ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0536.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Aridity indices; Climate change; Projections; EURO-CORDEX
Online: 22 June 2021 (09:24:26 CEST)
The assessment of aridity conditions is a key factor for water management and the implementation of mitigation and adaptation policies in agroforestry systems. Towards this aim three aridity indices were computed for the Iberian Peninsula (IP): the De Martonne Index (DMI), the Pinna Combinative Index (PCI), and the Erinç Aridity Index (EAI). These three indices were first computed for the baseline period 1961‒1990, using a gridded observational data (E-OBS), and, subsequently, for the periods 2011‒2040 (short-range) and 2041‒2070 (medium-range) using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) experiments generated by the EURO-CORDEX project. Two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were analyzed, an intermediate anthropogenic radiative forcing scenario (RCP4.5) and a fossil-intensive emission scenario (RCP8.5). Overall, the three indices disclose a strengthening of aridity and dry conditions in central and southern Iberia until 2070, mainly under RCP8.5. Strong(weak) statistically significant correlations were found between these indices and the total mean precipitation (mean temperature) along with projected significant decreasing(increasing) trends for precipitation(temperature). The prevalence of years with arid conditions (above 70% for 2041‒2070 under both RCPs) are projected to have major impacts in some regions, such as southern Portugal, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, Comunidad de Madrid, Andalucía, Región de Murcia, Comunidad Valenciana, and certain regions within the Aragón province. The projected increase in both the intensity and persistence of aridity conditions in a broader southern half of Iberia will exacerbate the exposure and vulnerability of this region to climate change, while the risk of multi-level desertification should be thoroughly integrated into regional and national water management and planning.
Mon, 21 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0503.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: permafrost hydrology; Russian Arctic; water tracks; hydrological connectivity; stable water isotopes; dissolved organic carbon; electrical resistivity tomography; taliks
Online: 21 June 2021 (11:15:37 CEST)
Hydrochemical and geophysical data collected during a hydrological survey in September 2017, reveal patterns of small-scale hydrological connectivity in a small water track catchment, north-European Arctic. Elevated tundra patches underlain by sands were disconnected from the stream and stored precipitation water from previous months. At the catchment surface and in the water track thalweg, some circular hollows, from 0.2 to 0.4 m in diameter, acted as evaporative basins with low d-excess values, from 2 to 4‰. Other hollows were connected to shallow subsurface runoff, yielding d-excess values between 12 and 14‰. ‘Connected’ hollows yielded a 50% higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, 17.5±5.3 mg/L, than the ‘disconnected hollows, 11.8±1.7 mg/L. Permafrost distribution across the landscape is continuous, but highly variable. Open taliks exist under fens and small hummocky depressions, as revealed by electric resistivity tomography surveys. Isotopic evidence supports upward subpermafrost groundwater migration through open taliks under water tracks and fens/bogs/depressions, and its supply to streams via shallow sub-surface compartment. Temporal variability of isotopic composition and DOC in water track and a major river system, the Vorkuta R., evidence the widespread occurrence of the described processes in the large river basin. Water tracks effectively drain the tundra terrain and maintain xeric veg-etation over the elevated inter-track tundra patches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0497.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ecosystem services; Benefit transfer; Meta-analysis; Meta-regression function.
Online: 21 June 2021 (10:04:14 CEST)
Meta-analysis has increasingly been used to synthesize the ecosystem services literature, with some testing of the use of such analyses to transfer benefits. These are typically based on local primary studies. However, meta-analyses associated with ecosystem services are a potentially powerful tool for transferring benefits, especially for environmental assets for which no primary studies are available. In this study we use the Ecosystem Service Valuation Database (ESVD), which brings together 1350 value estimates from more than 320 studies around the world, to estimate meta-regression functions for provisioning, regulating & maintenance and cultural ecosystem services across 12 biomes. We tested the reliability of these meta-regression functions and found that even using variables with high explanatory power, transfer errors could still be large. We show that meta-analytic transfer performs better than simple value transfer and, in addition, that local meta-analytical transfer (i.e. based on local explanatory variable values) provides more reliable estimates than global meta-analytical transfer (i.e. based on mean global explanatory variable values). Thus, we conclude that when taking into account the characteristics of the study area under analysis, including explanatory variables such as income, population density and protection status, we can determine the value of ecosystem services with greater accuracy.
Fri, 18 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0484.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: 2018 Palu earthquake, pull-apart basin, basin-shortcut fault, lateral spreading, optical correlation
Online: 18 June 2021 (15:08:26 CEST)
Our understanding of pull-apart basins and their fault systems has been enhanced by analog experiments and simulations. However, there has been no opportunity to compare the faults that constitute pull-apart basins with surface ruptures during earthquakes. In this study, we investigated the effects of a 2018 earthquake (Mw 7.5) on a pull-apart basin in the Palu-Koro fault system, Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, using geomorphic observations in digital elevation models, optical correlation with pre- and post-earthquake satellite images. A comparison of active fault traces determined by geomorphology with the locations of surface ruptures from the 2018 earthquake shows that some of the boundary faults of the basin are inactive and that active faulting has shifted to basin-shortcut faults and relay ramps. We also report evidence of lateral spreading, in which alluvial fan materials moved around the end of the alluvial fan. These phenomena may provide insights for anticipating the location of future surface ruptures in pull-apart basins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0470.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: heavy metals; surface sediment; Manila Bay; pollution; multivariate analysis; ecological risk
Online: 18 June 2021 (08:32:18 CEST)
Recent work on heavy metal pollution in Manila Bay suggests elevated concentration in the surface sediments. It is critical to identify the sources of these heavy metals to effectively rehabilitate the bay. Our study investigated the sources of the heavy metal pollution that ended up in Manila Bay and the risks associated with these toxic metals based on a recent survey conducted. Surface sediment samples with higher heavy metal concentrations were found in the upper to middle parts of the bay while lower concentrations were in the southeast areas. Multivariate analyses such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and Pearson correlation analysis were used to identify the sources of the heavy metals. The heavy metal pollution in Manila Bay is attributed to several rivers draining northeast of Manila Bay, particularly the Marilao-Meycauayan-Obando River System (MMORS) which is cited as one of the 30 dirtiest river systems in the world. The ecological risks associated with heavy metals in the sediments found higher incidences of toxicity in north and middle parts of Manila Bay. Cu and Cr posed the highest risks of toxicities than any other heavy metals. Based on our analysis, the counterclockwise water gyre of the bay can explain the distribution and ecological risks associated with the heavy metals as supported by the findings of the PCA. Given the high priority by the Philippine government to rehabilitate the bay, our study strongly shows that efforts to restore the ecological status of Manila Bay will only succeed if the pollution from major rivers draining to it will be properly addressed.
Thu, 17 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0468.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Pollinator; landscape; land use; urban rural gradient; Japanese honeybee; honey; pollen; nutrition.
Online: 17 June 2021 (15:40:28 CEST)
Pollinators are being threatened globally by urbanisation and agricultural intensification, driven by a growing human population. Honeybees are part of a wide suite of insect pollinators with a global distribution. Understanding the impacts of landscape change and other influencing factors on pollinators is critical to ensuring food security and ecological stability. Remote sensing data on land use attributes have previously linked honeybee nutrition to land use in the Western Honeybee (Apis mellifera L.). Our study presents preliminary data comparing forage (honey and pollen) with land use across a rural-urban gradient from 22 sites in Kyushu, Southern Japan. Honey samples were collected from managed hives between June 2018 and August 2019. Pollen were collected and biotyped from hives in urban and rural locations (n = 5). Previous studies of western honeybee honey shows substantial variation in monosaccharide content. Our analysis of A. cerana japonica honey found very little variation in glucose and fructose (which accounted for 97% of monosaccharides), despite substantial differences in surrounding forage composition. As expected, we observed temporal variation in pollen foraged by A. cerana japonica, likely dependent on flowering phenology. These results suggest that A. cerana japonica may be resilient previously observed negative effects of urban land use on pollinator nutrition. We suggest this effect could be due to differences in urban green infrastructure in Japan, or due to an adaptation by A. cerana japonica to their surroundings, meaning landscape change may not be as detrimental to A. cerana japonica as has been observed elsewhere in the world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0456.v1
Online: 17 June 2021 (10:17:15 CEST)
Abstract: The effect of some weather parameters (rainfall and temperature) on the production of oil palm in Peninsular Malaysia was investigated. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20.0 version), with descriptive statistics, time series analysis, and multiple linear regression (MLR) carried out. SPSS and Microsoft Excel 2010 were used to analyse the results. The MLR model determined the strength of the relationship between oil palm yield (dependent variable) and the changing variables of temperature and rainfall (independent variables). The regression output returned three components; regression coefficients, regression statistics and ANOVA. The findings of the study revealed medium to high rainfall variability at the rate of 0.0008. This implies that rainfall is increasing over time with variations in its amount and intensity. As rainfall increases oil palm FFB production is predicted to increase at a slow rate of 0.0009. The estimation of average annual temperature indicated an increase of 5.6℃ at the rate of 0.0357℃ per year with a temperature maximum of 32.01℃ and minimum of 25.45℃. The result also revealed an increase in oil palm yield at the rate of 0.2581 per year with a mean value of 176247.6. Overall, there is a significant difference in the impact of rainfall and temperature on oil palm yield. This signifies that rainfall has a significant impact on oil palm yield (FFB) compared to temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0454.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: LaiPen; Management Tools; Remote sensing; Vegetation indices; Spatio-temporal changes
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:26:34 CEST)
The leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation biophysical index that provides broad information on the dynamic behavior of ecosystems productivity and related climate, topography, and edaphic impacts. The spatio-temporal changes of LAI were assessed throughout Ardabil Province, a host of relevant plant communities within the critical ecoregion of a semi-arid climate. In a comparative study, novel data from Google Earth Engine- GEE was tested against traditional ENVI measures to provide LAI estimations. Besides, it is of important practical significance for institutional networks to quantitatively and accurately estimate LAI at large areas in a short time and using appropriate baseline vegetation indices. Therefore, LAI was characterized for ecoregions of Ardabil Province using remote sensing indices extracted from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), including Enhanced Vegetation Index calculated in GEE (EVIG) and ENVI5.3 software (EVIE), as well as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index estimated in ENVI5.3 software (NDVIE). Besides, a new field measurement method, i.e., the LaiPen LP 100 portable device (LP 100), was used to evaluate the accuracy of the derived indices. Accordingly, the LAI was measured on June and July 2020 in 822 ground points distributed in 16 different ecoregions-sub ecoregions having various Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the shrub, bush, and tree. The analyses revealed heterogeneous spatial and temporal variability in vegetation indices and LAIs within and between ecoregions. The mean (standard deviation) value of EVIG, EVIE, and NDVIE at Province scale yielded 1.1 (0.41), 2.20 (0.78), and 3.00 (1.01), respectively in June, and 0.67 (0.37), 0.80 (0.63), and 1.88 (1.23), in that respect in July. The highest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June are found in Meshginshahr (1.40), Meshginshahr (2.80), and Hir (4.33) ecoregions and in July are found in Andabil ecoregion respectively with values of 1.23, 1.5, and 3.64. The lowest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June were observed for Kowsar (0.67), Meshginshahr (1.8), and Neur (2.70), ecoregions and in July were for Bilesavar ecoregion respectively with values of 0.31, 0.31, and 0.81. High correlation and determination coefficients (r>0.83 and R2>0.68) between LP 100 and remote sensing derived LAI were observed in all three PFTs (except for NDVIE-LAI in June with r=0.56 and R2=0.31). On average, all three examined LAI measures tended to underestimation compared to LP 100-LAI (r>0.42). The findings of the present study can be promising for effective monitoring and proper management of vegetation and land use in Ardabil Province and other similar areas.
