scale shrimp farming averaged 10 tons/ha per cropping; the highly intensive farms yielded 24 tons/ha per cropping. Most operators used generator machines as source of electricity to facilitate aeration accompanied with paddle wheel and blower in some farms; about 2/3 of the commercial shrimp farms used electricity from electric line. In terms of their expenditures, feed inputs have the highest cost (Php 566,700.00 for small-scale farmers, Php 5,572,900.00 for commercial farms) followed by fry (Php 144,800.00 for small-scale farmers, Php 2,080,000.00 for commercial farms) and fuel/electric bill (Php 114,000.00 for small-scale farmers, Php 4,380,000.00 for commercial farms). The average profit per ha of small holder farmers was Php 1,040,000.00. Most farmers mentioned that their shrimps experienced diseases such as white spot syndrome (60%), black gills (35%) and red tail (5%). The farmers point to contamination from water or poor water quality management which caused this disease. The study recommends that farmers should follow good shrimp aquaculture practices including water quality management.
Mon, 7 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0521.v2
Online: 7 March 2022 (14:55:21 CET)
Surface velocity is traditionally measured with in situ techniques such as velocity probes (in shallow rivers) or Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (in deeper water). In the last years, researchers have developed remote sensing techniques, both optical (e.g., image-based velocimetry techniques) and microwave (e.g., Doppler radar). These techniques can be deployed from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS), which ensure fast and low-cost surveys also in remotely-accessible locations. We compare the results obtained with a UAS-borne Doppler radar and UAS-borne Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in different rivers, which presented different hydraulic–morphological conditions (width, slope, surface roughness and sediment material). The Doppler radar was a commercial 24 GHz instrument, developed for static deployment, adapted for UAS integration. PIV was applied with natural seeding (e.g., foam, debris) when possible, or with artificial seeding (woodchips) in the stream where the density of natural particles was insufficient. PIV reconstructed the velocity profile with high accuracy typically in the order of a few cm s−1 and a coefficient of determination (R2) typically larger than 0.7 (in half of the cases larger than 0.85), when compared with acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) or velocity probe, in all investigated rivers. However, UAS-borne Doppler radar measurements show low reliability because of UAS vibrations, large instrument sampling footprint, large required sampling time and difficult-to-interpret quality indicators suggesting that additional research is needed to measure surface velocity from UAS-borne Doppler radar.
Fri, 4 March 2022
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0418.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: natural cycles; air pollution; asthma; chronic obstructive airways disease; mining; sustainability; circular economy
Online: 4 March 2022 (12:58:14 CET)
Natural cycles underpin the very stuff of life. In this commentary we consider unnatural cycles: that is, anthropogenic activities which have a circularity, but whose nature is to have a detrimental effect on human health, exacerbating existing problems. Natural cycles have feedback loops, some of which have recently come to light, with an understanding that everything is connected in some way. In health, feedback loops are imperative in homeostatic mechanisms. However, in the unnatural cycle the feedback loops serve to reinforce (and in some cases amplify) negative problems. We offer a commentary on an unnatural cycle moving from air quality to lung function and back to air quality; we call this the lung disease unnatural cycle. We suggest where links occur, and where wider consideration of interactions between various disciplines can lead to breaking this unnatural (or vicious) cycle, changing it to a healthy cycle where individual health can be improved, along with better global scale outcomes. We suggest that many activities within this unnatural cycle occur within silos. However, the improved cycle incorporates joint activities at geological, health, and financial levels, to the mutual benefit of all, breaking the unnatural cycle, and improving health, life and financial costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: tomatoes; drip irrigation; mulching; solar pump; photovoltaic panel; economic indices; irrigation water indices
Online: 4 March 2022 (08:39:44 CET)
