ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parenting; gender; children’s behavioral changes; pandemic
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:40:29 CEST)
In a previous Argentine study, we found that, in the critical con-text of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic, there were changes in maternal practices that influenced the relationship with their children. We also found that the impact of mandatory isolation was moderated positively by protective factors such as positive parenting and maternal school support, or negatively by risk factors such as maternal stress. Although this study only analyzed maternal behavior, we were interested in studying the behavior of both parents, comparing the parenting (positive parenting, parental stress, and school support) of the father and mother and the perceived behavioral changes in their children. The sample consisted of 120 Argentinean parents (70 mothers and 50 fathers) aged be-tween 27 and 56 years (M = 38.84; SD = 5.03). Questionnaires were administered on sociodemo-graphic and behavioral data of the children, as well as a brief scale to assess parenting. Mann Whitney U and MANOVA were used to analyze the influence of gender on perceived changes in children's behavior and perceived parenting, respectively. Mothers perceived more significant changes than fathers in their children's behavior. In addition, women reported more parental stress, greater child school sup-port, and greater perceived positive parenting, compared to men. These findings support the hypothesis that parenting developed differently in fathers and mothers which is likely influenced by culture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0311.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Parenting; brain; development; fmri; child development
Online: 14 October 2020 (15:22:41 CEST)
Parenting has been robustly associated with offspring psychosocial development, and these effects are likely reflected in brain development. However, the claim that parenting influences offspring brain development in humans, as measured by structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), is subject to numerous methodological limitations. To interpret the state of the parenting and brain development literature, we review these limitations. Four limitations are common. First, most literature has been cross-sectional. Where longitudinal, studies rarely included multiple assessments of brain structure or function, precluding measurement of actual brain development. Second, parenting has largely been measured via selfor parent-report, as opposed to observational assessment. Third, there has been a focus on extreme forms of developmental adversity which do not necessarily lie on a continuum with normative parenting. Fourth, although not a limitation per se, studies have generally focused on negative as opposed to positive parenting behaviours. While not all studies are subject to all these limitations, the study of parenting in relation to offspring brain development is in its infancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: attention deficits; ADHD; multi-level interventions; RCT; psychoeducation; parent training; parenting stress; parental self-efficacy; parenting styles
Online: 6 July 2023 (09:12:38 CEST)
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) results in various functioning impairments in children’s lives and families. Parents of children with ADHD report high levels of parenting stress, low levels of parental self-efficacy and use of more authoritarian and/or permissive parenting practices than parents of typically developing children. Intervention programs need to address both children’s and parents’ needs and multimodal intervention programs could cover this demand. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of “Child ViReal Support Program” - a multi-level evidence-based comprehensive program - on parenting stress, parental self-efficacy, parenting practices, and the core symptoms of children’s ADHD. Families with a child diagnosed with ADHD (n = 16) were randomly allocated to two groups (PC and CP; P = parent training, C = child training) and a cross-over design was utilized. Participating parents completed, in four different times during the study, the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form, the Parenting Sense of Competence Scale, the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire-Short Version and the parent form of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Parents from both groups, after their participation in the parent training, demonstrated reduced parenting stress, enhanced parental self-efficacy and increased the employ of democratic parenting practices. More than that, they reported decreased levels of inattention and impulsivity/hyperactivity for their children. Evidence-based multi-level intervention programs could produce positive effects in parents and children by incorporating effective methods and tools in accordance with the needs and the demands of the family context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: digitalisation; digital learning; mental health; parenting; China
Online: 3 March 2022 (07:50:28 CET)
While a raft of existing Chinese literature examines the associations between the outbreak of the pandemic and students’ mental health, rarely do Chinese studies assess the nuanced relationships between digital learning, parenting, and students’ mental health since the coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Such a rarely discussed topic has substantial scholarly value as mismanagement of digital learning and parenting, such as the exposure to cyberbullying and negative parenting during the public health crisis, could add substantial, unforeseeable psychological burdens for Chinese students. In this article, the author applied a systematic review to find all relevant Chinese literature that contains the words “digital learning”, “children/adolescents”, “mental health”, and “parenting” published since January 2020. As such a complex topic has rarely been addressed in Chinese contexts, the author was only able to find four related scholarly articles. The author summarises the arguments and empirical findings to explore the nuanced relationships between a) digitalisation, isolation, parenting, and children’s mental health, b) parenting, teacher-student relationships, and students’ mental health, and c) maternal and paternal parenting styles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0732.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Grit; Perceived Parenting Style of Mother; rural adolescents