Wed, 16 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0440.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: air quality; thermal comfort; air quality index; heat index; wind chill; Bulgaria; Europe
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:18:02 CEST)
Air pollution is responsible for any adverse effects on human beings. Thermal discomfort, on the other hand, is able to overload the human body and eventually provoke health implications due to the heat imbalance. Methods: The aim of the present work is to study the behavior of two bio-climatic indexes and statistical characteristics of the air quality index for Sofia city - the capital of Bulgaria for the period 2008 - 2014. The study is based on WRF-CMAQ model system simula-tions with a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer. The air quality is estimated by the air quality index, taking into account the influence of different pollutants and the thermal conditions by two indi-ces, respectively, for hot and cold weather. Results: It was found that half of the heat and cold index categories are present in the simulations. Their distribution has some spatial features. All air quality categories are present in the domain, with dominance only of the O3 and PM10. Conclu-sions: It was found that Sofia is not so hot and air polluted place, but in some situations, people have to have some concerns when intend to be outdoors for a prolonged time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0439.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: heavy metals; MMORS, Meycauayan River; soil pollution; multivariate analysis; Sediment Quality Guidelines; Single Pollution Index
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:34:20 CEST)
The City of Meycauayan is considered as one of the most polluted cities in the developing world on the account of industrial discharges of toxic materials to the environment. This work investigated the sources of the heavy metal pollution by analyzing soil and sediment samples for heavy metals (Cr, Hg, Ni, and Pb) together with selected environmental indicators (TN, TOM, and TP) located along the Meycauayan River. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal components analysis (PCA), and Pearson correlation analysis (CA) were used to identify the sources of the metals. Results showed delineated locations of severe levels of heavy metal pollution downstream because of the concentration of industrial activities. Cr contributed more than any other heavy metals analyzed due to proliferation of tanneries discharging untreated wastewaters to the river. Significant inputs of Pb and Hg from Pb-acid battery recycling and gold smelting industries were also found. Risk assessments indicated severe levels of heavy metal pollution where industrial activities are concentrated. The mean Cr, Pb, Ni, and Hg in the sampling locations have mean incidences of toxicity of 91.7 %, 53.6 %, 27.7 %, and 70.0 %, respectively. Our study showed a serious need to address heavy metal pollution in Meycauayan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0436.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Water Framework Directive; River Basin Management Plan; Water Resource Management; Water Governance; Stakeholders
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:29:51 CEST)
The River Basin Management Plan (RBMP) is an essential component of the European Union Water Framework Directive that details an integrated approach required to protect, improve and sustainably manage water resources. RBMP were intended to be produced for the periods 2009-2015, 2016-2021 and 2022-2027. However, after two years of delays in the development processes, the Republic of Ireland produced its first RBMP in 2010. The second RBMP cycle was also implemented in 2018 and is expected to run until the end of 2021 to give way to the third RBMP, whose consultation processes have been ongoing since December 2019. This paper contributes to the forthcoming RBMP by assessing stakeholders’ perspectives on the second RBMP through a desk-based review and by conducting interviews with nine institutions (14 interviewees). The qualitatively analysed interviews reveal a broad spectrum of actors associated with water management and governance in the Republic of Ireland through a three-tier governance structure that has been delivered (with amendment) through the first two RBMPs. Organisations such as the An Fóram Uisce|The Water Forum, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Local Authority Waters, and the Agricultural Sustainability Support and Advisory Programme have responsibilities designated in the RBMPs to deliver improved water quality, integrated catchment management, community engagement and awareness-raising. Trust has also been building up among these organisations and other agencies in the water sector. Despite these responsibilities and progress, the interviews identified communication lapses, ineffective collaboration and coordination among stakeholders and late implementation to be hampering the successful delivery of the second RBMP, in addition to significant pressures acting on water bodies from agricultural activities and urban wastewater treatment. Towards the third RBMP, the paper concludes that optimised water sector finance, enhanced and well-resourced communications, and improved stakeholder collaboration are needed to foster effective and efficient water services delivery and quality. More so, given the cross-cutting impact of the Sustainable Development Goals on water resources and the interconnected relations among the goals, the paper further recommends the integration of the SDGs in the various plans of actions and a co-benefits approach to derive the triple benefits from biodiversity, climate change initiatives and water quality measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0435.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: air pollution; NO2; Sentinel-5P; TROPOMI; GEM-AQ; Poland
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:24:03 CEST)
TRPOMI instrument aboard Sentinel-5P is a relatively new, high-resolution source of information about atmosphere composition. One of the primary atmospheric trace gases that we can observe through it is nitrogen dioxide. By now, we were using the chemical weather model (GEM-AQ) as a mean for estimating nitrogen dioxide concentration on a regional scale. Although well established in atmospheric science, the GEM-AQ simulations were always based on emission data, which in the case of the energy sector were reported by stack owners. In this paper, we attempted to compare the TROPOMI and GEM-AQ derived VCDs over Poland with a particular focus on large point emitters. We also checked how cloudy conditions influence TROPOMI results. Finally, we tried to link the NO2 column number densities with surface concentration using boundary layer height as an additional explanatory variable
Tue, 15 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0404.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Shoreline holy places, unregulated ritual impact, Wastewater and Open-defecation, Physiochemical and Microbial pollution, Gulf of Mannar
Online: 15 June 2021 (12:06:16 CEST)
The present investigation is focused on the forecasting visual observation of the impact of anthropogenic activity on the pilgrimage places located along the coastal environments in Tamil Nadu, India. Devotees performing the unregulated ritual ceremonies, open defecation, waste materials dumping and local municipality discharging wastewater contamination levels were assessed from direct visual surveillance, and by taking photographs and baseline information collected from five different pilgrimage sites. Results showed that ritual ceremonies, wastewater discharges and debris highly contaminated site-III, and found open defecation at site-I. The lack of coastal regulation, pollution awareness, insufficient sanitation facilities and failure to control the commercial and recreational activities have major deleterious effects on the present and future environments of the coastal areas. This is the first attempt conducted by visual assessment of the coastal pollution in pilgrimage places. The results immensely support the recommendation for proper regulation of ritual activities, arrangement of basic sanitation facilities and prohibition of wastewater discharges to prevent waterborne diseases as well as to strictly follow the regional and national level of coastal regulation policy to protect the biological resources of the Gulf of Mannar marine ecosystems.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Food waste index; Household food waste; Waste characterisation; Waste sorting analysis; Avoidable food waste; Preparation residues; SDG Target 12.3; Methodology development; Assessment of current situation
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:54:09 CEST)
Target 12.3 of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) calls for halving per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels, by 2030. The Food Waste Index is suggested as a methodology for grasping the situation. This paper focuses on the consumer level (household food waste). We argue that in order for generating useful information for devising and implementing effective measures for reducing food waste, it should be measured at Level 3 of the Food Waste Index, based on sorting analysis of generated waste, making a distinction between avoidable and non-avoidable food waste. Furthermore, a breakdown by sub-categories that reflect the flow of food in the household could help identify target behaviours. We have developed a categorisation scheme that is internationally agreeable and adoptable, and 1) generates useful information for policy-making and for tackling with reduction of food waste, 2) makes clear the concept of avoidable food waste, and 3) is practical and does not overcomplicate the work of grasping the situation of food wastage. Results of workshops regarding this scheme suggest that the scheme satisfies the criteria. This scheme has been applied to a few sorting analyses of household food waste in Japan, and their results are compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0212.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Carbon Dioxide; Net Zero; Sequestration; Biomass; Direct Capture; Global Warming; Landfills; Forestry
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:08:17 CEST)
Many corporations and governments aspire to become Net Zero Carbon Dioxide by 2030-2050. Achieving Net Zero CO2 requires understanding where energy is produced and consumed, the magnitude of CO2 generation, and the Carbon Cycle. It is unreasonable to assume that fossil fuel can be completely replaced, and thus, atmospheric CO2 will continue to accumulate. Many prior proposed solutions focus on reducing future CO2 emissions from continued use of fossil fuels. Examination of these technologies exposes their limitations and shows that none offer a complete solution. Direct Capture technologies are needed to reduce CO2 already in the air. However, some of those already proposed would lead to a very high cost of Carbon Capture, Use, and Storage (CCUS). Biofuels can help achieve reduction goals. However, two of the six carbons in sugar fermented to bioethanol produce CO2 per the stoichiometry of the reaction. Four carbons go to ethanol, which go back to the atmosphere upon burning in an engine. Thus, without CCUS, which most current bioethanol plants do not practice, bioethanol would at best be sustainable. The only way to permanently remove CO2 already in the atmosphere is to break the Carbon Cycle by growing biomass from atmospheric CO2 and permanently sequestering that biomass carbon. Permanent sequestration can be achieved in landfills modified to discourage biomass decomposition to CO2 and methane. Sequestration of biomass carbon is proposed as a simple and natural means of Direct Capture. Tree leaves are proposed as a good source of biomass for this purpose. Left unsequestered, leaves decompose with a short Carbon Cycle time constant releasing CO2 back to the atmosphere. Leaves represent a substantial fraction of the total biomass generated by a tree when integrated over a tree’s lifetime. High yield crops, such as switchgrass would also be a good source of biomass. The cost for growing switchgrass and sequestering it in a landfill is estimated to be on the order of $120/mt CO2 for a conservative yield of 3.5 tons/acre and may be reduced to as low as $88/mt CO2 if the development of high yield switchgrass is successful. This compares to an estimated cost of CCUS from the Steam Reforming of Methane to produce hydrogen of about $190/mt. Thus, sequestration of biomass is shown to be a natural, carbon efficient, and low-cost method of Direct Capture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0388.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: river; hydrochemistry; permafrost; forest; landscape; lithology; carbonate rocks; trace element; major element
Online: 15 June 2021 (08:59:28 CEST)
Transport of carbon, major and trace element by rivers in permafrost-affected regions is one of the key factor of circumpolar aquatic ecosystem response to climate warming and permafrost thaw. While seasonal and annual export fluxes (yields) of carbon (C) and inorganic solutes are fairly well known for all large Arctic rivers, spatial variations in elementary concentration along the river length and among its tributaries remain poorly understood. Moreover, the landscape factors controlling riverine element concentration in permafrost-affected regions are still poorly constrained. This is especially true for the largest river of Eastern Siberia, the Lena River, which drains through continuous permafrost zones with highly variable lithology and vegetation. Here we present the results of C, major and trace element measurements over a 2600-km transect of the Lena River main stem (upper and middle reaches) including its 30 tributaries, conducted at the peak of the spring flood. There were two main group of solutes in the main stem depending on their spatial pattern: i) elements that decreased their concentrations downstream, from SW to NE (Cl, SO4, DIC, Li, B, Na, Mg, K, Ca, As, Sr, Mo, Sb, Ba and U), which probably reflected a decrease in the proportion of carbonate rocks in the watershed and the degree of groundwater feeding, and ii) elements that increased their concentrations downstream (Al, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ga, Rb, Y, Zr, Nb, Cs, REEs, Hf and Th), which was tentatively linked to an increase in organic C stock in soils, larch forest coverage and enhanced mobilization of lithogenic elements from silicate soil minerals. Based on landscape parameters of Lena tributaries, we tested the impact of major environmental factors on major and trace element spatial pattern. Among all the variables, the proportion of sporadic permafrost on the watershed strongly controlled concentrations of soluble highly mobile elements (Cl, B, DIC, Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Mo, As and U). Another important factor of element concentration control in the Lena River tributaries was the coverage of watershed by light (B, Cl, Na, K, U) and deciduous (Fe, Ni, Zn, Ge, Rb, Zr, La, Th) needle-leaf forest (pine and larch). The latter, however, could also reflect the DOC-enhanced transport of low-soluble trace elements in the NW part of the basin. This part of the basin is dominated by silicate rocks and continuous permafrost, as compared to carbonate rock-dominated and groundwater-affected SW part of the Lena River basin. Overall, the impact of rock lithology and permafrost on major and trace solutes of the Lena River basin during the peak of spring flood was mostly detected at the scale of the main stem. Such an impact for tributaries was much less pronounced, because of the dominance of surface flow and lower hydrological connectivity with deep groundwater in the latter. Future changes in the river water chemistry linked to climate warming and permafrost thaw at the scale of the whole river basin are likely to be linked to changes in spatial pattern of dominant vegetation, rather than to the permafrost regime. We argue that comparable studies of large, permafrost-impacted rivers during most contrasting seasons, including winter baseflow, should allow efficient prediction of future changes in riverine ‘inorganic’ hydrochemistry induced by permafrost thaw.
Mon, 14 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0366.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: landslides; debris-flows; LiDAR; morphometry
Online: 14 June 2021 (13:30:09 CEST)
On the 6th September at 03:08AM local time, the Iburi-Hokkaido Earthquake, only 33 km deep triggers >5,000 co-seismic mass-movements in the hills in a 25 km radius from the epicenter. Although the majority of the mass-movements occurred in complex-geometry valley with the coalescence of deposits, a small sub-set of 59 events deposited on the semi-horizontal val-ley-floor generating separated deposits that were studied in the present contribution. The aim of the present contribution was to contribute to the existing databases of empirical relationships based on planform and vertical dataset, and to define the scalars of those relations that charac-terize the mass-movements of the Iburi-Hokkaido earthquake, with the overarching goal of generating predictors for hazard-mapping. To reach these objectives, the methodology relies on LiDAR data flown in the aftermath of the earthquake as well as aerial photographs. Using Geo-graphical Information Science (GIS) tools planform and vertical parameters were extracted to calculate the power-law relations between areas and volume, between the Fahrböschung and the volume of the deposits, as well as other geometric relationships. Results have shown that the relation S=k〖V_d〗^(2/3) where S is the surface area of a deposit and Vd the volume, and k a scalar that is function of S: k=2.1842 ln(S)-10.167 with a R2 of 0.52, and this relation is improved for the open-slope mass-movements but not the valley-confined ones, that present more varia-bility. The Fahrböschung for events that started as valley-confined mass-movements was Fc = -0.043ln(D) + 0.7082 with a R2 of 0.5m while for open-slope mass-movements, the Fo = -0.046ln(D) + 0.7088 with a R2 of 0.52. These results contribute to the growing co-seismic land-slide database and they can also be the base to understand the role of the counter-slopes and complex topography on the spread and distance travelled by the mass-movement deposits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0360.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: human health; light pollution; modeling; street light; Montréal; melatonin suppression; obtrusive light
Online: 14 June 2021 (12:20:47 CEST)
This paper describes the use of a new obtrusive light module of the Illumina v2 model to estimate the light that may enter bedroom windows. We used as input to the model, 1- the sources’ flux and spectrum derived from the color images taken by astronauts from the international space station, 2- an association between source spectrum and angular emission, and 3- a per zone inventory of obstacles properties and lamp height. The model calculate the spectral irradiance incident to buildings’ windows taking into account for the orientation of the street. By using the color information from an ISS image, we can classify pixels as a function of their spectra. With the same image, it is also possible to determine the upward photopic radiance for each pixel. Both serve as inputs to the model to calculate the spectral irradiance on any window. By having the spectral irradiance, it is possible to determine the Melatonin Suppression Index and the photopic irradiance on the window. Such information can later be used to perform epidemiological studies. The new methodology is applied to the case of Montréal in Canada for a set of houses’ locations. The computations are made for 2013 (pre-LED era).
Fri, 11 June 2021
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Last Glacial Maximum; paleoclimate; temperature-index model; Blanca Massif; Sangre de Cristo Mountains; Colorado
Online: 11 June 2021 (15:02:15 CEST)
Temperature-index modeling is used to determine the magnitude of temperature depression on the Blanca Massif, Colorado, required to maintain steady-state mass balances of nine reconstructed glaciers at their extent during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The mean temperature depression thus determined is ~8.6 +0.7/–0.9 °C where the uncertainties account for those inherent in the glacier reconstructions, in model parameters (e.g. melt factors), and possible modest changes in LGM precipitation. Associated equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) exhibit a statistically significant directional dependency being lower toward the north and east. Under the assumption that regional temperature change was uniform, required changes in precipitation vary systematically – also exhibiting a directional dependency coinciding with that in ELAs – and indicate increases (over modern) occurred on the eastern side of the massif while decreases occurred on the western side. This disparity represents a strengthening of a precipitation asymmetry, particularly winter precipitation, that exists today. The modern precipitation asymmetry may be a consequence of snow being blown over to the eastern side of the massif (advective transport) by southwesterly flow. Intensification of this flow during the LGM would have enhanced advection, and augmented snow accumulation on glaciers, thus explaining the lower ELAs and increased precipitation on that side of the massif.
Tue, 8 June 2021
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0226.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: CALIPSO; space lidar; ocean; depolarization ratio; crosstalk
Online: 8 June 2021 (13:05:13 CEST)
Recent studies indicate that the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) satellite provides valuable information about ocean phytoplankton distributions. CALIOP’s attenuated backscatter coefficients, measured at 532 nm in receiver channels oriented parallel and perpendicular to the laser’s linear polarization plane, are significantly improved in the Version 4 data product. However, due to non-ideal instrument effects, a small fraction of the backscattered optical power polarized parallel to the receiver polarization reference plane is misdirected into the perpendicular channel, and vice versa. This effect, known as polarization crosstalk, typically causes the measured perpendicular signal to be higher than its true value and the measured parallel signal to be lower than its true value. Therefore, the ocean optical properties derived directly from CALIOP’s measured signals will be biased if the polarization crosstalk effect is not taken into account. This paper presents methods that can be used to estimate the CALIOP crosstalk effects from on-orbit measurements. The global ocean depolarization ratios calculated both before and after removing the crosstalk effects are compared. Using CALIOP crosstalk-corrected signals is highly recommended for all ocean subsurface studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0220.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: hyperspectral imaging; machine learning; spectral geology
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:22:42 CEST)
This study aims to assess the feasibility of delineating and identifying mineral ores from hyperspectral images of tin-tungsten mine excavation faces using machine-learning classification. We compiled a set of hand samples of minerals of interest from a tin-tungsten mine and analyzed two types of hyperspectral images: 1) images acquired with a laboratory set-up under close-to-optimal conditions; and 2) scan of a simulated mine face using a field set-up, under conditions closer to those in the gallery. We have analyzed the following minerals: cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), chalcopyrite, malachite, muscovite, and quartz. Classification (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Singular Vector Machines and Random Forest) of laboratory spectra had a very high overall accuracy rate (98%), slightly lower if the 450 – 950 nm and 950 – 1780 nm ranges are considered independently, and much lower (74.5%) for simulated conventional RGB imagery. Classification accuracy for the simulation was lower than in the laboratory but still high (85%), likely a consequence of the lower spatial resolution. All three classification methods performed similarly in this case, with Random Forest producing results of slightly higher accuracy. The user’s accuracy for wolframite was 85%, but cassiterite was often confused with wolframite (user’s accuracy: 70%). A lumped ore category achieved 94.9% user’s accuracy. Our study confirms the suitability of hyperspectral imaging to record the spatial distribution of ore mineralization in progressing tungsten-tin mine faces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0207.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: striations; satellite data; sea surface temperature; sea surface salinity; chlorophyll-a; eastern boundaries; Pacific Ocean
Online: 8 June 2021 (10:31:07 CEST)
Eastern boundary upwelling systems feature strong zonal gradients of physical and biological ocean properties between cool, productive coastal oceans and warm, oligotrophic subtropical gyres. Zonal currents and jets (striations) are therefore likely to contribute to the transport of water properties between coastal and open oceanic regions. Multi-sensor satellite data are used to characterize the signatures of striations in sea surface temperature (SST), salinity (SSS), and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in subtropical eastern North/South Pacific (ENP/ESP) upwelling systems. In the ENP, tracers exhibit striated patterns extending up to ~2500 km offshore. Striations in SST and SSS are highly correlated with quasi-zonal jets, suggesting that these jets contribute to SST/SSS mesoscale patterns via zonal advection. Chl-a striations are collocated with sea surface height (SSH) bands, a possible result of mesoscale eddy trains trapping nutrients and forming striated signals. In the ESP, striations are only found in SST and coincide with SSH bands, consistently with quasi-zonal jets located outside major zonal tracer gradients. An interplay between large-scale SST/SSS advection by the quasi-zonal jets, mesoscale SST/SSS advection by the large-scale meridional flow and eddy advection may explain the persistent ENP hydrographic striations. These results underline the importance of quasi-zonal jets for surface tracer structuring at the mesoscale.