Tomatoes, one of the most appreciated vegetables consumed, are crops well adapted for cultivation in arid and semi-arid conditions, the success of large yields is guaranteed by covering water consumption through irrigation. Solar Pumps - SP are driven by Photovoltaic Panels - PV (SPAPV), eliminating the dependence on electricity or diesel; they are environmentally friendly because they generate carbon-free electricity and the cost of operation and maintenance is lower. In order to preserve the water administered by drip to the tomato crop grown in solariums, mulching is used. In Husasău de Tinca, in the Crișurilor Plain, cultivation of tomato varieties without mulching (WM) and with mulching with black foil (MBF) were studied. To answer the question "How effective are water conservation measures in terms of energy independence?", two variants of SPAPVs, direct pumping (ADP) and storage tank (AST) were simulated. Considering the conditions in the solariums, tomato crops do not benefit from the contribution of precipitation, therefore it is proposed to determine the water consumption of tomatoes (ETRo), using the temperatures inside the solarium. In 2016, the average temperatures during the vegetation period were observed with an insurance of over 20 %, the irrigation norms were 6945.7 m3 ha-1, for the WM variant and 6594.0 m3 ha-1 for the MBF variant, respectively. Specific Investment (SI) is 214,795 Euro ha-1 in case of ADP and respectively 202,990 Euro ha-1 in case of ATS. The payback period (IPT) is between 2.68 years and 2.53 years for the ADP variant and between 1.63 years and 1.54 years for the ATS variant, respectively. The indications for water use and irrigation water use show that in the MBF variant the water administered by localized irrigation is better utilized than in the WM variant. In the conditions of Crișurilor Plain, the best solution for the distribution of water in solariums, with the help of SPAPVs is the mulching system of tomatoes grown in solariums (MBF) and the arrangement of the drip irrigation system with a water storage tank (ATS).
Thu, 3 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0053.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: aerosol; PM2.5; forest fires; AERONET; aerosol optical depth; Angstrom exponent
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:07:12 CET)
Extraordinary high aerosol contamination observed in the atmosphere over Kyiv city, Ukraine, during the March – April 2020 period. The source of contamination was the large grass and forest fires in the northern part of Ukraine and the Kyiv region. The level of PM2.5 load investigated using newly established AirVisual sensors mini-network in five areas of the city. The aerosol data from the Kyiv AERONET sun-photometer site analyzed for that period. Aerosol optical depth, Angstrom exponent, and the aerosol particles properties (particles size distribution, single-scattering albedo, and complex refractive index) were analyzed using AERONET sun-photometer observations. The smoke particles observed at Kyiv site during the fires in general correspond to aerosol with optical properties of biomass burning particles. The variability of the optical properties and chemical composition indicates that the aerosol particles in the smoke plumes over Kyiv were produced by different burning material and phases of vegetation fires at different time. The case of enormous PM2.5 aerosol contamination in Kyiv city reveals the need to accept strong measures for forest fire control and prevention in Kyiv region, especially in the north-west region where radioactive contamination from Chornobyl disaster is still significant.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0052.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Mangroves; Drivers; Anthropogenic activities; Climate change; Extreme events; Wetlands; Interaction; Aquaculture; Agriculture
Online: 3 March 2022 (04:39:35 CET)
Globally mangrove forests are substantially declining and a globally synthesized database of the drivers of deforestation and drivers’ interaction is scarce. Here we synthesized the key social-ecological drivers of global mangrove deforestation by reviewing about two hundred published scientific studies over the last four decades (from 1980 to 2021). Our focus was on both natural and anthropogenic drivers with gradual and abrupt impacts and their geographic ranges of effects and how these drivers interact. We also summarized the patterns of global mangrove coverage decline between 1990 and 2020 and identified the threatened mangrove species and their geographic ranges. Our consolidated studies reported a 8,600 km2 decline in the global mangrove coverage between 1990 and 2020 with the highest decline occurring in South and Southeast Asia (3870 km2). We could identify 11 threatened mangrove species, two of which are critically endangered (Sonneratia griffithii and Bruguiera hainseii). Our reviewed studies pointed to aquaculture and agriculture as the predominant driver of global mangrove deforestation though the spatial distribution of their impacts varied. Gradual climate variations, i.e. seal-level rise, long-term precipitation and temperature changes and driven coastline erosion, constitute the second major group of drivers. Our findings underline a strong interaction across natural and anthropogenic drivers with the strongest interaction between the driver groups aquaculture and agriculture and industrialization and pollution. Our results suggest prioritizing globally coordinated empirical studies linking drivers and mangrove changes and a global development of policies for mangrove conservation.
