ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0393.v1
Online: 23 December 2021 (12:25:14 CET)
The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is recognized as one of the most important legume crops globally for its use in human food; it is widely distributed and cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cryopreservation of five peanut varieties conserved in the INIAP Germplasm Bank, testing cryopreservation methods, evaluating the germination percentage of whole seeds and embryonic shoots. Subsequently, two quantitative variables, shoot length and root, were evaluated. The average germination percentage of varieties and treatments was higher when embryonic axes were isolated with 99.31% than 86.06% seeds. The best germination percentage of the five varieties for seeds and embryonic shoots was obtained by the Peruvian variety with 88.13% and 92.50%. The best treatments by variety for the germination of whole seeds and embryonic axes were obtained by the treatment (desiccation and NL) for whole seeds (GS2) with 95.42% and embryonic axes with 92.83%. Ageing and cryopreservation treatments positively affected germination and seedling vigor in whole seeds and embryonic axes. The two quantitative variables, shoot and root length showed variability between the five varieties; significant differences were observed between the four treatments evaluated for whole seeds and embryonic axes. The three treatments for whole seeds (GS1, GS2 GS3) and the non-cryopreserved control treatment (GSC), as well as the treatments for embryonic axes (GEA1, GEA2 GEA3) and the non-cryopreserved control treatment (GEAC), obtained good survival. They germinate whole seeds and embryonic axes with sprout development (aerial part) and root formation. With the most effective treatments for whole seeds (GS2) and embryonic axes (GEA2), the cryopreservation of the national peanut collection of the INIAP Germplasm Bank could be started.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0294.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: bud burst; Classification type; shoot bud; non-shoot bud; ‘Jonagold’; ‘Miyabi Fuji’; ‘Orin’.
Online: 16 September 2021 (16:33:12 CEST)
Being able to ascertain the physiological condition of the buds on a young apple tree before bud burst could help farmers manage their orchards more efficiently, especially if they could do so without destroying the buds in the process. The experiments carried out in this study were conducted with the aim of distinguishing shoot from non-shoot buds before bud burst using a visible/near-infrared spectrometer, a device that does not destroy the buds being tested. Tests on spring-planted (April 30, 2021) trees were conducted to check shoot and non-shoot bud physiology and the winter dormancy of young ‘Jonagold’, ‘Miyabi Fuji’ and ‘Orin’ apple trees. The light absorbance of the shoot buds before bud burst was much lower than the light absorbance of the non-shoot buds as checked on the visible/near-infrared spectrometer. The highest first factor effect was determined by a PCA test conducted on shoot and non-shoot ‘Jonagold’ buds (99.9%) at a range of 640-652 nm, ‘Miyabi Fuji’ buds (99.7%) at 654-680 nm and ‘Orin’ buds (99.6%) at 704-766 nm seven days before bud burst. We also found that the highest level of accuracy, using the Classifier analysis, between shoot and non-shoot ‘Jonagold’ buds (76.6%) was one day before bud burst, for ‘Miyabi Fuji’ buds (82.1%) it was three days before and for ‘Orin’ buds (76.3%) it was two days before. These findings suggest that growers can more effectively manage the development of the young trees in their orchards with a visible/near-infrared spectrometer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0108.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: aeroponics; soilless culture; root growth; root/shoot ratio
Online: 6 September 2018 (04:20:00 CEST)
Aeroponics is a relatively new soilless culture technology, which may produce food in space limited cities or non-arable land with high water use efficiency. The shoot and root growth, root characteristics, mineral contents of two lettuce cultivars were measured in aeroponics, as compared with hydroponics and substrate culture. The results showed that aeroponics remarkably improved the root growth with a significant greater root biomass, root/shoot ratio, and several times higher total root length, root area and root volume. However, the greater root growth did not lead to a better shoot growth compared with hydroponics, due to the limited availability of nutrients and water. It can be concluded that aeroponics systems may be better for high value true root crops production. Further research is necessary to figure out the suitable pressure, droplet size, and misting interval in order to improve the continuously availability of nutrients and water in aeroponics, if it is used to grow crops like lettuce for harvesting above-ground parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0355.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: dark treatment; hybrid poplar; plant hormone; rooting; shoot culture
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:46:18 CET)
Phenotypic plasticity in response to adverse conditions determines plant productivity and survival. The aim of this study was to test if two highly productive Populus genotypes, characterized by different in vitro etiolation patterns, differ also in their responses to hormones gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and to a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiments on shoot cultures of ‘Hybrida 275’ (abbr. H275; Populus maximowiczii × P. trichocarpa) and IBL 91/78 (Populus tremula × P. alba) were conducted either by modulating the physical in vitro environment or by adding specific chemicals to the nutrient medium. Our results show that there are significant differences between the studied genotypes in environmental and hormonal regulation of growth responses. The genotype H275, which responded to darkness with PBZ-inhibitable shoot elongation, was unable to recover its growth after treatment with ABA. In contrast, the genotype IBL 91/78, whose shoot elongation was not affected either by darkness or PBZ treatment, recovered so well after the ABA treatment that, when rooted subsequently, it developed longer shoots and roots than without ABA treatment. Our results indicate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling provide an important pathway to control growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or impending adverse conditions. These observations can help breeders define robust criteria for identifying genotypes with high resistance and productivity and highlight where genotypes exhibit susceptibility to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0129.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant behavior; root-to-shoot-signaling; plants movement; kinematics; climbing plants; circumnutation