Mon, 7 June 2021
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0183.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Front; Subtropical Front; Southern Ocean; Subtropical Frontal Zone; Subtropical Mode Water; Chilean jack mackerel; Trachurus murphyi
Online: 7 June 2021 (13:12:51 CEST)
This paper combines a literature survey and data analysis. The literature on the Subtropical Front (STF) in the Southern Ocean is reviewed with a two-pronged emphasis on the double-front structure of the STF, hence the existence of a subtropical frontal zone (STFZ), and the circumpolar continuity of the STFZ. The data analysis is based on the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) sections. The STFZ is detected along each section independently from other sections, while moving circum-polarly downstream (eastward). The literature survey and data analysis confirm the circumpolar continuity of the STFZ extending from the Brazil Current across the South Atlantic, South Indian, and South Pacific up to Chile, being bound by the North and South STF. The circumpolar continuity of the STFZ is partly interrupted by South Africa and Tasmania, where the North STF ceases, while the South STF continues eastward. The South Atlantic STFZ is the southern boundary of the well-defined Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) thermostad, which cools eastward from 15°C to 11°C between the Brazil Current and Greenwich Meridian. In the southeast Pacific, the STFZ is the southern boundary of the 17-to-19°C thermostad (South Pacific Eastern STMW). The STFZ’s vertical extent is at maximum in the South Atlantic (>1000 m), decreasing eastward to 300 m in the southeast Pacific off Chile. A special attention is given to the South Pacific and the STFZ’s role in the ecology of Chilean jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi that spawn at the STFZ and migrate along the STFZ from Chile up to New Zealand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0179.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: gauge-undercatch; correction factors; global precipitation; GPCC; Legates correction factor; Fuchs correction factor;
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:59:50 CEST)
Precipitation gauges are critical for measuring precipitation rates at regional and global scales and are often used to calibrate precipitation rates estimated from other instruments such as satellites. However, precipitation measured at the gauges is affected by gauge-undercatch that is often larger for solid precipitation. In the present work, two popular gauge-undercatch correction factors are assessed: one utilizes a dynamic correction model and is used in the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) Monitoring product and the other one employs a fixed climatology and is used in the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) product. How much the choice of correction factors can impact the total estimate of precipitation was quantified over land at seasonal, annual, regional, and global scales. The correction factors are also compared as a function of the environmental variables used in their development, among those are near-surface air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, elevation, and precipitation intensity. Results show that correction factors can increase the annual precipitation rate based on the gauges by ~9.5 % over the global land (excluding Antarctica), although this amount can vary from ~6.3% (in boreal summer) to more than 10% (in boreal winter), depending on the season and the method used for gauge-undercatch correction. Annual variations of correction factors can also be large, so the use of the fixed climatology correction factors requires caution. Given their magnitudes and differences, selection of appropriate correction factors can have important implications in refining the water and energy budget calculations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0157.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land use and land cover; Classification; Object-based change detection; Multi-temporal image analysis; Landsat; Tiaoxi
Online: 7 June 2021 (09:27:22 CEST)
The changing of land use and land cover (LULC) are both affected by climate and human activity and affect climate, biological diversity, and human well-being. Accurate and timely information about the LULC pattern and change is crucial for land management decision-making, ecosystem monitoring, and urban planning, especially in developing economies undergoing industrialization, urbanization, and globalization. Biodiversity degradation and urban expansion in eastern China are research hot-spots. However, the influence of LULC changes on the region remains largely unexplored. Here, an object-based and multi-temporal image analysis approach was developed to detect how LULC changes during 1985-2015 in the Tiaoxi watershed (Zhejiang province, eastern China) using Landsat TM and OLI data. The main objective of this study is to improve the accuracy of unsupervised change detection from object-based and multi-temporal images. To this end, a total of seven LULC maps are generated with multi-temporal images. A random stratified sample design was used for assessing change detection accuracy. The proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.86%, 92.14%, 92.00%, and 93.86% for 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2015, respectively. Nevertheless, the proposed method, in conjunction with object-oriented and multi-temporal satellite images, offers a robust and flexible approach to LULC changes mapping that helps with emergency response and government management. Urbanization and agriculture efficiency are the main reasons for LULC changes in the region. We anticipate that this freely available data will improve the modeling for surface forcing, provide evidence of changes in LULC, and inform water-management decision-making.
Fri, 4 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0143.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Data assimilation; TROPOMI; Air Quality modelling; NOx Emissions; Ensemble Kalman Filter; LOTOS-EUROS; power plant; anthropogenic
Online: 4 June 2021 (12:59:09 CEST)
In this work, we investigate the ability of a data assimilation technique and space-borne observations to quantify and monitor changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over North-Western Greece for the summers of 2018 and 2019. In this region, four lignite-burning power plants are located. The data assimilation technique, based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter method, is employed to combine space-borne atmospheric observations from the high spatial resolution Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) and simulations using the LOTOS-EUROS Chemical Transport model. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service-Regional European emissions (CAMS-REG, version 4.2) inventory based on year 2015 is used as the a priori in the simulations. Surface measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from air quality stations operating in the region are compared with the model surface NO2 output using either the a priori (base run) or the a posteriori (assimilated run) NOx emissions. The high biases found between the in situ NO2 measurements and the base run surface NO2 decrease in the assimilated run in most cases. The bias in the station near the largest power plant decreases to 2.0 μg/m3 (2.83 μg/m3) from 10.5 μg/m3 (8.46 μg/m3) in 2019 (2018 respectively). Concerning the estimated annual a posteriori NOx emissions it was found that, for the pixels hosting the two largest power plants, the assimilated run results in emissions decreased by ~40-50% for 2018 compared to 2015, whereas a larger decrease, of ~70% for both power plants, was found for 2019, after assimilating the space-born observations. For the same power plants, the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) reports decreased emissions in 2018 and 2019 compared to 2015 (-35% and -38% in 2018, -62% and -72% in 2019), in good agreement with the estimated emissions. We further compare the a posteriori emissions to the reported energy production of the power plants during the summer of 2018 and 2019. Mean decreases of about -35% and-63% in NOx emissions are estimated for the two larger power plants in summer of 2018 and 2019, respectively, which are supported by similar decreases in the reported energy production of the power plants (~-30% and -70%, respectively).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0141.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: WRF model; 3D-Var data assimilation; radar data; short-range prediction; heavy precipitation event
Online: 4 June 2021 (12:54:12 CEST)
During the night between 9 and 10 September 2017, multiple flash floods associated to a heavy-precipitation event affected the town of Livorno, located in Tuscany, Italy. Accumulated precipitation exceeding 200 mm in two hours, associated with a return period higher than 200 years, caused all the largest streams of the Livorno municipality to flood several areas of the town. We used the limited-area Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, in a convection-permitting setup, to reconstruct the extreme event leading to the flash floods. We evaluated possible forecasting improvements emerging from the assimilation of local ground stations and X- and S-band radar data into the WRF, using the configuration operational at the meteorological center of Tuscany region (LaMMA) at the time of the event. Simulations were verified against weather station observations, through an innovative method aimed at disentangling the positioning and intensity errors of precipitation forecasts. By providing more accurate descriptions of the low-level flow and a better assessment of the atmospheric water vapour, the results demonstrate that assimilating radar data improved the quantitative precipitation forecasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0122.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: tree-ring; flow reconstruction; pre-development; estuarine salinity; salinity intrusion
Online: 4 June 2021 (08:11:27 CEST)
This work presents updated reconstructions of watershed runoff to San Francisco Estuary from tree-ring data to AD 903, coupled with models relating runoff to freshwater flow to the estuary and salinity intrusion. We characterize pre-development freshwater flow and salinity conditions in the estuary over the past millennium and compare this characterization with contemporary conditions to better understand the magnitude and seasonality of changes over this time. This work shows that the instrumented flow record spans the range of runoff patterns over the past millennium (averaged over five, ten, twenty and one hundred years), and thus serves as a reasonable basis for planning-level evaluations of historical hydrologic conditions in the estuary. Over annual timescales we show that, although median freshwater flow to the estuary has not changed significantly, it has been more variable over the past century compared to pre-development flow conditions. We further show that the contemporary period is generally associated with greater spring salinity intrusion and lesser summer-fall salinity intrusion relative to the pre-development period. Thus, salinity intrusion in summer and fall months was a common occurrence under pre-development conditions and has been moderated in the contemporary period due to the operations of upstream reservoirs, which were designed to hold winter and spring runoff for release in summer and fall. This work also confirms a dramatic decadal-scale hydrologic shift in the watershed from very wet to very dry conditions during the late 19th and early 20th centuries; while not unprecedented, these shifts have been seen only a few times in the past millennium. This shift resulted in an increase in salinity intrusion in the first three decades of the 20th century, as documented through early records. Population growth and extensive watershed modification during this period exacerbated this underlying hydrologic shift. Putting this shift in the context of other anthropogenic drivers is important in understanding the historical response of the estuary and in setting salinity targets for estuarine restoration. By characterizing the long-term behavior of San Francisco Estuary, this work supports decision-making in the State of California related to flow and salinity management for restoration of the estuarine ecosystem.
Thu, 3 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0120.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: IMERG; Stage IV; Infrared; Passive microwave; Snow; Ice; Precipitation; GPM; Wet-bulb temperature; AMSR-2
Online: 3 June 2021 (14:59:21 CEST)
Various products of the Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) and passive mi-crowave (PMW) sensors are assessed with respect to near-surface wet-bulb temperature (Tw), precipitation intensity, and surface type (i.e., with and without snow and ice on the surface) over the CONUS and using Stage-IV product as reference precipitation. IMERG products include precipitation estimates from infrared (IR), combined PMW, and their combination. PMW products generally have higher skills than IR over snow- and ice-free surfaces. Over snow- and ice-covered surfaces (1) PMW products (except AMSR-2) show a higher correlation coefficient than IR, (2) IR and PMW precipitation products tend to overestimate precipitation, but at colder temperatures (e.g., Tw<-10oC) PMW products tend to underestimate and IR product continues to show large overestimations, and (3) PMW sensors show higher overall skill in detecting precipitation oc-currence, but not necessarily at very cold Tw. The results suggest that the current approach of IMERG (i.e., replacing PMW with IR precipitation estimates over snow- and ice-surfaces) may need to be revised.
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:35:30 CEST)
A field experiment was conducted during Kharif 2018, laid out in Randomized Block Design with three replications having seven treatments viz. N omission (T1), N applied as basal and AT (T2), N as basal, AT and PI (T3), N as basal and top dressing at NDVI threshold of 0.75 (T4), at NDVI threshold of 0.8 (T5), at SPAD threshold of 35.0 (T6) and SPAD threshold of 37.5 (T7) with Rice variety Sahabhagidhan.The study revealed that application of 30 kg N/ha as basal dose and top dressing of 20 kg N/ha twice at 35 and 63 DAS guided by NDVI threshold value of 0.8 (T5) was found to be superior over other treatments with respect to productivity. T5 recorded highest grain yield of 4438 kg/ha which was 17.0% higher than that top dressed at NDVI threshold of 0.75 (T4) and 7.1% higher than that top dressed at SPAD threshold value of 37.5 (T7). In case of SPAD meter, nitrogen top dressed at threshold value of 37.5 (T7) produced grain yield of 4143 kg/ha which was 15.0% higher than T6. T5 produced maximum dry matter of 8678 kg/ha with highest grain yield (4438 kg/ha), straw yield (5092 kg/ha) and harvest index 46.0%.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0117.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: COVID-19; Medical Waste; Sustainability; Environment.
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:22:55 CEST)
The situation in the world of pandemics is rapidly changing, and the second wave of COVID-19 has put a lot of pressure on the government and private sector, which are primarily responsible for controlling the situation. COVID-19 positive cases have increased in recent months relative to last year, and the number of patients admitted to hospitals has also increased, despite the fact that few of them were denied admission due to shortage of beds. Normal people who experience any symptoms immediately isolate themselves and begin taking the COVID medications prescribed by medical personnel and their team. During these times, all domestic people tossed the wrappers and boxes of medicines into the regular trash can, and the waste was handed over to the waste collector, who treated it like any other domestic waste and disposed of it using open dumping or other methods. The goal of this perspective is to suggest the collections of these types of waste from domestics, and protect the natural resources like water, soil, and even living beings like animals from pollution (from the effect of SARS-CoV-2). The main challenge for environmental waste management agencies is determining who has COVID positive and which houses generate these types of waste; thus, proposed strategy may be beneficial to the long-term sustainability of natural resources and animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0104.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: hydrological research basin; precipitation; temperature; long-term trends; climate change; evapotranspiration
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:35:58 CEST)
While the ongoing climate change is well documented, the impacts exhibit a substantial variability, both in direction and magnitude, visible even at regional and local scales. However, the knowledge of regional impacts is crucial for the design of mitigation and adaptation measures, particularly when changes in the hydrological cycle are concerned. In this paper we present hydro-meteorological trends based on observations from a hydrological research basin in Eastern Austria between 1979-2019. The analysed state variables include the air temperature, the precipitation, and the catchment runoff. Additionally, trends for the catchment evapotranspiration were derived. The analysis shows that while the mean annual temperature was decreasing and annual temperature minima remained constant, the annual maxima were rising. The long-term trends indicate a shift of precipitation to the summer with minor variations observed for the remaining seasons and at an annual scale. Observed precipitation intensities mainly increased in spring and summer between 1979-2019. The catchment evapotranspiration, computed based on catchment precipitation and outflow, showed an increasing trend for the observed time period.