Wed, 2 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0045.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Siberian traps; petrology; morphotectonics; GIS technologies
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:58:52 CET)
The article reports morphotectonic and petrological characteristics of magmatic systems of Permo-Triassic traps in the sedimentary cover of the Siberian Craton, Taimyr, as well as in the crystalline basement of the Mesozoic cover of the West Siberian Plate and the Kara sedimentary basin based on the relief analysis, seismotomography data, magnetic and gravitational anomalies. Four development sectors of magma-permeable zones were distinguished along the perimeter of the craton of the Anabar Shield. The western sector is characterized by an extensive stretching area, on which the lava region of volcanic ridges junction of the Tunguska syncline formed. A striking feature of subaerial volcanism is the meridional petrochemical trend of increasing the silica of basic magmas in intrusive rocks of the Siberian Craton while the volumes of embedded melts are reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0041.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: coastal inundation; historical tsunami records; hazard exposure; impacts; BG-Flood; RiskScape
Online: 2 March 2022 (10:07:49 CET)
The 26th June, 1917 tsunamigenic earthquake in Samoa is considered the largest historical event on record to have impacted this region in terms of earthquake magnitude and intensity. Yet, very little is known about the scale and distribution of tsunami impacts for this event compared with the recent 2009 tsunamigenic earthquake which originated in a proximal source region at the Northern Tonga Trench. In this paper, we reconstruct the 1917 tsunami from source to inundation using the BG-Flood numerical modelling suite to understand the magnitude of inundation for this event. Model outputs representing inundation extent and hazard depth intensities at spatially flexible grid resolution (10 m, 20 m and 40 m), are validated using available tide gauge records in Apia harbour and limited observations of runup that were derived from historical records. Results indicate variable modelled-to-observed consistency using available source models, wave and runup validation data. Significant discrepancies in recorded vs modelled wave arrival time at Apia of between 30—40 mins are observed, with modelled runup underestimated in southeast Upolu Island compared with the rest of the country where runup observations are available (e.g., west Savai’i Island). We combine the inundation model with available digital distributions of buildings and roads in the RiskScape multi-hazard risk analysis software, to produce exposure metrics for understanding the likely impacts on present-day coastal asset and population distributions if a similar tsunami were to occur. A comparison between the distribution of hazard risk exposure for the 1917 and 2009 events is discussed along with the uncertainties in our results, with suggestions for future work offered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0037.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: machine learning; neural network; forecasting system; western Pacific subtropical high.
Online: 2 March 2022 (07:41:45 CET)
The ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSHRL) plays an important role in determining the shift of the summer rain belt in eastern China. In this study, we developed a forecast system for the June WPSHRL index based on the latest autumn and winter sea surface temperature (SST). Considering the adverse condition of the small observed sample size, a very simple neural network (NN) model was selected to extract the non-linear relationship between input predictors (SST) and target predictands (WPSHRL) in the forecast system. In addition, some techniques are used to deal with the adverse condition, enhance the stabilization of forecast skills, and analyze the interpretability of the forecast system. The forecast experiments show that the linear correlation coefficient between the predictions from the forecast system and their corresponding observations is around 0.6, and about three-fifths of the observed abnormal years (the years with an obviously high or low WPSHRL index) are successfully predicted. Furthermore, sensitivity experiments show that the forecast system is relatively stable in terms of forecast skill. The above evaluations suggest that the forecast system is valuable in a real application sense.
