REVIEW Download: 6| View: 37| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0256.v1
Online: 22 January 2020 (09:24:53 CET)
Pompe disease is a glycogen storage disease caused by a deficiency in acid α-glucosidase (GAA) – a hydrolase necessary for the degradation of lysosomal glycogen. This deficiency in GAA results in muscle and neuronal glycogen accumulation, which causes respiratory insufficiency. Pompe disease rodent models provide a means of assessing respiratory pathology and are important for pre-clinical studies of novel therapies that aim to treat respiratory dysfunction and improve quality of life. This review aims to compile and summarize existing manuscripts which characterize the respiratory phenotype of Pompe rodent models. Manuscripts included in this review were selected utilizing specific search terms and exclusion criteria. Analysis of these findings demonstrate that Pompe disease rodent models have respiratory physiological defects as well as pathologies in the diaphragm, tongue, phrenic and hypoglossal motor nucleus, phrenic and hypoglossal nerves, neuromuscular junctions, and airway smooth muscle and higher order respiratory control centers. Overall, the culmination of these pathologies contributes to severe respiratory dysfunction, underscoring the importance of characterizing the respiratory phenotype while developing effective therapies for patients.
ARTICLE Download: 17| View: 68| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0250.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: fen; paludiculture; rewetting; drainage; matter fluxes; interdisciplinary
Online: 22 January 2020 (02:48:40 CET)
Of all terrestrial ecosystems, peatlands store carbon most effectively. However, many peatlands have been drained for peat extraction or agricultural use. This converts peatlands from sinks to sources of carbon, causing approx. 5% of the anthropogenic greenhouse effect and additional negative effects on other ecosystem services. Rewetting peatlands can mitigate the climate crisis and may be combined with management in the form of paludiculture. Rewetted peatlands, however, do not equal their pristine ancestors and their ecological functioning is not understood. This holds especially for fens. Their functioning results from complex interactions and can only be understood following an integrative approach of many relevant fields of science, which we develop in the interdisciplinary project WETSCAPES. Here, we introduce our approach in which we are addressing interactions among water transport and chemistry, primary production, peat formation, matter transformation and transport, microorganisms and greenhouse gas exchange using state of the art methods in the relevant research fields. We record data on six study sites spreading across three important fen types (Alder forest, percolation fen, and coastal fen) each in drained and rewetted state. Using exemplary results, we show the importance of developing an integrative understanding of managed fen peatlands and their ecosystem functioning.
Tue, 21 January 2020
REVIEW Download: 12| View: 26| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0243.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: DOF proteins; DELLA proteins; seed germination; seedling development; seed maturation
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:16:52 CET)
The DOF (DNA binding with one finger) family of plant-specific transcription factors (TF) was first identified in maize in 1995. Since then, DOF proteins have been shown to be present in the whole plant kingdom including the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The DOF TF family is characterised by a highly conserved DNA binding domain (DOF domain), consisting of a CX2C-X21-CX2C motif which is able to form a zinc finger structure. Early in the study of DOF proteins it became clear their relevance for seed biology. Indeed, the Prolamine Binding Factor (PBF), one of the first DOF proteins characterised, controls the endosperm-specific expression of the zein genes in maize. Subsequently, several DOF proteins from both monocots and dicots have been shown to be primarily involved in seed development, dormancy and germination, as well as in seedling development and other light-mediated processes. In the last two decades the molecular network underlying these processes have been outlined, and the main molecular players and their interactions have been identified. In this review, we will focus on the DOF TFs involved in these molecular networs, and on their interaction with other proteins.
REVIEW Download: 15| View: 42| Comments: 1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: endosome; exosome; extracellular vesicles; fungal RNA biology; membrane trafficking; RNA transport; RNA recognition motif
Online: 21 January 2020 (03:26:40 CET)
Membrane-coupled RNA transport is an emerging theme in fungal biology. This review focuses on the RNA cargo and mechanistic details of transport via two inter-related sets of organelles: endosomes and extracellular vesicles for intra- and intercellular RNA transfer. Simultaneous transport and translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) on the surface of shuttling endosomes is a conserved process pertinent to highly polarised eukaryotic cells, such as hyphae or neurons. Here we detail the endosomal mRNA transport machinery components and mRNA targets of the core RNA-binding protein Rrm4. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are newly garnering interest as mediators of intercellular communication, especially between pathogenic fungi and their hosts. Landmark studies in plant-fungus interactions indicate EVs as a means of delivering various cargos, most notably small RNAs (sRNAs), for cross-kingdom RNA interference. Recent advances and implications of the nascent field of fungal EVs are discussed and potential links between endosomal and EV-mediated RNA transport are proposed.