Wed, 2 June 2021
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Surface soil moisture; Sentinel-1 SAR; Sentinel-2; Vegetation water content; Water cloud model; Support vector regression
Online: 2 June 2021 (15:22:42 CEST)
Surface soil moisture (SSM) is a significant factor affecting crop growth. This paper presents a method for retrieving SSM over wheat-covered areas using synergy dual-polarization C-band Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar and Sentinel-2 optical data. Firstly, a modified water cloud model (WCM) was proposed to remove the influence of vegetation from the backscattering coefficient of the radar data. The vegetation fraction was then introduced in this WCM, and the vegetation water content (VWC) was calculated using multiple linear regression model. Subsequently, the support vector regression technique was used to retrieve the SSM. This approach was validated using in-situ measurements of the wheat field in Hebi, in the north of Henan Province. The key findings of this study are as follows: (1) Based on vegetation indices obtained from Sentinel-2; the proposed VWC estimation model can effectively eliminate the influence of vegetation; (2) compared with vertical transmit and horizontal receive polarization, vertical transmit and vertical receive polarization is better for detecting changes in SSM at different growth stages of wheat; and, (3) the validation results indicated that the proposed approach, based on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data, successfully retrieved SSM in the study area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0078.v1
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:27:04 CEST)
Pit craters, and pit crater chains, are now recognised as being an important part of the surface morphology and structure of many planetary bodies, and are particularly remarkable on Mars. Pit craters do not possess the elevated rims, ejecta deposits, or other features that are typically associated with impact craters. They are thought to arise from the drainage/collapse of a relatively weak surficial material into an open (or widening) void in a much stronger material below. The creation of such voids has been suggested to be due to extensional fracturing/dilational faulting, shallow dike intrusion, lava tube collapse amongst other hypotheses. These craters have a very distinctive expression, often presenting funnel, cone, or bowl-shaped geometries. Analogue models of pit crater formation provide a map-view picture of their initiation and evolution but give little insight into their internal structure or geometry, but produce pits that typically have steep, nearly conical cross sections. Numerical modelling studies of their formation have been limited and have produced some quite interesting, but nonetheless puzzling, results whereby the simulated pit craters had generally convex (steepening downward) slope profiles with no distinct rim; quite unlike many of those observed on Earth or on Mars. To address these issues, I present here a high-resolution, 2D discrete element model of weak cover (regolith) collapse into either a static or a widening underlying void. I use frictional and frictional-cohesive discrete elements to represent a range of probable cover rheologies. Under Martian gravitational conditions, frictional-cohesive and frictional materials produce cone, bowl and scoop-shaped pit craters. For a given cover thickness, the specific crater shape depends on the amount of underlying void space created for drainage. When void space is small relative to cover thickness, craters have bowl or scoop-shaped geometries. In contrast, when void space is large relative to cover thickness, craters have cone-shaped geometries with essentially planar (nearing angle of repose) slope profiles. Frictional-cohesive materials exhibit more distinct rims than simple frictional materials and thus may reveal some stratigraphic layering on the pit crater walls. In the limit, when drainage from the overlying cover is insufficient to fill the underlying void, ´skylights´ into the deeper structure are created. Implications of these results for the interpretation of pit craters on Earth, Mars, other planets and moons are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0074.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Green Dam; Green Walls; Desertification; Aleppo pine; Land degradation.
Online: 2 June 2021 (12:16:30 CEST)
Abstract: Green walls and green dams are increasingly being considered as part of many nation-al and international desertification initiatives. This paper studies the spatiotemporal evolution of the green dam in the Moudjbara region (Djelfa Province, Algeria) from 1972 to 2019 by using Landsat imagery, Land Change Modeler and Open Land package. The future evolution of pine plantations for the year 2029 was also forecasted, based on an anthropogenic scenario (i.e., an-thropogenic pressure is the main driver of the green dam destruction). Our findings revealed that the green dam project was successful for a few years, but after that, pine plantations deteri-orated significantly due to forest harvesting, livestock overgrazing, and the proliferation of the pine caterpillar processionary, which destroyed most of the reforestation. Land Change Modeler predicted a huge degradation of pine plantations for the year 2029, and if the deforestation con-tinues at the same rate, the green dam will disappear in the Moudjbara region during the next few decades. Aware of this threat, the Algerian authorities are now planning to reforest more than 1.2 million ha under the latest rural renewal policy by introducing new principles related to sustainable development, fighting desertification, and climate change adaptation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0062.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Alaska; SNOTEL; Snowfall accumulation; IMERG; precipitation
Online: 2 June 2021 (10:00:06 CEST)
The combination of snowfall, snow water equivalent (SWE), and precipitation rate measurements from 39 Snow Telemetry (SNOTEL) sites in Alaska are used to assess the performance of various precipitation products from satellites, reanalysis, and rain gauges. Observation of precipitation from two water years (2018-2019) of the high resolution radar/rain gauge data (Stage IV) product was also utilized to add insights into scaling differences between various products. The outcomes were also used to assess two popular methods for rain gauge undercatch correction. It was found that SWE and precipitation measurements at SNOTELs, as well as precipitation estimates based on Stage IV data, are generally consistent and can provide a range in which other products can be assessed. Time-series of snowfall and SWE accumulation suggests that most of the products can capture snowfall events; however, differences exist in their accumulation. Reanalysis products tend to overestimate snow accumulation in the study area, while current combined passive microwave remote sensing products (i.e., IMERG-HQ) underestimate snowfall accumulation. We found that corrections factors applied to rain gauges are effective in improving their undercatch, especially for snowfall. However, no improvement in correlation is seen when correction factors are applied, and rainfall is still estimated better than snowfall. Even though IMERG-HQ has less skill in capturing snowfall than rainfall, analysis using Taylor plots showed that the combined microwave product does have skill in capturing the geographical distribution of snowfall and precipitation accumulation, so bias adjustment might lead to reasonable precipitation estimates. This study demonstrates that other snow properties (e.g., SWE accumulation at the SNOTEL sites) can complement precipitation data to estimate snowfall. In the future, gridded SWE and snow depth data from GlobSnow and Sentinel-1 can be used to assess snowfall and its distribution over broader regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0054.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: monitoring of methane concentration; ventilation of mines; measurements of ventilation parameters
Online: 2 June 2021 (08:45:36 CEST)
The data from the extended system was recorded on-going basis in the archives of the monitoring system, and the multipoint system was directly stored in the methane-anemometers, which allows one to perform a comparative analysis of the obtained records from many methane detectors. An important element of the analyses was the simultaneous registration of the methane concentration in the longwall, together with information on operating time, direction of shearer operation and type of work: mining/cleaning. Mining practice shows that in methane coal mines, methane is often the basic limitation for modern and high-efficiency longwall complexes. The paper reports on selected observations and tests carried out in the Cw-4 longwall in seam 364/2 of the Budryk mine belonging to JSW SA. In observation of the methane level in the Cw-4 longwall, additional sensors installed in the end part of the longwall from the side of the gobs and registration of air velocity and methane concentration in the multipoint system built in the selected longwall cross-section were used, regardless of the air parameters recorded in the monitoring system.
Tue, 1 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0041.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: air quality; air pollution measurements; electrochemical sensors; low-cost sensors; AQI (Air Quality Index); Athens
Online: 1 June 2021 (15:08:39 CEST)
Most people living in Europe's cities are still exposed to levels of air pollution deemed harmful by the World Health Organization. In the modern world, air pollution is the foremost concern because of its impact in human health and economy. This strong connection appears gaining a lot of concern, driven by new installed low-cost electrochemical sensors monitoring systems. Highly accuracy, real-time monitoring, daily and yearly statistics, data access from experts or simple users, low-cost equipment and forecasting needs, enforce the market to develop new air quality monitoring systems using advanced technologies and protocols. In this study, a comparison via low-cost electrochemical sensors and of static, fixed site measurement monitoring station, is taking place in Athens, Greece, along with the data quality and Air Quality Index (AQI) including data accuracy and quality of data concerning adverse health effects due to air pollution. The findings presented in this work, relate to different flexible and affordable alternatives adopted during the evaluation and calibration of low-cost gas sensors for the monitoring. The significance of the positive results is particularly useful, especially considering the founding for interference, environmental conditions affections and air quality information including indexes and health recommendations for a specific location.
Mon, 31 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0775.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land Degradation; Land Productivity Dynamics; Vegetation Cover Change; Soil Organic Carbon
Online: 31 May 2021 (13:29:58 CEST)
Land degradation a serious and nationwide environmental concern in Ethiopia. The problem is its iterative relationship between land degradation, climate change, and agriculture, exacerbating one another via negative and positive feedback loops. Due to the need for an efficient response to land degradation in the country, different sustainable land management practices have been implemented since the late 1980s. The objective of this study was to analyze land degradation neutrality status using remote sensing data in the study area. We have studied the land degradation neutrality conditions of the North Wello Zone by using indicators data, namely land cover change, land productivity dynamics, and soil organic carbon stock. The result shows that the settlement areas consistently expanded at the fifth speed (2010-2018) from 1995 to 2010. Between 1995 and 2010, forestland declined by 18 percent, while an increasing trend of 26.8 percent from 2010 to 2018. The assessment results also indicate that 52.8 percent of the total area is stable and characterized by less stressed land productivity. The soil organic carbon is comparatively abundant in the high and midland vegetation areas but very thin in lowland areas. Most of the highland and midland parts of the study areas are in the conditions of stable and increasing land productivity with high biomass and soil organic content. However, most lowland areas showed a decline in land productivity conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0758.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: precision agriculture; agriculture 4.0; digital agriculture; smart farming; industry 4.0; sustainability; innovation; bibliometrics; science mapping.
Online: 31 May 2021 (12:01:58 CEST)
: The agriculture sector is one of the backbones of many countries’ economies and its processes have been changing in order to enable technological adoption to increase productivity, quality, and sustainable development. In this research, we present a theoretical reflection through a scientific mapping of the adoption of precision techniques and breakthrough technologies in agriculture, the so-called Precision Agriculture (PA) and Agriculture 4.0 (A4.0). To do this, we used 4,694 documents from the Web of Science database to perform a Bibliometric Performance and Network Analysis (BPNA) of the literature with the support of the PICOC protocol and the SciMAT software. Our findings present 22 strategic themes related to Digital Agriculture (DA) such as Internet of Things (IoT) and Climate-smart Agriculture (CSA) among others, and the thematic network structures of the motor themes and the thematic evolution structure of the field of the study over time. In addition, our results discuss the main challenges and opportunities of DA. Our findings have the potential to provide insights for practitioners and researchers in decision-making and pave the way for future works.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0747.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: nature-based solutions; productive urban landscapes; decision support systems; edible cities; urban agriculture; circular economy
Online: 31 May 2021 (11:30:52 CEST)
In the last five years, European research and innovation programmes have prioritised the development of online catalogues and tools (handbooks, models, etc.) to facilitate the implementation and monitoring of Nature Based Solutions (NBS). However, only a few catalogues and toolkits within European programmes are directly related to mainstreaming of NBS for food production (i.e., edible NBS). Therefore, the main aim of this paper is to present existing NBS tools through the eyes of productive urban landscapes. We reviewed 32 projects related to NBS and 50 tools were identified and characterised. Then, the 6 tools already available, and providing indicators, were further analysed in terms of their format and knowledge domains. Our main conclusion demonstrates that there is a lack of tools capable of supporting users for planning and implementing edible NBS, calculating the food potential of the city and/or of individual edible NBS, including the needed resources for implementation and operation (water, nutrients, energy), and assessing their urban design value, environmental and socio-economic impacts. And when they do exist, there is a resistance to share the models and equations behind the tools to allow other projects to reuse or validate them, fact which is contrary to Open Science principles stood up by many research public agencies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0734.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Land use change; soil quality; Lowland bamboo; Cultivation periods; Ethiopia
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:37:49 CEST)
In Ethiopia, bamboo thickets and woodlands play an important role in soil-water conservation and climate change mitigation in arid and semi-arid regions. However, bamboo mass flower-ing, rapid demographic changes and expansion of agricultural investments to bamboo domi-nated areas have led to deforestation and land degradation. In this study, we determined the effects of deforestation and subsequent cultivation on soil physical and chemical properties along a chronosequence of closely located agricultural lands with different ages (1, 3, 5 and 7 years) since converted from natural lowland bamboo forest. Hence, soil samples (n = 90) have been taken from both natural bamboo forests and adjacent agricultural lands at two soil depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm). Our result showed that CEC, K+, Ca+, Mg+ and available P were varied significantly with respect to cultivation periods and soil depth, while soil pH and Na+ varied with soil depth (P < 0.001). Soil C and total N contents (g/kg) in 0-20 cm soil layer declined significantly and exponentially with increasing years under cultivation. Conversion of natural bamboo forest to cropland during the past seven-year period significantly increased soil pH with soil depths, while CEC was declined throughout the cultivation period and soil depth. In general, the result revealed that conversion of natural lowland bamboo and subsequent cultivation of soil had negative effects on measured soil physicochemical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0721.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: eutrophication; water management; hypolimnetic warming; boundary mixing; mixing events; internal waves; long-term series; Valle de Bravo; biogeochemistry; nutrient flux
Online: 31 May 2021 (09:30:13 CEST)
Physical processes play important roles in controlling eutrophication and oligotrophication. In stratified lakes, internal waves (IW) can cause vertical transport of heat and nutrients without breaking the stratification, through boundary mixing (BM) events. Such is the case in tropical Valle de Bravo (VB) lake, where strong diurnal winds drive IW, BM and hypolimnetic warming during stratification periods. We monitored VB during 18 years (2001-2018) when important water-level fluctuations (WLF) occurred, affecting mixing and nutrient flux. Mean hypolimnetic temperature increase (0.06–1.04°C month-1) occurred in all the stratifications monitored. We analyzed temperature distributions and modeled the hypolimnion heat budget to assess vertical mixing between layers (26,618–140,526 m-3h-1), vertical diffusivity coefficient KZ (6.2x10-7–3.3x10-6 m2s-1) and vertical nutrient entrainment to epilimnion on monthly scale. Stability also varied as a function of WLF. Nutrient flux to the epilimnion ranged 0.36–5.99 mg m-2d-1 for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and 5.8–97.1 mg m-2d-1 for dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). During low water-level years, vertical nutrient fluxes increase and can account for up to >40% of the total external nutrients load to the lake. Vertical mixing changes with WLF affect nutrient recycling, their flux to sediments, metabolic balance and planktonic composition of VB.
Fri, 28 May 2021
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: vertical farming; controlled environment agriculture; plant factories; biostimulant; microbiome; hydroponics; aeroponics
Online: 28 May 2021 (11:07:33 CEST)
Vertical farming (VF) is a potential solution for the production of high-quality, accessible, and climate-friendly nutrition for growing urban populations. However, to realize VF’s potential as a sustainable food source, innovative technologies are required to ensure that VF can be industrialized on a massive scale and extended beyond leafy greens and fruits into the production of food staples or row crops. A major obstacle to the economic and environmental sustainability of VF is the lighting energy consumed. While technological advances have improved the energy efficiency of VF lighting systems, there has been insufficient research into biostimulation as an approach to reduce energy needs. We conducted a controlled trial to investigate the application of a phycocyanin-rich Spirulina extract (PRSE) as a biostimulant in hydroponically grown, vertically farmed lettuce (Lactuca sativa and Salanova®). PRSE application reduced the time from seeding to harvest by 6 days, increased yield by 12.5%, and improved quality including color, taste, texture, antioxidant flavonoid levels and shelf life. Metagenomic analysis of the microbial community of the nutrient solution indicated that PRSE increased the overall bacterial diversity including raising the abundance of Actinobacteria and Firmicutes and reducing the abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria. This preliminary study demonstrates that microalgae-derived biostimulants may play an important role in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of VF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0693.v1
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:57:07 CEST)
In recent years, urban planners and designers have paid attention to improve the creative factors in big and small cities in order to make the urban environment more attractive. It seems that improving desirable urban environmental qualities and walkability approaches such as flexibility, happiness, and vitality, provides the necessary background for creating creative urban spaces. The case study zone is urban walkways in Rasht that which has been completed four years ago. In this paper, after conceptualizing the nature of the creative city, as well as reviewing the views of the thinkers regarding the qualities of the environment, a conceptual model of creative urban space has been developed. Then, the indicators and criteria of creative urban space have been evaluated through the questionnaire and analysis through SPSS software and regression model, Pearson and Friedman. The result of the analyses of the five spatial, functional, social, perceptual, and environmental components and their relationship is expressed that factors such as paving streets, the development of local markets, the Suitability of urban walkways for physically and mentally handicapped people, the use of cultural elements, the use of diverse urban furniture and nightlife after building urban walkways play an important role in the realization of urban creative space in Rasht city.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0692.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5); cognition; neurodegeneration; neurology; air pollution; environment; rural; urban; neurocognitive development; neurodegeneration
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:26:49 CEST)
This review documents an emerging body of evidence concerning the neurological effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, with regard to cognitive function and increased risk of neurodegeneration. Two electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched. The 37/428 studies selected included outcomes measuring cognitive function, neurobehavioral symptoms of impaired cognition, and pathologies associated with neurodegeneration from prenatal (21/37 studies), childhood (14/37 studies), and adult (8/37 studies) PAH exposure. Sufficient evidence surrounding prenatal exposure negatively impacting child intelligence, mental development, average overall development, verbal IQ, memory impairment, externalizing, internalizing, anxious, depressed behaviours, behavioural development and child attentiveness was found. Evidence concerning exposure during childhood and as an adult was scarce and highly heterogeneous, however presence of neurodegenerative biomarkers and increased concentrations of cryptic “self” antigens in serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples suggest a higher risk of neurodegenerative disease. Associations with lowered cognitive ability, and impaired attentiveness were found in children and memory disturbances, specifically auditory memory, verbal learning and general memory in adults. Although evidence is not yet conclusive and further research is needed the studies included supported the hypothesis that PAH exposure negatively impacts cognitive function and increases the risk of neurodegeneration in humans, and recommends considering the introduction of a variable “rural vs. urban” as covariate for adjusting analyses where the neurological functions affected (as result of our review) are outcome variables.