Tue, 1 March 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0017.v1
Online: 1 March 2022 (11:07:26 CET)
The forming of large rivers are the integral consequences of the deep earth process and the surface. In contrast to the hot topics for rivers related to orogenic domains, rift-related large rivers are largely ignored especially in deep time studies. The Cenozoic East Asia margin provides very good opportunity to observe this kind of rivers. It has been believed that basin-and-swell physiography dominated the East Asia margin and impeded the forming of large rives in the early Cenozoic. In this paper, we combined provenance analysis of East China Sea Basin, where is a crucial place to trace the river evolution in East Asia margin, and regional geologic constraints to reveal drainage reorganizations. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages from the Early Eocene sediments of the East China Sea Basin are firstly reported. Our results together with literature data demonstrate that regional provenance changes occurred at the middle Eocene from one singe age peak at ~110 Ma of proximal sources to multiple age spectrum derived from far inland. Source to sink analysis indicated that the North China Block and Korea Peninsular provided the most detritus. Sedimentation and tectonic features of rift basins in the potential source areas indicated that rivers flowed into Bohai Basin and Jianghan Basin cannot provide terrigenous clasts for the lower reaches in the Eocene. Contrastingly, the dominantly fluvial sediments across the Subei-South Yellow Sea Basin suggested external river system and a bypassing region since the middle Eocene, coinciding with provenance change in ECSB. All these demonstrated that a large river (East Asia River) established in east Asia margin in the middle Eocene and flowed southwestward approximately 1500km to the sea in southern ECSB. This river might last to the middle Miocene. The deep earth processes driven by Izanagi-Pacific ridge subduction resulted in the overfilled stage of Subei-South Yellow Sea Basin and the post-rift subsidence in west depression of ECSB, and thus facilitated the initiation of the EAR. Our finding shed new light on the evolving landscape in East Asia and showed how subduction of deep earth process controlled the initiation of rift-related large rivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0133.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Urban flood; Decision making; Machine learning; Risk; Hazard; Vulnerability
Online: 1 March 2022 (10:18:57 CET)
Urban flood risk mapping is an important tool for the mitigation of flooding in view of human activities and climate change. Many developing countries, however, lack sufficiently detailed data to produce reliable risk maps with existing methods. Thus, improved methods are needed that can improve urban flood risk management in regions with scarce hydrological data. Given this, we estimated the flood risk map for Rasht City (Iran), applying a composition of decision-making and machine learning methods. Flood hazard maps were produced applying six state-of-the-art machine learning methods such as classification and regression trees (CART), random forest (RF), boosted regression trees (BRT), multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), multivariate discriminant analysis (MDA), and support vector machine (SVM). Flood conditioning parameters applied in modeling were elevation, slope angle, aspect, rainfall, distance to river (DTR), distance to streets (DTS), soil hydrological group (SHG), curve number (CN), distance to urban drainage (DTUD), urban drainage density (UDD), and land use. In total, 93 flood location points were collected from the regional water company of Gilan province combined with field surveys. We used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) decision-making tool for creating an urban flood vulnerability map, which is according to population density (PD), dwelling quality (DQ), household income (HI), distance to cultural heritage (DTCH), distance to medical centers and hospitals (DTMCH), and land use. Then, the urban flood risk map was derived according to flood vulnerability and flood hazard maps. Evaluation of models was performed using receiver-operator characteristic curve (ROC), accuracy, probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR), and precision. The findings showed that the CART method is most accurate method (AUC = 0.947, accuracy = 0.892, POD = 0.867, FAR = 0.071, and precision = 0.929). The results also demonstrated that DTR, UDD, and DTUD played important roles in flood hazard modeling; whereas, the population density was the most significant parameter in vulnerability mapping. These findings indicated that machine learning methods can improve urban flood risk management significantly in regions with limited hydrological data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0004.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: sea ice; Cryosphere; Arctic Ocean; Arctic sea ice change; Arctic climate change; remote sensing retrieval; satellite remote sensing; APP; APP-x; trend study
Online: 1 March 2022 (04:32:25 CET)
Arctic sea ice characteristics have been changing rapidly and significantly in the last few decades. Using a long-term time series of sea ice products from satellite observations - the extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x), trends in sea ice concentration, ice extent, ice thickness, and ice volume in the Arctic from 1982 to 2020 are investigated. Results show that the Arctic has warmed and become less ice covered in all seasons, especially in summer and autumn. Arctic sea ice thickness has been decreasing at the rate of -3.24 cm per year, resulting in about a 52% reduction in thickness from 1982 to 2020. Arctic sea ice volume has been decreasing at the rate of -467.7 km3 per year, resulting in a volume of 10305.5 km3 in 2020 compared to 27590.4 km3 in 1982. These trends are further examined from a new perspective. The Arctic Ocean is classified into open water, and perennial and seasonal sea ice-covered areas based on the sea ice persistence. The loss of the perennial sea ice covered area is the major factor in the total sea ice loss in all seasons. If the current rates of sea ice changes continue, the Arctic is expected to have ice-free summers by the mid-2060s.