Online: 8 November 2021 (11:53:30 CET)
Plants characterized by a soft or weak steam, such as climbing plants, need to find a potential support (e.g., wooden trunk) to reach greater light exposure. Since Darwin’s research on climbing plants, several studies on their searching and attachment behaviors have demonstrated their unique ability to process different support features to modulate their movements accordingly. Nevertheless, the strategies underlying this ability are yet to be uncovered. The present research tries to fill this gap by investigating how the interaction between above- (i.e., stem, tendril, …) and belowground (i.e., the root system) plant organs influence the kinematics of the approach-to-grasp movement. With three-dimensional (3D) kinematical analysis, we characterized the movement of pea plants (Pisum sativum L.) towards a support with different thicknesses above and belowground (i.e., thin below, thick aboveground, or the opposite). As a control condition, the plants were presented to supports with the same thickness below- and aboveground (i.e., either entirely thin or thick). The results suggest an integration between the information from below- and aboveground for driving the reach-to-grasp behavior of the aerial plant organs. Information about the support conveyed by the root system seems particularly important to fulfil the end-goal of the movement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0019.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: biochar; phytoextraction; corn; uptake; mine soils; heavy metals; root biomass; shoot biomass
Online: 5 May 2019 (12:11:59 CEST)
Mining activities could produce a large volume of spoils, waste rocks, and tailings, which are usually deposited at the surface and become sources of metal pollution. Phytostabilization of the mine spoils could limit the spread of these heavy metals. Phytostabilization can be enhanced by using soil amendments like manure-based biochar capable of immobilizing metal(loid)s when combined with plant species that are tolerant of high levels of contaminants while simultaneously improving properties of mine soils. However, the use of manure-based biochar and other organic amendments for mine spoil remediation are still unclear. In this greenhouse study, we evaluated the interactive effect of biochar application and compost on shoots biomass yield (SBY), roots biomass yield (RBY), uptake, and bioconcentration factor (BCF) of Zn and Cd in corn (Zea mays L.) grown in mine soil. Biochar sources (BS) consisted of beef cattle manure (BCM); poultry litter (PL); and lodge pole pine (LPP) were applied at 0, 2.5, and 5.0% (w/w) in combination with different rates (0, 2.5, and 5.0%, w/w) of cattle manure compost (CMC), respectively. Shoots and roots uptake of Cd and Zn were significantly affected by BS, CMC, and the interaction of BS and CMC. Corn plants that received 2.5% PL and 2.5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn shoot uptake, respectively. Corn plants with 5% BCM had the greatest Cd and Zn root uptake. When averaged across BS, the greatest BCF for Cd in the shoot of 92.3 was from the application BCM and the least BCF was from the application of PL (72.8). Our results suggest that incorporation of biochar enhanced phytostabilization of Cd and Zn with concentrations of water-soluble Cd and Zn lowest in soils amended with both manure-based biochars while improving biomass productivity of corn. Overall, phytostabilization technique and biochar application have the potential to be combined in the remediation of heavy metals polluted soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0172.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8; Orobanche minor; Phelipanche aegyptiaca; shoot branching; Solanum lycopersicum; strigolactones
Online: 8 August 2018 (15:24:04 CEST)
Strigolactones (SLs), a group of plant hormones, induce germination of root-parasitic plants and inhibit shoot branching in many plants. Shoot branching is an important trait that affects the number and quality of flowers and fruits. Root-parasitic plants such as Phelipanche spp. infect tomato roots and cause economic damage in Europe and North Africa. Thus, resistant tomato cultivars are needed. In this study, we found carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8-defective mutants of Micro-Tom tomato (slccd8) by the “targeting induced local lesions in genomes” (TILLING) method. The mutants showed excess branching, which was suppressed by exogenously applied SL. Grafting shoot scions of the slccd8 mutants onto wild-type (WT) rootstocks restored normal branching in the scions. The levels of endogenous orobanchol and solanacol in WT were enough detectable, whereas that in the slccd8 mutants were below the detection limit of quantification analysis. Accordingly, root exudates of the slccd8 mutants hardly stimulated seed germination of root parasitic plants. In addition, SL deficiency did not critically affect the fruit traits of Micro-Tom. Using a rhizotron system, we also found that Phelipanche aegyptiaca infection was lower in the slccd8 mutants than in wild-type Micro-Tom because of the low germination. We propose that the slccd8 mutants might be useful as new tomato lines resistant to P. aegyptiaca.