Thu, 27 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0669.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: porosity prediction; pore-water prediction; gravity; resistivity; combined inversion
Online: 27 May 2021 (13:16:28 CEST)
This work describes a method to carry out 2-D inversion of gravity data in terms of porosity and matrix density distribution using previous DC resistivity inversion results to constraint the fractional pore-water content in the rocks. The inversion is carried out using a controlled random search (CRS) algorithm for global optimization. The method was tested on synthetic data generated from a model representing a graben, and the results show that it can estimate accurate values of contrast-density and porosity. The method was also applied to gravity and dc experimental data collected in NE Portugal, showing results that agree quite well with the known geological information.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0666.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: muon tomography; time projection chamber; Micromegas; cosmic rays; geophysics; dam
Online: 27 May 2021 (13:11:57 CEST)
Tomography based on cosmic muon absorption is a rising technique because of its versatility and its consolidation as geophysics tool over the past decade. It allows to address major societal issues such as long-term stability of natural and man-made large infrastructures or sustainable underwater management. Traditionally, muon trackers consist of hodoscopes or multilayer detectors. For applications with challenging available volumes or wide field of view required, a thin time projection chamber (TPC) associated with a Micromegas readout plane can provide a good tradeoff between compactness and performance. This paper details the design of such a TPC aiming at maximizing primary signal and minimizing track reconstruction artifacts. The results of the measurements performed during a case study addressing the aforementioned applications are discussed. The current works lines and perspectives of the project are also presented.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0662.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Posidonia oceanica; “Banquettes”; Calabria; Seaside tourism
Online: 27 May 2021 (10:20:57 CEST)
The wracks of Posidonia oceanica leaves on the sandy beaches of Calabrian region could be one of the most important defence against erosion processes. The management of Posidonia oceanica leaf litter in Italy has been realized through the mechanical removal and the transport in dumping areas of the beach-cast material. This solution, apparently simple and fast, produces a net loss of sediments from the sandy beaches and, therefore, a deficit in the sedimentary budget of coastline leading the coastal system to possible shore erosions. Instead, it could be better to keep these vegetable deposits on the place so to warrant a positive sedimentary budget and the tourist value of the regional beaches improving coastal tourism in the seaside resorts with bathing vocation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0654.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Thermal Comfort; Outdoor Space; Microclimate Simulation; Street Orientation; Physiological Equivalent Temperature
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:02:05 CEST)
Lack of due attention to the orientation of streets and establishment of urban blocks without regard for climatic characteristics and conditions of the environment have an adverse effect on thermal comfort in open urban spaces. Construction of new settlements without taking into account climatic requirements undermines thermal comfort for pedestrians and other users, especially in cold regions. Considering the coldness of the region under study and the significance of the orientation of streets in absorbing radiation and providing heat to outdoor urban spaces, this study investigates the effect of the orientation of streets on microclimatic comfort in one of the residential towns of Hamadan City in Iran. For this purpose, microclimate simulation was performed using ENVI-met software. A residential block with four different orientations (the most common orientations of its surrounding buildings) were simulated in the coldest day of winter and the hottest day of summer. The results suggest that streets have different thermal behavior in different orientations. Orientation affects mean radiant temperature (Tmrt), the duration of exposure to direct sunlight, wind speed, and physiological equivalent temperature (PET), which are all important factors in thermal comfort. Based on these findings, north-south streets in Hamedan receive more radiant temperature during winter compared to other simulated orientations and provide more desirable thermal comfort. The average PET value on a winter day at a point on the north-south passage was 4.5-8 °C warmer than other orientations. In summer, streets with intercardinal orientations (i.e., northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast) provided the lowest PET (about 2 °C cooler than other orientations) and better thermal comfort
Wed, 26 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0647.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: RegCM, Indian Summer Monsoon, Cumulus Convection Schemes
Online: 26 May 2021 (15:04:46 CEST)
In this study, we explored the performance of the cumulus convection parameterization schemes of Regional Climate Modeling System (RegCM) towards the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) of a catastrophic year through various numerical experiments conducted with different convection schemes (Kuo, Grell amd MIT) in RegCM. The model is integrated at 60KM horizontal resolution over Indian region and forced with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The simulated temperature at 2m and the wind at 10m are validated against the forced data and the total precipitation is compared with the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) observations. We find that the simulation with MIT convection scheme is close to the GPCC data and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Our results with three convection schemes suggest that the RegCM with MIT convection scheme successfully simulated some characteristics of ISM of a catastrophic year and may be further examined with more number of convection schemes to customize which convection scheme is much better.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0645.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Tectonic joint; Pressure-ridge, Active uplift, Mantle rocks; St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago; Equatorial Atlantic
Online: 26 May 2021 (14:39:49 CEST)
This paper discusses the tectonics of the St. Peter and St. Paul Archipelago (SPSPA) in the Equato-rial Atlantic Ocean, based on the joint-system geometry which show a North-South shorten-ing/transpressional uplift tectonism, is active leading to exhumation of the sub-oceanic mantle. These islets are the summits of a sigmoidal submarine ridge formed by mantle ultramafic rocks. The ridge is crossed by the principal transform deformation zone of the northern transform fault of the St. Paul Multifault System. The South flank ridge exposes serpentinized mantle perido-tites, while the North flank exposes strongly deformed/fractured ultramylonites, recording duc-tile and brittle deformation at lithospheric conditions. The SPSPA show multiple joint systems cutting mylonitic foliation of the exposed rocks, forming three main families: high-angle paral-lel joints of tectonic origin, serpentinization-related joints with random direction and load-release low-angle parallel joints. The tectonic joints show an average direction of N31°E and N28°W, forming a conjugate system with a N1ºW compression axes, coherent with a trans-pressive stress field. Accordingly, the earthquakes focal mechanism close to the islets also shows N-S compression. The previously reported active uplift with an average rate of 1.5 mm/year and the directions of the joint system here reported agreeing with a present-day active N-S compres-sive field at a high angle with the direction of the transform fault.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0283.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ocean circulation; Geostrophic turbulence; Quasi-geostrophic flows
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:03:28 CEST)
With the advent of submesoscale O(1km) permitting basin-scale ocean simulations, the seasonality in the mesoscale O(50km) eddies with kinetic energies peaking in summer has been commonly attributed to submesoscale eddies feeding back onto the mesoscale via an inverse energy cascade under the constraint of stratification and Earth’s rotation. In contrast, by running a 101-member, seasonally forced, three-layer quasi-geostrophic (QG) ensemble configured to represent an idealized double-gyre system of the subtropical and subpolar basin, we find that the mesoscale kinetic energy shows a seasonality consistent with the summer peak without resolving the submesoscales; by definition, a QG model only resolves small Rossby number dynamics (O(Ro)≪1) while as submesoscale dynamics are associated with O(Ro)∼1. Here, by quantifying the Lorenz cycle of the mean and eddy energy, defined as the ensemble mean and fluctuations about the mean respectively, we propose a different mechanism from the inverse energy cascade by which the stabilization and strengthening of the western-boundary current during summer due to increased stratification leads to a shedding of stronger mesoscale eddies from the separated jet. Conversely, the opposite occurs during the winter; the separated jet destablizes and results in overall lower mean and eddy kinetic energies despite the domain being more susceptible to baroclinic instability from weaker stratification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0631.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Western Cape; Southern Annular Mode; Circulation type; Africa south of the equator; mid-latitude cyclone
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:04:08 CEST)
This study investigates circulation types (CTs) in Africa, south of the equator, that are related to wet and dry conditions in Western Cape, the statistical relationship between the selected CTs and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), and changes in the frequency of occurrence of the CTs related to the SAM under the ssp585 scenario. Obliquely rotated principal component analysis applied to sea level pressure was used to classify CTs in Africa, south of the equator. Three CTs were found to have a high probability to be associated with wet days in Western Cape, and four CTs were equally found to have a high probability to be associated with dry days in Western Cape. Generally, the dry/wet CTs feature the southward/northward track of the mid-latitude cyclone, adjacent to South Africa; anti-cyclonic/cyclonic relative vorticity, and poleward/equatorward track of westerlies, south of South Africa. One of the selected wet CTs is significantly related to variations of the SAM. Years with an above-average SAM index correlate with the below-average frequency of occurrence of the wet CT. The results suggest that through the dynamics of the CT, the SAM might control the rainfall variability of Western Cape. Under the ssp585 scenario, the analyzed climate models indicated a possibility in the decrease of the frequency of occurrence of the aforementioned wet CT associated with cyclonic activity at the mid-latitudes, and an increase in the frequency of occurrence of the CT associated with enhanced SLP in the mid-latitudes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0620.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Doe Run Peru; socioeconomic policy; public health; systemic freedom; La Oroya
Online: 26 May 2021 (08:02:56 CEST)
The La Oroya metallurgical complex reveals a process of structural or power pathology, where economic and environmental social policies lead to a citizenry without systemic freedom, characterized by environmental contamination (PAMA executed on average 67%, some processes with 0%) and sanitary (plumbosis 8.39 to 10.28 μg / dL), the economic dependence of this industry is also observed, which caused the weakening of the communities to maintain autonomy over their own destinies.The Doe Run Peru, operated the metallurgical complex, creating added value to the extractive-export chain of mineral concentrate, but also took advantage of the legal loopholes, the little coordination between the State institutions and the little authority of the supervisory institutions to get the most out of it, complying with the law in some cases, but without moral quality in some others, such as health in the oroinos.Government institutions must have strong links that provide a normative framework with prospects with sustainable development, where the beneficiary is society and not only certain interest groups. The economic benefits of the metallurgical complex operation are multiple, which begin with labor, the purchase and sale of materials and services, the collection of taxes and energy.
Tue, 25 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0603.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: the landscape structure; the river island; the Venetsiansky (Hydropark) Island; the genetic landscape study; the European Landscape Classification (LANMAP).
Online: 25 May 2021 (10:27:56 CEST)
The article studies the Venetsiansky (Hydropark) Island (the Dnipro River, Kyiv, Ukraine) landscape structure applying the genetic landscape science method and the European landscape classification (LANMAP) approach. The aim of the article is to determine the best way to study the river islands landscapes analyzing the Venetsiansky Island landscape structure by the both methods. Methodology. The genetic landscape science method consists in the next steps: 1) the island’s territory information collecting; 2) the preliminary landscape map creating; 3) field study; 4) the final landscape map creating. The LANMAP method consists on: 1) the climate study; 2) the altitude study; 3) the parent material study; 4) the land cover study. The results. The genetic landscape science method demonstrates that the Venetsiansky Island is not a landscape, but a structural part of the landscape – the tract. The LANMAP study reveals that the Venetsiansky Island is naturally homogeneous, but land cover differs. The conclusion. The both methods’ study shows that the river island cannot be the entire landscape by the natural criteria, but only the part of it. The genetic landscape science explores the landscape forming while the LANMAP reveals the current state of the landscape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0595.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: surface formaldehyde; neural network model; interval estimation; TROPOMI; global distribution
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:58:59 CEST)
Formaldehyde (HCHO) is one of the most important carcinogenic air contaminants. However, the lack of global surface concentration of HCHO monitoring is currently hindering researches on outdoor HCHO pollution. Traditional methods are either too naïve or data-demanding for a global scale research. To alleviate this issue, we trained two fully-connected neural networks respectively for deriving point and interval estimation of surface HCHO concentration in 2019, where vertical column density data from TROPOMI, in-situ data from HAPs (harmful air pollutants) monitoring network and ATom mission are utilized. Our result shows that the global surface HCHO average concentration is 2.30 μg/m3. Furthermore, in terms of regions, the concentration in Amazon Basin, North China, South-east Asia, Bay of Bengal, Central and Western Africa are among the highest. Our study makes up for the global shortage of surface HCHO monitoring and helps people have a clearer understanding of surface concentration distribution of HCHO. In addition, with the help of quality-driven algorithm, interval estimation of surface HCHO concentration is believed to bring confidence to our results. As an early work adopting interval estimation in AI-driven atmospheric pollutant research and the first to map global HCHO surface distribution, our paper will pave way for rigorous study on global ambient HCHO health risk and economic loss, thus providing basis for pollutant controlling policies worldwide.
Mon, 24 May 2021
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0583.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: greenhouse gases; climate sensitivity; rapid adjustments; Bayesian analysis
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:13:18 CEST)
Equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) is the change in global mean temperature expected to result from doubling atmospheric CO2 concentration from pre-industrial levels. Extensive research during the past 40 years has not reduced the uncertainty associated with ECS. Sherwood et al.  applied Bayesian statistics to evidence from climate-process physics, historical observations and earlier proxies to reduce the range of ECS from 1.5 – 4.5 K to 2.6 – 4.1 K. This paper examines their methods and many of the assumptions they made. It also evaluates two additional periods in the Holocene to show that factors other than CO2 drove recent climate change. It identifies potential systematic errors resulting from adding non-equilibrium short-term adjustments to the radiative forcing of greenhouse gases and from underestimating the effects of solar irradiance, ocean currents and aerosols. These factors have resulted in estimates of the forcing by CO2 that far exceed the apparent effects in paleoclimate data.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0580.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Teleconnections; Precipitation; Mann Kendall; Partial Mann Kendall; Climate Indices; Trends
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:09:34 CEST)
Precipitation plays vital role in the economy of agricultural country like Pakistan. Baluchistan being the largest province of Pakistan in term of land is facing reoccurring droughts as well as flashflood due unprecedent torrential precipitation pattern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0548.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Mesoscale eddy closure; Quasi geostrophy; Mid-latitude double gyre
Online: 24 May 2021 (09:37:26 CEST)
Mesoscale eddies, the weather system of the oceans, although being on the scales of O(20-100km), have a disproportionate role in shaping the mean jets such as the separated Gulf Stream in the North Atlantic Ocean, which is on the scale of O(1000km) in the along-jet direction. With the increase in computational power, we are now able to partially resolve the eddies in basin-scale and global ocean simulations, a model resolution often referred to as mesoscale permitting. It is well known, however, that due to grid-scale numerical viscosity, mesoscale permitting simulations have less energetic eddies and consequently weaker eddy feedback onto the mean flow. In this study, we run a quasi-geostrophic model at mesoscale resolving resolution in a double gyre configuration and formulate a deterministic parametrization for the eddy rectification term of potential vorticity (PV), namely, the eddy PV flux divergence. We have moderate success in reproducing the spatial patterns and magnitude of eddy kinetic and potential energy diagnosed from the model. One novel point about our approach is that we account for non-local eddy feedbacks onto the mean flow by solving the eddy PV equation prognostically in addition to the mean flow. In return, we are able to parametrize the variability in total (mean+eddy) PV at each time step instead of solely the mean PV. A closure for the total PV is beneficial as we are able to account for both the mean state and extreme events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0544.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Fogo volcano; volcanic eruption; outdoor dust; PM10; human health Risk
Online: 24 May 2021 (08:52:24 CEST)
Fogo (Fogo island, Cape Verde Republic) is the youngest and most active volcano of the archipelago. The last eruption occurred in 2014–2015. Aiming at studying dust emissions and transport during the eruption period and assessing their impact on air quality and human health, a mineralogical and chemical characterization was undertaken in outdoor dust from all over the island, as well as in the lava resulting from this event. Air quality monitors were used to obtain concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) and gaseous pollutants. The mineralogical constitution of the samples was analysed by X-ray diffraction and Electron Microprobe, while the chemical characterization was performed through X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry and ICP-MS. The volcanic rock was found to be tephritic to basanitic, with high potassium content. Several minerals were identified, such as titanian augite with ilmenite, basaltic hornblendes, pyrrhotites, apatites, pyroxenes, basaltic hornblendes and hematites. Concentrations of the particulate matter inhalable fraction (PM10) exceeded the 24-hour mean of 50 µg/m3 recommended by the World Health Organization. Nevertheless, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) showed levels lower than the worrying range. The highest levels of CO2 were recorded in more populated villages and farthest from the volcano. The Pollution Load Index (PLI) for outdoor dust collected on rooftops was always above 1, suggesting enrichment, with higher values in the dust size fraction < 63 µm. In the same way, the Contamination Factor pointed to high enrichment of As, Ni and Pb, and very high enrichment of Cd in the same size fraction. The Non-carcinogenic Hazard Quotient and Hazard Index estimated for Children suggest that health problems may arise. The Carcinogenic Risk, for all size fractions, was above the target risk. The element that most contributed to the global risk was As, followed by Pb and Co. Ingestion was the main exposure route for all size fractions. The dust size fraction that represented the highest risk was < 63 µm, mostly due to the As concentration.