Wed, 23 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0298.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Sediment yield; runoff; SWAT; Watershed; Hydrological model; Hydrological Response Units; Critical area
Online: 23 February 2022 (14:38:00 CET)
Mahanadi is one of the major inter-state east flowing perennial rivers in peninsular India. Hamp watershed of Seonath Sub-basin of upper Mahanadi basin was considered for the study to estimate the sediment yield and nutrient loss-based identification of critical agricultural sub-watershed and its critical Hydrological Response Unit (HRU) using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in-terfaced with GIS i.e., ArcSWAT. The study area was divided into 14 sub-watersheds considering topographical parameters derived from DEM and drainage network. The land cover, soil layers, and DEM were used to generate 207 HRUs for analysis of annual runoff, sediment yield and nu-trient loss for 2004-2008 (calibration period) and 2010-2013 (validation period). The sediment yield, runoff estimation and nutrient loss matched consistently well with the monthly and seasonal measured values. On the basis of average annual sediment yield (18.18 t/ha), runoff (245.97 mm) and nutrient loss NO3-N (1.62 kg/ha), respectively, sub-watershed WS4 was categorized under high priority for critical are identification. The sub watershed WS4 comprises of 15 HRUs (No. 36 - 50) with four kharif crops viz rice, soybean, maize and sugarcane. Results showed that the crops soy-bean, maize and sugarcane reduced the average annual runoff by 18.1, 31.4 and 18.0 per cent, respectively whereas the sediment yield was increased drastically by 104.5, 37.5 and 5.7 per cent, respectively as compared to rice. Soybean and maize crops HRU generate significant amount of soil and nutrient loss and were found to be as the critical HRUs for the upper Mahanadi River basin
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0186.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: waterfront; ecopsychology; urbanism; Prague; Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Online: 23 February 2022 (06:54:26 CET)
This article focuses on the comparison and perception of the potential of water’s surface in selected parts of the waterfront in two contrasting cities. The aim is to define the potential of the water’s surface in terms of psychology and its effects on climate. The analysis was performed on the example of Prague with its waterfront on the river Vltava, and Santa Cruz de Tenerife with its Atlantic coastline. Data was sourced from maps, questionnaire surveys and interviews with waterfront users during October 2020. The research showed a higher importance of the water’s surface for users in Prague, than in Santa Cruz. The main finding is that the psychological perception of the waterfront by its the users is affected by the possibility of a visual contact with the water’s surface, the design and composition of the space, and the climate situation of a site affected by the presence of an urban heat island (UHI). The results promote an adherence to ecosystem-based approaches in future design projects and modifications of existing public spaces. The purpose of the work is to open a broader debate on the sustainability of the potential of waterfronts and their positive impact on human health.
Tue, 22 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0283.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: fine dust measurement (PM2.5, PM10); LoRaWAN; internet of things; low-cost sensors; SDS011; level-indication measurements; sustainability
Online: 22 February 2022 (20:10:59 CET)
The transmission and analysis of data is one of the challenges of the 21st century. In the field of environmental measurement technology, existing broadband and wireless technologies have not been able to transmit data reliably and cost-effectively over long distances and in hard-to-reach places. LoRaWAN, an IoT technology, could be an energy-efficient, cost-effective and secure alternative as a narrowband technology in combination with battery-powered sensors and thus make an important contribution to the intelligent, largely wireless networking of objects, plants and machines (IoT), for example in the municipal sector. In addition to ecological and economic benefits, the quality of life in modern, intelligently networked cities can be enhanced by real time data acquisition. However, the prerequisite is that the quality of the data acquired via this method is sufficiently good. This paper therefore addresses the question of the quality of particulate matter data collected by low-cost sensors. To determine this, an SDS011 particulate matter sensor from Nova Fitness was ported to LoRaWAN. The sensor was installed next to a governmental measurement station. In a test that lasted five weeks, data from the SDS011 sensor were compared with those from the governmental station. Differences were identified and a correction approach was developed and applied. The efficiency of the approach was verified. Based on the results, it can be seen that the use of the low cost sensors has weaknesses. Problems can only be partially reduced. Nevertheless, the use of the low-cost sensors can be helpful for a flexible and cost effective collection of environmental data.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0281.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Sub-pixel mapping; Super-resolution mapping; Downscaling; Gulf of California
Online: 22 February 2022 (16:07:26 CET)
The quantification of sea surface temperature (SST) through space platforms has revolutionized how we obtain information at a global level. However, the main disadvantage of obtaining SST with satellite images consists of its inherent coarse spatial resolution. One solution could be the use of downscaling algorithms to create sequences of matrices at a higher resolution. We used the same SST data source from the MODIS-Aqua sensor at three spatial resolutions of 9 km, 4.5 km, and 1 km in the Gulf of California. Based on an open-source algorithm, the original SST images were downscaled to 4.5 km, 1 km, 500 m, 250 m, and 125 m per pixel scales. Results indicate a strong linear relationship between the original SST-MODIS data and the modeled data for all spatial resolutions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an open-source downscaling algorithm to enhance the spatial resolution of SST images in a marginal sea.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0272.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geochemistry & Petrology Keywords: Portable instruments; indicator minerals; pathfinder elements; core scanners; pXRF; pXRD; pNIR-SWIR spectrometer; μRaman spectrometer; LIBS; mineral exploration; on-site analysis
Online: 22 February 2022 (11:24:35 CET)
Until recently, the classic approach to mineral exploration studies is to bring the field samples/drill cores collected during field studies to the laboratory followed by laborious analysis procedures to generate the analytical data. This is very expensive, time consuming and difficult for exploring vast areas. But rapid technological advances in field portable analytical instruments such as portable ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, gamma ray spectrometer, pXRF, pXRD, pLIBS, and µRaman spectrometer have changed this scenario completely and increased their on-site applications in mineral exploration studies. These instruments are currently providing direct, rapid, on-site, real-time, non-destructive, cost-effective identification, and determination of target elements, indicator minerals and pathfinder elements in rock, soil, and sediment samples. These portable analytical instruments are currently helping to obtain accurate chemical and mineralogical information directly in field with minimal or no sample preparation, and providing decision-making support during field work as well as during drilling operations in several successful mineral exploration programs. In this article, the developments in these portable devices, and their contributions in the platinum group elements (PGE), rare earth elements (REE), gold, base metals, and lithium exploration studies both on land and on ocean bed have been summarized with examples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0264.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: stratopause; mesosphere; sudden stratospheric warming; polar vortex; zonal wind; quasi-biennial oscillation; planetary wave; stratosphere
Online: 22 February 2022 (04:07:39 CET)
The aim of this work is to study the zonally asymmetric stratopause that occurred in the Arctic winter of 2019/2020, when the polar vortex was particularly strong and there was no sudden stratospheric warming. Aura Microwave Limb Sounder temperature data were used to analyze the evolution of the stratopause with a particular focus on its zonally asymmetric wave 1 pattern. There was a rapid descent of the stratopause height below 50 km in the anticyclone region in mid-December 2019. The descended stratopause persisted until mid-January 2020 and was accompanied by a slow descent of the higher stratopause in the vortex region. The results show that the stratopause in this event was inclined and lowered from the mesosphere in the polar vortex to the stratosphere in the anticyclone. It was found that the vertical amplification of wave 1 between 50 km and 60 km closely coincides in time with the rapid stratopause descent in the anticyclone. Overall, the behavior contrasts with the situation during sudden stratospheric warmings when the stratopause reforms at higher altitudes following wave amplification events. We link the mechanism responsible for coupling between the vertical wave 1 amplification and this form of zonally asymmetric stratopause descent to the unusual disruption of the quasi-biennial oscillation that occurred in late 2019.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0260.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: sea surface salinity; sampling mismatch; sub footprint variability; uncertainty; validation
Online: 22 February 2022 (02:44:05 CET)
Validation of satellite sea surface salinity (SSS) products is typically based on comparisons with in-situ measurements at a few meters depth, that are mostly done at a single location and time. The difference in term of spatio-temporal resolution between the in-situ near-surface salinity and the two-dimensional satellite SSS results in a sampling mismatch uncertainty. The Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project has merged SSS from three satellite missions. Using an optimal interpolation, weekly and monthly SSS and their uncertainties are estimated at a 50 km spatial resolution over the global ocean. Over the 2016-2018 period the mean uncertainty on weekly CCI SSS is 0.13, whereas the standard deviation of weekly CCI minus in-situ Argo salinities is 0.24. Using high resolution SSS simulations, we estimate the expected uncertainty due to the CCI versus Argo sampling mismatch. Most of the largest spatial variability of the satellite minus Argo salinity are observed in regions with large mismatch. A quantitative validation is performed by considering the statistical distribution of the CCI minus Argo salinity normalized by the sampling and retrieval uncertainties. This quantity should follow a Gaussian distribution with a standard deviation of 1, if all uncertainty contributions are properly considered. We find that 1) the sampling mismatch can explain most of the observed differences between Argo and CCI data, especially for monthly products and in dynamical regions (river plumes, fronts), 2) overall, the uncertainties are well estimated in CCI version 3, much better compared to CCI version 2. There are a few dynamical regions where discrepancies remain, and where the satellite SSS, their associated uncertainties and the sampling mismatch estimates should be further validated.