Fri, 21 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0523.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: flash floods; urban floods; storms; hazard management; urban hydrology; convection; convective cells; thunderstorms; radar; flood prevention; Mediterranean
Online: 21 May 2021 (14:52:04 CEST)
Flash floods repeatedly threaten Barcelona, damaging the city infrastructure and endangering the safety of the population. The city’s urban planning and socioeconomic distribution, associated with the topography and other geographic factors, means that these flood events do not affect the entire city in the same way. This is a key point for surveillance and emergency tasks, which need some patterns and models to improve response capacity. This work aims to gain a better understanding of such events, to add valuable information on how to predict and manage these situations. For this purpose, both radar and ground observational data have been combined to identify the most important precipitation episodes in Barcelona between 2013 and 2018. To make the analysis easier, a new algorithm has been developed to determine the thunderstorm hotspots. Episodes with a higher impact have been analysed in depth. The final objective is to improve the actions taken by the organisation responsible for managing urban floods, which have seen Barcelona recognised as a model city for flood resilience by the United Nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0516.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Perceptions, public university students, online classes, COVID-19, Bangladesh
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:52:48 CEST)
The severe disease outbreak COVID-19 pandemic impacted public health and safety and the educational systems worldwide. For fear of the further spread of diseases, most educational institutions, including Bangladesh, have postponed their face-to-face teaching. Therefore, this study explores public university student's perceptions towards online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Data were collected among students of Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh, through an online survey. The study followed both a qualitative and quantitative approach, where the survey technique was used as an instrument of data collection. Results showed that most students were facing difficulty participating in virtual classes and could not communicate with their friends correctly during online classes. They faced challenges in online schooling, and the majority of the students preferred conventional types of learning to virtual classes and did not understand the content of virtual classes easily. The study also explored that most students did not feel comfortable in online classes. Still, considering the present pandemic situation, they decided to participate in online classes to continue schooling. Besides, the study discovered that female students showed better real perceptions than male students regarding online classes, and urban students have more optimistic appreciation than rural students. Moreover, laptop or personal computer users showed more positive perceptions towards online education than mobile users. Furthermore, Broadband/ Wi-Fi users have more positive perceptions than mobile network users. These findings would be an essential guideline for governments, policymakers, technology developers, and university authorities for making better policy choices in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0497.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: road dusts; active mine; metal(loids); oral bioaccessibility; human health risk
Online: 21 May 2021 (07:44:30 CEST)
Aiming the characterization of road dusts on the surrounding villages of an active mine and to assess metal(loids) bioaccessible fractions, a dust samples survey was undertaken. To achieve these objectives, pseudototal element concentration, mineralogical composition, Enrichment factor and in vitro extraction UBM assay for both gastric (G) and gastrointestinal (GI) phases, were determined. Results obtained revealed that arsenic represents the higher risk to humans, with mean pseudototal values higher than the maximum reference value range. Enrichment factor points to As significant to very high enrichment in all villages. Particles enriched in As, Ca, Fe, Cu, Al, Ti were identified by SEM-EDS in weathered agglomerates, linked to mine wastes and long-distance transport, both by wind and/or traffic. Arsenic bioaccessibility fraction (%BAF) presents low values in the studied samples, possibly due to low Fe complexes solubility with adsorbed As, limiting arsenic release and reducing its bioaccessibility. Concentrations of Cd bioaccessible G and GI phases are within the reference values range, while for Cu are above and for Pb are lower, than reference value range. Results show that the pseudototal fraction risk is overestimated when comparing to BAF (bioaccessible fraction), nevertheless, total G and GI risk are above the carcinogenic target risk (1.00E-06) in most samples. Carcinogenic risk of the bioaccessible contaminants shows that As is the element that represents higher risk for developing cancer over a lifetime, being ingestion the main risk route.
Thu, 20 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0475.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Climate change, vulnerable women, perception, adaptation, Bangladesh, high flood
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:23:39 CEST)
The contextual and risk perception of climate change plays a critical role in an individual’s decision-making process. It could also help people to respond appropriately to the consequences of global climate change and eventually take necessary adaptation actions. However, the perceptions of climate change are often gendered and vary among men and women. Therefore, this study explores different perceptions of climate change and its local adaptation options among ultra-poor vulnerable women, particularly in highly vulnerable flood-prone regions of Bangladesh. The research followed an empirical research methodology to collect primary and secondary information using qualitative and quantitative research tools. The study findings reveal that climate change perceptions at the individual level are relatively low (63%). Still, they have been observing significant changes in various climatic variables over the past 30 years. Moreover, this study identified some major adaptation options such as plinth raising (100%), livestock rearing (100%), homestead gardening (82%), seasonal migration (82%), and using indigenous knowledge (69%), and so on to tackle the adverse impacts of climate change-induced extreme events including flooding at the local level. For implementing these adaptation measures, the respondents spent a significant amount of financial resources from individual sources in the study area. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) is used in addition to the statistical analyses to understand any connections between the climate change perceptions and other variables associated with the community under study. The SEM result shows that climate change will be a long–term problem, which offers a strong predictor in this model, considering standardized regression weight β= 0.56. It means, despite inadequate knowledge on climate change of the respondent’s, climate change is occurring and becoming the worst factor limiting cultural, economic, and environmental development in the study area.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Transboundary management; biodiversity; species distributions; Exclusive Economic Zones; marine conservation; collaboration
Online: 20 May 2021 (10:14:11 CEST)
Marine species are declining at an unprecedented rate, catalyzing many nations to adopt conservation and management targets within their jurisdictions. However, marine species and the biophysical processes that sustain them are naive to international borders. An understanding of the prevalence of cross-border species distributions is important for informing high-level conservation strategies, such as bilateral or regional agreements. Here, we examined 28,252 distribution maps to determine the number and locations of transboundary marine plants and animals. Over 90% of species have ranges spanning at least two jurisdictions, with 58% covering more than ten jurisdictions. All jurisdictions have at least one transboundary species, with the highest concentrations of transboundary species in the USA, Australia, Indonesia, and the Areas Beyond National Jurisdiction. Distributions of mapped biodiversity indicate that overcoming the challenges of multinational governance is critical for a much wider suite of species than migratory megavertebrates and commercially exploited fish stocks—the groups that have received the vast majority of multinational management attention. To effectively protect marine biodiversity, international governance mechanisms (particularly those related to the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Convention on Migratory Species, and Regional Seas Organizations) must be expanded to promote multinational conservation planning, and complimented by a holistic governance framework for biodiversity beyond national jurisdiction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0469.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Environmental Entrepreneurship; Poverty alleviation; Green Entrepreneurship; Economic growth
Online: 20 May 2021 (09:55:06 CEST)
World Economy today depends on business investments that are propelled by Green technology, innovations and entrepreneurial activities. In recent years, developing economies in Asia, Africa and Latin America have embarked on easy capital access to Small Medium Enterprises (SMEs) to facilitate their economic growth. Kenya is among the Middle Level Income Countries that have gained global recognition through entrepreneurial innovations. In this study we assess the role of entrepreneurship towards poverty alleviation in Kenya. The objectives of the study were: to evaluate the role of entrepreneurship in poverty alleviation in Kenya; to identify entrepreneurship innovations and their economic contribution in Kenya and to determine the significance of entrepreneurship to Kenyan economy. Methodology of study took a parametric approach through pure desktop studies on entrepreneurship cases in Kenya. Success case studies of entrepreneurial innovations like M-pesa, M-soko and Uwezo Fund initiatives were assessed. The paper notes that activities undertaken in each of these case studies have made great contributions to poverty alleviation and economic development in both urban and rural areas of Kenya.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0455.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: organic wastes; cow manure; CO2 effluxes; ammonia stripping; C:N ratio
Online: 20 May 2021 (07:37:58 CEST)
Although carbon (C) efflux from soils treated with organic wastes was widely covered in temperate and cold regions, still such data is not sufficient from arid and semi-arid regions. Saudi Arabia produces more than 335,000 tons/year of cow manure (CM), this CM either left as raw manure or being composted. The application of high C/N amendments is expected to increase soil organic carbon and reduce CO2 fluxes. A 90-day incubation experiment was conducted to study CO2 efflux, organic C microbial biomass C, available NH4+and NO3-when added to agricultural soil. Six manure types were added: cow manure, cow manure compost, cow manure biochar, cow manure stripped ammonia at pH 12 with a temperature of 95oC, cow manure stripped ammonia at pH 9 with a temperature of 95oC and control. The application of CM resulted in a considerable increase in soil available nitrogen, CO2 efflux compared to other treatments. Cow manure biochar showed the lowest CO2 efflux. Cumulative CO2 effluxes of cow manure effluents were lower than CM this possibly due to the relatively high C:N ratio of manure effluent. The content of, P, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn were decreased as incubation time increased. microbial biomass C of cow manure stripped ammonia at pH 12 with a temperature of 95oC were increased at 7 and 60 days illustrating to temperature effect on the decomposing of manure materials.
Wed, 19 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0444.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Spectral Unmixing; Imaging Spectrometer; Hyperspectral; Benchmark Dataset; Dimensionality Estimation; Endmember Extraction; Abundance Estimation; HySpex.
Online: 19 May 2021 (13:25:39 CEST)
Spectral unmixing represents both an application per se and a pre-processing step for several applications involving data acquired by imaging spectrometers. However, there is still a lack of publicly available reference data sets suitable for the validation and comparison of different spectral unmixing methods. In this paper we introduce the DLR HyperSpectral Unmixing (DLR HySU) benchmark dataset, acquired over German Aerospace Center (DLR) premises in Oberpfaffenhofen. The dataset includes airborne hyperspectral and RGB imagery of targets of different materials and sizes, complemented by simultaneous ground-based reflectance measurements. The DLR HySU benchmark allows a separate assessment of all spectral unmixing main steps: dimensionality estimation, endmember extraction (with and without pure pixe assumption), and abundance estimation. Results obtained with traditional algorithms for each of these steps are reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that real imaging spectrometer data with accurately measured targets are made available for hyperspectral unmixing experiments. The DLR HySU benchmark dataset is openly available online and the community is welcome to use it for spectral unmixing and other applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0434.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Climate Change; Loss and Damage; Hailstorm; Impact on Agriculture and Livelihood; Adaptation Options; Response; policy suggestions; Bangladesh
Online: 19 May 2021 (08:04:38 CEST)
Climate change causes weather extremes to rise in frequency and severity, which could have detrimental effects on human life, property and livelihood activity. There is significant uncertainty about the influences of anthropogenic climate change on the occurrence and severity of small-scale, sudden onset weather phenomena such as hailstorms and subsequent loss and damage. Yet, several studies indicate that there is an apparent stable connection between hailstorm activity and hailstorm damage. Severe hailstorm events are observed in Bangladesh in recent years, which are, in fact, rapid-onset disasters but low exposure in terms of giving government response and media consideration. Hence this study examines potential impacts and management strategies for loss and damage resulting from hailstorm events among smallholder farmers in Kurigram District's Phulbari Upazila of Bangladesh. Firstly, the direct and long term economic and non-economic loss and damage caused by the hailstorm on human well-beings and livelihoods were assessed. Then, the study evaluated the current adaptation, coping, management and response strategies at the institutional and community level in the context of such extreme events. Finally, a regulatory framework and implementation approaches had suggested achieving the country's resilience against disaster and climate change-induced loss and damage. Participatory Vulnerability Analysis, Key Informant Interviews and Sample Surveys accumulated the primary data for the study. In addition, secondary data were collected through analysis of literature, published and unpublished scientific articles and media reports, etc. This research outcome will help countries develop a guideline to address climate change and disaster-related loss and damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0433.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Climate change; loss and damage; human well-being; marginal salt farmers; adaptation; vulnerability; Bangladesh
Online: 19 May 2021 (07:58:13 CEST)
In recent years in Bangladesh, there has been regular cyclonic event, flooding and erratic pre-monsoons precipitation that has hampered production greatly and forced Bangladesh to import salt from abroad to manage market deficiency. There is much uncertainty about the effects of climate change on the frequency and intensity of small-scale, sudden onset weather phenomena such as heavy rainfall and subsequent loss and damage (L&D). But, several studies indicate that an obvious strong relationship exists between irregular rainfall and associated L&D. Nowadays, severe changing rainfall patterns are observed in Bangladesh, which is rapid-onset in nature, but low exposed in terms of response. The current study explored a ‘double-exposed’ burden combined of both climatic (e.g., uneven rainfall) and non-climatic governance factors (e.g., imperfect trade policy, the absence of risk transfer mechanisms) which are hindering salt production and pushing the country from the aspiration of salt exporting to the net buyer. This chapter mainly assesses the impacts of L&D due to climatic events that are causing overwhelming effects on the well-being of marginal salt farmers at Kutubdia Upazila of Bangladesh. Data were mainly collected through Participatory Vulnerability Analysis (PVA), Key informant interviews (KII), and Sample Surveys (SS). This study would provide insights for improved disaster management policy and an appropriate adaptive measure to address such extreme events as well as to initiate a further study for understanding the nexus of ‘nature and market’ in building resilience among the marginal salt farmers.
Tue, 18 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0426.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Crop layout; Nutrient balance; Chemical fertilizer; Nutrient surpluses; Nutrient use efficiency
Online: 18 May 2021 (12:59:36 CEST)
Abstract: Estimating regional soils Nitrogen and phosphorus balance in cropland is essential to improve management practices, reduce environmental risks and develop sustainable agriculture. In this study,spatial and temporal variations in crop layout, the impact on soil N and P nutrient balance were assessed from 2000 to 2015 in the West Liaohe River Basin between 2000 and 2015. The result shows that the area of cropland is on the rise, and the spatial distribution of arable land is consistent with the distribution of the main tributaries of the West Liaohe River basin. The change in planting layout for maize and soybeans has a significant impact on the nutrient balance of farmland, which plays a critical role in modifying surplus nutrients. Nutrient surpluses on farmland were mostly concentrated in areas where maize planting layout changed between 2000 and 2015. The N nutrient surplus rate decreased by 39.3%, N utilization efficiency, increased by 70.7%; P nutrient surplus rate decreased by 3.8%, and P utilization efficiency increased by 49.3%. The average utilization efficiencies of N and P nutrients were 27.8% and 9.1%, respectively, and the utilization efficiency was low. Chemical manure is the main source of nutrients. The risk of phosphorus pollution was higher than the risk of nitrogen pollution in the West Liaohe River Basin. The lower Liaohe River Basin (below the Sujiapu) was the region with the most violent changes in nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balance. It is recommended that reduce the amount of chemical fertilizer application, especially, reduce the amount of P application, improve the ef-ficiency of nutrient use, and focus on strengthening pollution control in key areas such as the West Liaohe River lower reaches basin (below Sujiabao), reducing the risk of agricultural nonpoint source pollution.
Mon, 17 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0396.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: ensemble modelling; seafloor mapping; sediment change analysis; seafloor sediment distribution; North Sea; seafloor classification; acoustic mapping; small sample size; ensemble map
Online: 17 May 2021 (16:58:50 CEST)
Recent studies on seafloor mapping have presented different modelling methods for the automatic classification of seafloor sediments. However, most of these studies have applied these models to seafloor data with appropriate number of ground-truth samples, which raises the question whether these methods are applicable to studies with smaller numbers of ground-truth data. In this study, we aim to address this issue by conducting sediment class-specific predictions using ensemble modelling to map areas with limited or without ground-truth data and combined with hydro-acoustic datasets. The resulting class-specific maps were then assembled into one map, where the most probable class was assigned to the appropriate location. Our approach was able to predict sediment classes without bias to the class with more ground-truth data and produced reliable seafloor sediment distributions maps that can be used for seafloor monitoring. Sediment shifts of a heterogenous seafloor in the Sylt Outer Reef, German North Sea were also assessed to understand the sediment dynamics in the area. The analyses of sediment shifts showed that the western area of the Sylt Outer Reef is highly active, and the results of the analyses assisted in providing recommendations on future seafloor monitoring activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0389.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: forest degradation; NDFI index; multitemporal analysis; Continuous Degradation Detection; Google Earth Engine
Online: 17 May 2021 (13:30:45 CEST)
The goal of this study was to analyze the forest degradation in the Reserve for San Rafael National Park, Paraguay, during the period 2005-2019. This Reserve is one of the most important forest remnants of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest Ecoregion. A multitemporal analysis of degradation was carried out due to the occurrence of three disturbances: forest fires, a twister and illicit crops, using the Continuous Degradation Detection (CODED) algorithm, for which 3 factors were considered: variations due to pixel in the NDFI index values before, during and after every disturbance registered. In this context, the phenomenon with the greatest impact in terms of magnitude of degradation were the forest fires of 2005, being that year at the same time, the one that reported the highest degradation values. Secondly, there are the illicit crops established until the first semester of 2019, and lastly, the twister that occurred in 2017. Our findings demonstrate that CODED algorithm can detect multi-temporal degradation events in a Subtropical Broadleaf Forest, and the post-disturbance regeneration process after every disturbance tends to occur immediately. The response in terms of degradation-regeneration is highly variable, depending of the nature and severity of each disturbance and the vegetation recovery dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0375.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Metals; Environmental monitoring; Bioassays; Amazon River; Amazon; mining
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:42:51 CEST)
As the number of legal and illegal mining sites increase, integrative methods to evaluate the effects of mining pollution on Andes-Amazonia freshwater ecosystems are paramount. Here, we sampled water and sediments in 11 sites potentially affected by mining activities in the Napo province (Ecuador). The environmental impacts were evaluated using four lines of evidence (LOEs): water physico-chemical parameters; metal exposure concentrations; macroinvertebrate community response (AAMBI); and toxicity by conducting bioassays with Lactuca sativa and Daphnia magna. Overall, dissolved oxygen and total suspended solids were, under (<80%) and above (>130 mg/Ls) quality standards. Ag, Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in water and V, B and Cr in sediments were detected above quality standards. Nine out of eleven sites were classified as having bad environmental quality based on the AAMBI. Ranges of L. sativa seed germination in both water (37% to 70%) and sediment (0% to 65%), indicate significant toxicity. In 5 sites, neonates of D. magna showed a 25% reduction in survival compared to the control. Our integrated LOEs index ranked sites regarding their environmental degradation. Given the importance of the Andes-Amazon region, we recommend environmental impact monitoring of the mining expansion using multiple LOEs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0374.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: soil–rock mixture, freezing–thawing interface, shear strength, shear failure surface, particle calculation model
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:34:41 CEST)
With global warming and accelerated degradation of permafrost, the engineering problems caused by the formation of weak zones between the shallow and permafrost layers of soil–rock mixture (S-RM) slopes in permafrost regions have become increasingly prominent. To explore the influence of rock content on the shear strength of the S-RM freezing–thawing interface, the variation in the shear strength for different rock content is studied herein using direct shear tests. In addition, a 3D laser scanner is used for obtaining the topography of the shear failure surface. Combined with the analysis results of the shear band-particle calculation model, the influence of the rock content on the shear strength of the interface is explored. It was found that the impact threshold of the rock content on the interface strength and failure mode is approximately 30%, when the rock content (R) is > 30% and that the shear strength increases rapidly with increasing rock content. When R ≤ 30%, the actual shear plane is similar to waves; when R > 30%, the shear plane appears as gnawing failure. The shear strength of S-RM freezing–thawing interface mainly comes from the bite force and friction between particles. The main reason for the increase in shear strength with increasing rock content is the increase in bite force between particles, which makes the ratio of bite force to friction force approximately 1:1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0368.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: sodium selenate; zinc sulfate; cereal; rainfed conditions; forage yield
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:54:59 CEST)
Millions of people worldwide have an inadequate intake of selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and agronomic biofortification may minimise these problems. To evaluate the efficacy of combined foliar Se and Zn fertilisation in bread making wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), foliar Se (as NaSeO4) and soil and foliar Zn applications (as ZnSO4·7H2O) were tested individually and in all combinations. A 2-year field experiment was established in southern Spain under semiarid Mediterranean conditions, by following a split-split-plot design. The study year (2017/2018, 2018/2019) was considered as the main-plot factor, soil Zn application (50 kg Zn ha-1, nil Zn) as a subplot factor, and foliar application (nil, 10 g Se ha-1, 8 kg Zn ha-1, 10 g Se ha-1 + 8 kg Zn ha-1) as a sub-subplot factor. The best treatment to increase both Zn and Se concentration in both straw, 12.3- and 2.7-fold respectively, and grain, 1.2- and 4.1-fold respectively was the combined foliar application of Zn and Se. This combined Zn and Se application also increased on average the yield of grain, main product of this crop, by almost 26%. Therefore, bread-making wheat seems to be a very suitable crop to be used in biofortification programs with Zn and Se to alleviate their deficiency in both, people when using its grain and livestock when using its straw.
Fri, 14 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0341.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Soil erosion; Winds; Sand collection efficiency; Dust horizontal flux
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:45:47 CEST)
The sand-dust horizontal flux is an important parameter for the study on aeolian sand transport, as well as an important foundation. In this study, a field experiment was developed to measure the data of aeolian transport and microclimate during different dust events with an auto sand sampler, a piezoelectric saltation sensor (H11-Sensit) and a 10 m high meteorological tower in Ta Zhong, the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert from July to August in 2010. Then, the sampling efficiency of auto sand sampler and horizontal dust flux of near surface were analyzed based on observed data. The results were as follows: sand collector skip turnover increased with the increase of the intensity of dust weather frequency increases, the power function relationship y=2.115 x0.9841, R2 = 0.9206, flip frequency per minute increased from 0.2794 times to 1.3041 times, change is obvious; With the strength of the weather, time to flip the average sediment is shrinking. Sandstorm weather, skip to flip a volume of 3.7160 g, grade I flying sand weather flip a volume of 4.0275 g, the amount of class II flying sand weather turns over a 5. 0035g.The horizontal dust flux of different dust events that calculated with the equation Q=256M; the maximum of one dust event was about 190.335 kg, and the minimum was 1.2 kg. Overall, the sand transportation rate increased with wind speed. However, the changes of sand transportation rate did not quite fit in with wind speed during some dust events, and in this case the corresponding surface temperature was significantly higher. The experimental data obtained can provide theoretical basis for regional sand control and enacting effective engineering measures.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0338.v1
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:04:25 CEST)
The understanding of weather and climate extremes provides academics, decision makers, international development agencies, nongovernmental organizations and civil society the necessary information for monitoring and giving early warning to prevent or minimize the risks associated with weather related hazards. Different researches were carried out to provide vital information that will further enhance the assessment of vulnerability and its impacts. Lack of proper understanding of weather and climate extremes was realized to be responsible for the huge and devastating losses that could have being averted or minimized over the past decades. Different countries and institutions have put in place a number of ways to increase sensitization and awareness of weather extremes. This became necessary in order to reduce the losses associated with these extremes both on local and regional scales.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: COVID 19; pandemic; mining company; epidemic emergency; prevention; good practices
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:52:21 CEST)
The state of epidemic emergency in force in our country since March and the related requirement to implement various sanitary procedures constitute problems for the operation of all companies. However, the unique operation of underground mining companies increases their scale considerably. However, despite initial turbulent moments related to the occurrence of an unknown threat, it was possible to stabilise the situation in all such companies as a result of implementing various anti-threat actions. Following the initial introduction to basic properties of the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, the paper presents the results of the study (a case study) on actions taken in individual mining companies. There was an attempt to formulate the so-called good work practices recommended to be applied.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0319.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Greenspace; mental health; SARS-CoV-2; pandemic; South Korea; social determinants of mental health; intervention
Online: 14 May 2021 (08:56:52 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating consequences for health, social, and economic domains, but what has received far less focus is the effect on people’s relationship to vital ecological supports, including access to greenspace. We assessed patterns of greenspace use in relation to individual and environmental factors and their relationship with experiencing psychological symptoms under the pandemic. We conducted an online survey recruiting participants from social media for adults in Korea for September–December 2020. The survey collected data on demographics, patterns of using greenspace during the pandemic, and major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 2-item (GAD-2) were applied to identify probable cases of MD and GAD. A logistic regression model assessed the association decreased visits to greenspace after the outbreak compared to 2019 and probable MD and GAD. Among the 322 survey participants, prevalence of probable MD and GAD were 19.3% and 14.9%, respectively. High rates of probable MD (23.3%) and GAD (19.4%) were found among persons currently having job-related and financial issues. Of the total participants, 64.9% reported decreased visits to greenspace after the COVID-19 outbreak. Persons with decreased visits to greenspace had 2.06 higher odds (95% CI: 0.91, 4.67) of probable MD at the time of the survey than persons whose visits to greenspace increased or did not change. Findings suggest that barriers to greenspace use could deprive people of mental health benefits and affect mental health during pandemic; an alternative explanation is that those experiencing poor mental health may be less likely to visit greenspaces during pandemic. This implies the need of adequate interventions on greenspace uses under an outbreak especially focusing on how low-income populations may be more adversely affected by a pandemic and its policy responses.
Thu, 13 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0313.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Gliders; Altimetry; Mesoscale; Eddies; Warm-core rings; Potential Vorticity; Gulf of Mexico
Online: 13 May 2021 (17:27:59 CEST)
This study investigates the vertical structure of the dynamical properties of a warm-core ring in the Gulf of Mexico (Loop Current ring) using glider observations. We introduce a new method to correct the glider’s along-track coordinate which is, in general, biased by the unsteady relative movements of the glider and the eddy, yielding large errors on horizontal derivatives. Here, we take advantage of the synopticity of satellite along-track altimetry to apply corrections on the glider’s position, by matching in situ steric height with satellite-measured sea surface height. This relocation method allows to recover the eddy’s azimuthal symmetry, to precisely estimate the rotation axis position, and to compute reliable horizontal derivatives. It is shown to be particularly appropriate to compute the eddy’s cyclo-geostrophic velocity, relative vorticity, and shear strain, which are otherwise out of reach when using the glider’s raw traveled distance as an horizontal coordinate. The Ertel potential vorticity (PV) structure of the warm core ring is studied in details, and we show that the PV anomaly is entirely controlled by vortex stretching. Sign reversal of the PV gradient across the water column suggests that the ring might be baroclinically unstable. The PV gradient is also largely controlled by gradients of the vortex stretching term. We also show that the ring’s total energy partition is strongly skewed, with available potential energy being 3 times larger than kinetic energy. The possible impact of this energy distribution on the Loop Current rings longevity is also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0274.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: acoustics of non-uniform media; wave mode diagnostics; entropy mode; initialization of hydrodynamic field
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:57:12 CEST)
Diagnostics and decomposition of atmospheric disturbances in a planar flow are considered and applied to numerical modeling results with the direct possibility to use in atmosphere monitoring especially in such strong events which follow magnetic storms. The study examines a situation in which the stationary equilibrium temperature of a gas may depend on a vertical coordinate, that seriously complicates the problem solution. The relations connecting perturbations for acoustic and entropy modes are analytically established and led to the solvable diagnostic equations. These perturbation structures, found as the equation solutions specify acoustic and entropy modes in an arbitrary stratified gas under the condition of stability. These time-independent diagnostic relations link gas perturbation variables of the acoustic and the entropy modes. Hence, they provide the ability to decompose the total vector of perturbations into acoustic and non-acoustic (entropy) parts uniquely at any instant within the all accessible heights range. As a prospective model, we consider the diagnostics at the height interval [120;180] km, where the equilibrium temperature of a gas depends linearly on the vertical coordinate. For such a heights range it is possible to proceed with analytical expressions for pressure and entropy perturbations of gas variables. Individual profiles of acoustic and entropy parts for some data, obtained by numerical experiment, are illustrated by the plots for the pure numerical data against ones obtained by the model. The total energy of a flow is determined for both approaches and its height profiles are compared.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0300.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: seismic analysis; attributes; deepwater channels; paleochannels; Miocene
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:50:48 CEST)
A long-standing problem in the understanding of deep-water turbidite reservoirs relates to how the three-dimensional evolution of deep-water channel systems evolve in response to channel filling on spatio-temporal scales, and how depositional environments affect channel architecture. The 3-D structure and temporal evolution of late Miocene deep-water channel complexes in the southern Taranaki Basin, New Zealand is investigated, and the geometry, distribution and stacking patterns of the channel complexes are analyzed. Two recently acquired 3-D seismic datasets, the Pipeline-3D (proximal) and Hector-3D (distal) are analyzed. These surveys provide detailed imaging of late Miocene deep-water channel systems, allowing for the assessment of the intricate geometry and seismic geomorphology of the systems. Seismic attributes resolve the channel bodies and the associated architectural elements. Spectral decomposition, amplitude curvature, and coherence attributes reveal NW-trending straight to low-sinuosity channels and less prominent NE-trending high-sinuosity feeder channels. Stratal slices across the seismic datasets better characterize the architectural elements. The mapped turbidite systems transition from low-sinuosity to meandering high-sinuosity patterns, likely caused by a change in the shelf-slope gradient due to localized structural relief. Stacking facies patterns within the channel systems reveal the temporal variation from a depositional environment characterized by sediment bypass to vertically aggrading channel systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0291.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Soil anti-scourability; Soil erodibility; Artificial simulated rainfallSoil aggregates; Erodibility
Online: 13 May 2021 (13:06:26 CEST)
Purpose - Soil aggregates are of great significance to soil and water conservation and ecological environment construction in arid area of northwest district．Methods - Exploring the effects of different vegetation includes types and land use methods on the stability of soil aggregates in the Loess Plateau, and provide reference for the rational use and management of land, also the improvement of soil structure in the region. Select 9 types of samples of 0-30 cm of typical soil plots as the research objects, compare and analyze the particle size index, stability differences and anti-erodibility of soil aggregates under various vegetation cover. Results - The results show that P value, MWD value, GMD value, D value, and AI value of the 0-10cm surface soil all show the maximum value. As the depth increases, the size distribution of the above index values of each soil sample in the 10-20cm and 20-30cm layers is different; P value in the 0-30cm depth layer is linearly positively correlated with the AI value and MWD value, and linearly negatively correlated with the D value. The correlation coefficient R between each variable is in the range of 0.78-0.97, and the D value reflects the Loess Plateau area stability and erosion resistance of soil aggregates better. GMD and MWD value show an exponential relationship, the correlation coefficient R value of 10-20cm height layer is 0.46; AI and MWD value in 0-10cm, 20-30cm height layer have a power function relationship, 10-20cm height layer has a polynomial function, the correlation coefficient R value is 0.97. The scour coefficient of different soil samples has a high degree of dispersion, the maximum CV value is 1.92, and the minimum value is 0.49. Conclusions - The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis for the ecological and hydrological benefit evaluation of slope erosion control and vegetation restoration on the Loess Plateau.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0363.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Annual Maximum Series; Peak Over Threshold; uncertainty interval; flood parameters; compactness coefficient; flood shape
Online: 13 May 2021 (12:42:08 CEST)
The design flood concept (DF) provides for an essential tool in designing the hydraulic works, in defining the reservoir operation programs and for a reliable flood hazard identification. Under a simplified approach, the maximum discharge and the floods volume are statistically processed to reasonably define the DF. Yet, the integral hydrograph provides additional key temporal and quantitative details of important significance for flood management and particularly for the res-ervoirs operation and associated risks of failures. The procedure presented in this paper (as applied on a set of compatibly shaped hydrographs) involves the following key stages: (i) normalize the floods, (ii) define similar flood shape classes and (iii) evaluate the average dimensionless flood (ADF) for each class. The ADFs are finally transformed into a set of (DF)s. Many statistical distributions approximate acceptably the frequent values of the maximum discharges or the flood volumes, yet displaying a significant spread for medium or rare probabilities of exceedance (PE). This scattering, which can be explained by the epistemic uncertainty, defines an area of uncertainty both for measured and extrapolated values. In considering upper and lower values of the uncertainty in-tervals as limits for maximum discharges and flood volumes, then by combining them compatibly, a set of DFs - as completely defined hydrographs, with different shapes - results for each PE. The herein proposed procedure defines both one peak DF and multi-peaks DF. Subsequently, such DFs do assist water managers in examining and establishing tailored approaches for a variety of input hydrographs. Among the DFs that would correspond to a same PE, the most compact floods arise a special interest, for they are basic in defining the set of safe operation rules for hydraulic structures.