Mon, 21 February 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0220.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Aquaculture; environmental impacts; PRISMA; shrimp aquaculture; socioeconomic impacts
Online: 21 February 2022 (10:48:57 CET)
Aquaculture production is under pressure to increase its production to meet the growing demand for food from a growing population. In the Philippines, aquaculture has experienced the shift from milkfish to prawn with its attractive marketable price. Its intensification has led to negative and positive impacts making its collapse inevitable in the mid-1990s and raised a range of environmental and socioeconomic problems. This paper reviewed the environmental impacts, challenges, and disease outbreaks that overtook the industry using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method. We examined gaps and changes required to revitalize the industry to properly take-off. It considers and gives details on the impacts of shrimp culture on the environment e.g. shrimp farm management, marine pollution, disease outbreaks, climate change impacts, and socioeconomic impacts. Moreover, the presence of viral diseases such as White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV), Monodon Baculovirus (MBV), Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV), Hepatopancreatic Parvovirus (HPV), and Yellow Head Virus (YHV), have caused socioeconomic impacts with approximate losses of 40,080 mt in 1997 to 51,000 mt in 2014 in the shrimp industry. Recommended strategies were considered to improve the environmental management of shrimp aquaculture, including disease management, and priorities that were highlighted for future research. This management relates to adopting good aquaculture practices on shrimp culture, proper environmental monitoring and sustainable practices at the farm level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0250.v1
Online: 21 February 2022 (10:09:18 CET)
Remote sensing technology, especially using satellite images, has become essential support in many aspects of decision-making, particularly in disaster risk management. It requires a shorter period of data updates and less cost compared to conventional field observations and surveys. Yet, the intensive processing and high-powered computing resources are necessary to analyze satellite imagery data through Geographic Information System (GIS). In this paper, we introduce the identification and mapping of natural disaster impact in Indonesia using the open-source collaborative tool of Google Earth Engine (GEE) application which analyzes the relative temporal difference of Earth surface from three major satellite images: Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, and Landsat-8. Taking the advantage of the geographical, geological, and demographic conditions of Indonesia's disaster-prone areas, we analyze relative difference from normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) out of months before and after natural disaster occurrence to measure the impact of natural disaster in focus study areas. Given the high-vegetation nature of three main natural disaster impacted areas in Indonesia: Aceh, Palu, and Yogyakarta, we are able to simplify the analysis by highlighting areas with vegetative loss or gain after the event. Using an open-source GEE application, namely HazMapper, we identify and visualize the aftermath of the tsunami disaster in Aceh and Palu as well as the earthquake in Yogyakarta. Our study is potentially beneficial for government and decision-makers to utilize publicly available satellite images for disaster recovery and mitigation policy.