Wed, 12 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0595.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Duhok Governorate; Solar Power; MCDA; AHP; Boolean
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:58:20 CEST)
Fossil fuels are non-renewable sources of energy, used particularly in developing countries. There are insufficient fossil fuels and their availability is gradually declining. This leads to a steady increase in prices. Renewable energy is clean, cost-effective and limitless. The considerable population growth and industrial growth have made the construction of solar power plants essential in developing countries. The study used Boolean logical-AHP techniques to select a suitable site for solar power in Duhok Governorate. The result indicated that 68.5% of the area in the governorate of Duhok is available for solar power station construction, especially the most appropriate zone which has 132.2 sq. km and can provide more than 8000 megawatts of solar energy. Most of the appropriate areas are in the south and southwest regions of the governorate, located mostly in the districts of Bardarash, Shekhan and Semel, situated between the major cities of Mosul, Erbil and Duhok. These locations can supply a significant amount of clean, renewable energy for these areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0256.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: reversible electrodialysis; water scarcity; process efficiency; temperature effect; voltage
Online: 12 May 2021 (07:25:01 CEST)
Currently, a large part of the wells for agricultural use located in the state of Sonora are overexploited, which generates a high degree of saline intrusion and abandonment by nearby communities. In this paper the temperature effect on the final concentration of permeate water was evaluated through voltage and intel concentration variations in a batch electrodialysis reversal process (EDR), in order to identify optimal operating conditions with emphasis on the reduction of energy consumption and cost of desalinated water. Thirty-six samples were prepared: eighteen 2,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) samples and eighteen 5,000 mg/L TDS samples; brackish well water of 639 mg/L TDS and synthetic salt were mixed to obtain those concentrations. 3 different temperatures (25, 30, 35 °C) and 2 different voltages (10 and 20 V) were tested for each sample. The best salt removal occurred in the 20 V arrays, with 18.34% higher removal for 2,000 mg/L TDS experiments and 25.05% for 5,000 mg/L experiments (average between the 25 to 35 °C tests). Temperature positively affected EDR, especially in the experiments at 10 V voltage, where increasing 10 °C increased its efficiency by 10.83% and 24.69% for 2,000 and 5,000 mg/L TDS, respectively. Energy consumption was lower with increasing temperature (35 °C), as it decreased by 1.405% and 1.613% for 2,000 and 5,000 mg/L TDS concentrations, respectively (average between 10 and 20 V tests), decreasing the cost per m3 of water.
Tue, 11 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0241.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: forest carbon offset scheme, South Korea, economic assessment, forest management, climate change
Online: 11 May 2021 (11:09:29 CEST)
Under the “Korean emission trading system in the forestry sector (KETSF)” initiative, the South Korean government has developed several greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction programs that include forestry activities as the cornerstones of the initiative. Forest management is deemed to be a major strategy to implement KETSF; this has been confirmed by most participants in the program, who have shown their preference for forest management projects as the most effective and encouraging strategy to participate in the KETSF program. For a successful implementation of KETSF projects is essential to explore methods that optimize the positive impacts of such strategies, thereby maximizing the economic returns and carbon stocks that result from the implementation of forest management activities. Thus, this study investigated several value-added KETSF projects in South Korea, which included simulated scenarios under two main forest management strategies: one based on an extension of the rotation age, and a second one based on reforestation with new species. Five forest management scenarios were examined and evaluated in their ability to maximize carbon stocks and economic returns. Based on the results, Scenarios 2 and 4 were identified as the best KETSF projects in terms of carbon stock increments. Additionally, the results indicated that projects including reforestation with new species added more economic value than projects that considered an extension of the rotation age. The study also revealed that KETSF projects generated revenue in both scenarios, by either extending the rotation age or by implementing reforestation with new species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0225.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Ethiopia; Geographic Information Systems; Land Use Land Cover; Remote Sensing
Online: 11 May 2021 (09:27:29 CEST)
Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes analysis is one of the most useful methodologies to understand how the land was used in the past years, what types of detections are to be expected in the future, as well as the driving forces and processes behind these changes. In Ethiopia, the rapidly changing of LULC is mainly due to population pressure, resettlement programs, climate change, and other human and nature-induced driving forces. Anthropogenic activities are the most significant factors adversely changing the natural status of the landscape and resources, which exerts unfavourable and adverse impacts on the environment and livelihood. The main goal of the present work is to review previous studies, discussing the spatio-temporal LULC changes in Ethiopian basins, to find out common points and gaps that exist in the current literature, to be eventually addressed in the future. Seventeen articles, published from 2011 to 2020, were selected and reviewed, focusing on LULC classification using ArcGIS and ERDAS imagine software by unsupervised and maximum likelihood supervised classification methods. Key informant interview (KII), focal group discussions (FGDs) and collection of ground truth data using ground positioning systems (GPS) for data validation were the major approaches discussed in most of the studies. All the analysed research showed that, during the last decades, Ethiopian lands changed to agricultural land use, waterbody, commercial farmland and built-up/settlement. Some parts of forest land, grazing land, swamp/wetland, shrubland, rangeland and bare/ rock out cropland cover class were changed to other LULC class types, mainly as a consequence of increasing anthropogenic pressure. In summary, these articles confirmed that LULC changes are a direct result of both natural and human influences. However, most of the study provided details of LULC for the past decades within a specific spatial location, while they did not address the challenge of forecasting future LULC changes at the basin scale.
Mon, 10 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0204.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Carbon emissions; infant mortality rate; per capita income; nonrenewable energy; Asia and the Pacific region
Online: 10 May 2021 (14:54:26 CEST)
This study aligns with the 2030 United Nations Sustainable Development Goals- 3 which aim to “ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”. It contributes to the nascent literature stream on energy-health dynamics by introducing a holistic theoretical model to empirically examine the mediation effect of carbon emissions on the relationship between nonrenewable energy and infant mortality rates. Using an unbalanced panel data on 42 Asia and the Pacific countries from 2005 to 2015 and deploying the structural equation modeling approach, the empirical results are surmised as follows: (i) in regard to the full sample of countries, nonrenewable energy indirectly increases infant mortality rates through increasing carbon emissions. In other words, carbon emissions play a partial mediation role between nonrenewable energy and infant mortality rates; and (ii) for the different income groups, carbon emissions show varying mediation effects. For example, the mediation effects of carbon emissions in lower-middle and upper-middle income countries are found to be similar to those of the full sample of countries. Therefore, based on these findings, we conclude that nonrenewable energy is an essential determinant of infant mortality rates. Policy recommendations are put forward.
Fri, 7 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0151.v1
Online: 7 May 2021 (16:19:15 CEST)
Despite the use of commercial forest carbon protocols (CFCPs) for more than two decades, claiming ~566 MMtCO2e and a market value of ~USD $15.7 billion, comparative analysis of CFCP methodology and offset results is limited. In this study, five widely used biometric-based CFCPs were characterized, and common characteristics and differences were identified. CFCP claims of net forest carbon sequestration are compared with results of directly measured CO2 by eddy covariance, a meteorological method integrating gross vertical fluxes of forest and soil carbon, and the only alternative non-biometric source of net forest carbon sequestration data available. We show here that CFCPs share a structural feature delimiting forest carbon values by zero-threshold carbon accounting (gC m-2 ≤ 0), a pattern opposite to natural emissions of forest CO2 exchange based on direct measurement and a fundamental biological constraint on net forest carbon storage (i.e., soil efflux, ecosystem respiration). Exclusion of forest CO2 sources to the atmosphere precludes net carbon accounting, resulting in unavoidable over-crediting of CFCP offsets. CFCP carbon results are significantly different from global forest CO2 net ecosystem exchange population results (FluxNet2015 gC m-2) at the 95% to 99.99% confidence levels, inferring an annual median error of ~247% (gC m-2), also consistent with over-crediting. Direct CO2 measurement provides an alternative method for commercial forest carbon products, has the potential to harmonize global markets, and catalyze the role of forests in managing climate change through nature-based solutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0139.v1
Online: 7 May 2021 (10:40:02 CEST)
The impact of climate extremes on the society has been of great concern to environmental scientist and policy makers. The destructive consequence attributed to natural hazards associated with climates extremes has been estimated to billions of dollars across the globe. To carry out a robust and effective researches that help to minimize or prevent the loss, detailed datasets of the past, present and future are needed. This will help to give an accurate prediction and early warning which is necessary for the policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0138.v1
Online: 7 May 2021 (10:36:00 CEST)
Cyprus plans to drastically increase the share of renewable energy sources from 13.9% in 2020 to 22.9% in 2030. Solar energy can play a key role in the effort to fulfil this goal. The potential for production of solar energy over the island is much higher than most of European territory because of the low latitude of the island and the nearly cloudless summers. In this study, high quality and fine resolution satellite retrievals of aerosols and dust, from the newly developed MIDAS climatology, as well as information for clouds from CMSAF are used in order to quantify the effects of aerosols, dust, and clouds on the levels of surface solar radiation (SSR) and the corresponding financial loss for different types of installations for production of solar energy. An SSR climatology has been also developed based on the above information. Ground-based measurements were also incorporated to study the contribution of different species to the aerosol mixture and the effects of day-to-day variability of aerosols on SSR. Aerosols attenuate 5 – 10% of annual GHI and 15 – 35% of annual DNI, while clouds attenuate ~25 – 30% and 35 – 50% respectively. Dust is responsible for 30 – 50% of the overall attenuation by aerosols.
Thu, 6 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0118.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Applied Geophysics; Digital Signal Processing; Enhancement of GPR Datasets; Clutter Noise Removal; Spectral Filtering
Online: 6 May 2021 (17:12:05 CEST)
Usually, in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) datasets the user defines the limits between the useful signal and the noise through standard filtering to isolate the effective signal as much as possible. However, there are true reflections that mask the coherent reflectors that can be considered noise. In archaeological sites these clutter reflections are caused by scattering with origin in subsurface elements (e.g., isolated masonry, ceramic objects and archaeological collapses). Its elimination is difficult because the wavelet parameters similar to coherent reflections and there is a risk of creating artifacts. In this study a procedure to filtering the clutter reflection noise (CRN) from GPR datasets is presented. The CRN filter is a singular value decomposition-based method (SVD), applied in the 2D spectral domain. This CRN filtering was tested in a dataset obtained from a controlled laboratory environment, to establish a mathematical control of this algorithm. Also, it has been applied in a 3D-GPR dataset acquired in the Roman villa of Horta da Torre (Fronteira, Portugal), which is an uncontrolled environment. The results show an increase in the quality of archaeological-GPR planimetry that were verified via archaeological excavation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0105.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: data scarcity; water quality; missing data; univariate imputation; multivariate imputation; machine learning; hydroinformatics.
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:18:23 CEST)
The monitoring of surface-water quality followed by water-quality modeling and analysis is essential for generating effective strategies in water-resource management. However, worldwide, particularly in developing countries, water-quality studies are limited due to the lack of a complete and reliable dataset of surface-water-quality variables. In this context, several statistical and machine-learning models were assessed for imputing water-quality data at six monitoring stations located in the Santa Lucía Chico river (Uruguay), a mixed lotic and lentic river system. The challenge of this study is represented by the high percentage of missing data (between 50% and 70%) and the high temporal and spatial variability that characterizes the water-quality variables. The competing algorithms implemented belonged to both univariate and multivariate imputation methods (inverse distance weighting (IDW), Random Forest Regressor (RFR), Ridge (R), Bayesian Ridge (BR), AdaBoost (AB), Hubber Regressor (HR), Support Vector Regressor (SVR), and K-nearest neighbors Regressor (KNNR)). According to the results, more than 76% of the imputation outcomes are considered satisfactory (NSE > 0.45). The imputation performance shows better results at the monitoring stations located inside the reservoir than the ones positioned along the mainstream. IDW was the most chosen model for data imputation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0100.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: submerged speleothem; phreatic speleothem; sea level change; sea caves; vertical tectonic movements; Ustica; Favignana
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:11:18 CEST)
This study presents a world review as well as new additional data in form of submerged speleothems that are used for paleo sea level reconstructions. Speleothems significantly contributed to the understanding of the global and regional sea level variations during the Middle and Late Quaternary. The studied speleothems cover the last 1.4 Myr and are focused mainly on Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1, 2, 3, 5.1, 5.3, 5.5, 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.5. Results reveal that submerged speleothems represent extraordinary archives providing detailed information on former sea level changes. We present also new results from stalactites collected in central Mediterranean sea, at Favignana and Ustica islands (Sicily, Italy), both char