Fri, 18 February 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0239.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: WRF; physical parameterization; sensitivity; Ethiopia
Online: 18 February 2022 (17:41:50 CET)
A 3-month (June-August) regime of the year 2002 summer rainfall (JJA2002) was simulated with 30 physics combinations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model at 12-km horizontal grid resolution. The objective is to examine summer rainfall sensitivity to parameterization of microphysical, convective, and boundary layer processes and identify the best possible combination of parameterization options that perform relatively better in simulating the spatial and temporal distribution of summer rains over Ethiopia. The WRF simulated rainfall was evaluated against station data and satellite rainfall products (CHIRPS and ENACTS) using mean absolute error, Pearson and Pattern correlation coefficients (PCC), pattern correlation, and error in a number of rainy days as evaluation metrics. Summer rainfall is found to be most sensitive to the choice of cumulus parameterization and least sensitive to cloud microphysics. All simulations captured the spatial distribution of mean seasonal precipitation with PCC ranging from 0.89-0.94. However, all simulations overestimated precipitation amount and number of rainy days. Out of the 30, the simulations that use a combination of Grell-3D cumulus scheme, ACM2 boundary layer, Lin Microphysics, Dudhai shortwave radiation, and RRTM longwave radiation scheme ranked the top and provided the most realistic simulation in terms of amount and spatio-temporal distribution of summer rainfall.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0236.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Kuwait; Covid-19; Air quality Index; GeoHealth; Kernel Density
Online: 18 February 2022 (12:27:48 CET)
Research have been conducted in many countries around the world to assess air quality during COVID-19 pandemic, especially during lockdown period, some of these studies found an increase or decrease in some pollutants. This paper investigates the impact of COVID-19 on seven air pollutants (i.e., PM2.5, PM10, NO2, O3, SO2, H2S, CO) from the period January 2020 to December 2020 in the State of Kuwait. Kuwait is a desert country located in the north-eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula, and the northeast of the Arabian Gulf (Persian as it is sometimes called). Several analytical methods were conducted, such as spatial analysis (spatial interpolation) to study the distribution of the studied variables. The data was also statistically analysed (time series analysis - Kernel density) to study the temporal changes. The analysis also included applying air quality index to the data. We found that concentrations for the pollutants decreased during the pandemic due to the decrease of anthropogenic sources including such as traffic and petroleum activities, but the concentration for PM2.5 increased, mostly because of the transported dust coming with the northwest winds prevailing in Kuwait from the Arabian deserts and Iraq.
Thu, 17 February 2022
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0201.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CO2; carbon neutrality; elemental stoichiometry; energy use efficiency; first principle; sink enhancement
Online: 17 February 2022 (12:02:55 CET)
In this study, we analyzed the feasibility of various carbon neutrality methods based on the first principles of carbon sequestration, namely energy use efficiency and elemental stoichiometry. We believe that wood burial is the only currently feasible carbon neutrality method because this method has no theoretical uncertainties, can be implemented immediately on a large scale, has a long sequestration time, low cost, low technical requirements, and relatively little impact on agriculture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0207.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Aquaculture; Climate change; Davao Oriental; FishVool; Management; Mati City; Shrimp culture
Online: 17 February 2022 (10:50:59 CET)
The Philippine shrimp industry has been affected by the impacts of marine pollution, diseases and climate change variabilities. This study assessed the vulnerability to climate change of selected small-scale shrimp farms of Penaeus vannamei and market vendors in Davao, Philippines using a modified Fisheries Vulnerability Assessment Tool (FishVool). Shrimp farmers and vendors were interviewed using two separate semi-structured questionnaires. A total of thirty nine (39) shrimp farmers and forty eight (48) market vendors from various market areas within the region were interviewed. Data regarding exposure (E), sensitivity (S), and adaptive capacity (AC) were collected following the FishVool parameters with modifications. Results revealed that overall climate change vulnerability of the shrimp farmers was medium (M), where both exposure and adaptive capacity were low (L) while sensitivity was medium (M). In addition, the shrimp market vulnerability of the various sites examined revealed medium (M) scores for markets in Pantukan, Mabini, Tagum, Maco, Lupon, Davao City, and Digos. But high (H) vulnerability scores for the markets in Panabo and Sta Cruz. Overall, the study provided a better understanding about shrimp farming in relation to climate change impacts and vulnerability and provided information for future shrimp farm management, marketing and conservation in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0201.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wind damage; wind disturbance; Pinus sylvestris; Picea abies; machine learning; random forest
Online: 17 February 2022 (05:06:55 CET)