Online: 31 May 2021 (10:31:48 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between grit and parenting style of mother among Indian rural adolescents. Parental Authority Questionnaire  and Short Grit Scale  was used to meet objectives of the paper. A sample of 60 adolescents was chosen from private institution located at Bathinda (Punjab) by using convenience sampling technique. Results of correlation analysis revealed that significant (negative) relationship exists between mother’s authoritarian parenting style (only) and grit. This is true for both genders and for adolescents who comes from joint families. Educational implication of the study signifies that the suitable informative and counseling sessions should be organised for the parents to make them conscious of the appropriate parenting style for the development of gritty adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0104.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: children; leukaemia; in treatment; parenting; adaptation; moderation effect
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:55:13 CEST)
Parents’ attitudes and practices may support the children’s reactions to treatments for leukemia and their general adjustment. This study has two aims: to explore parenting depending on child's age and to develop and test a model on how family processes influence the psycho-social development of children with leukemia. Patients were 118 leukemic children and their parents recruited at the Haematology-Oncologic Clinic of the Department of Pediatrics, University of Padua. All parents were Caucasian with a mean age of 37.39 years (SD = 6.03). Children’s mean age was 5.89 years (SD = 4.21). After the signature of the informed consent, the parents were interviewed using the EFI-C from which we derived Parenting dimension and 3 parental perceptions on child’s factors. One year later, the clinical psychologist interviewed again parents using the VABS scales. The analyses revealed the presence of a significant difference in parenting by child’s age: Infants required a higher and more intensive parenting. Child’s coping to medical procedures at the second week after the diagnosis, controlled for parenting effect, impacted upon child’s adaptation one-year post diagnosis. Specific intervention programmes are proposed in order to help children more at risk just after the diagnosis for developmental delays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0116.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Security; Attachment; Positive parenting; Resilience; Self-esteem; Self-concept
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:04:23 CEST)
Secure attachment, developed through consistent relationships with attachment figures in childhood, is a crucial factor in fostering healthy interpersonal relationships and a positive self-perception. This research aimed to assess how perceived security, as an indicator of secure attachment, predicts adult self-concept through the mediating effects of resilience and positive self-esteem. A quantitative, cross-sectional, and non-probabilistic study was conducted with 383 participants, of whom 76.2% were females, aged between 17 and 86 years (M = 28.52, SD = 12.23). Correlational analyses revealed significant positive associations between perceived security, self-concept, resilience, and positive self-esteem. Path analysis demonstrated that resilience and positive self-esteem sequentially mediate the relationship between perceived security during childhood and adult self-concept (Total Effect R2 = .34, F(1,381) = 193, p < .001; Indirect effect of sequential mediation b = .02, CI 95% [.01, .04]). Findings suggest that the ability to cope with ad-versity and personal acceptance underlie the impact of perceived security on self-concept. It is recommended to promote not only secure attachment in family interventions but also resilience and self-esteem in programs targeting adolescents, youth, and adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0188.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: smartphone dependency; aggression; ego-resilience; parenting behavior; peer attachment
Online: 15 May 2019 (10:45:15 CEST)
This study was conducted to examine the moderating and mediating effect of ego - resilience, parenting attitude, and peer attachment in the relation between smartphone dependency and aggression. Participants were 1,863 youths using a smartphone among the first middle school students responded in the 7th Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS) conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, a correlation, and a hierarchical regression analysis. First, ego-resilience showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency, aggression and significant moderating effects were revealed. Second, parenting behavior showed a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. Third, peer attachment had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between smartphone dependency and aggression, with no moderating effects seen. The research suggested the mental health and growth of students could be improved by applying various nursing and health care programs to improve ego-resilience, parenting behavior and peer attachment as they grow into adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0850.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Single Parenting; Adolescent Girls; Economic Impact; Academic Performance; Gambella; Ethiopia
Online: 12 July 2023 (12:12:11 CEST)
Single parenting is a social phenomenon that has always been in existence and is as old as mankind, and today the number of single-parent families has been rampantly increasing. As a result, the researcher conducted a study in the Gambella region of Ethiopia to investigate the economic and educational implications of single parenting on female adolescent students. The study employed a qualitative research approach with a case study research design. The researchers used the purposive sampling technique to select the research area and research participants for in-depth interviews and focus group discussions, and eleven interviewees, seventeen participants in focus group discussions within two groups, and seven key informants participated. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, and thematically analyzed. Interviews with research participants revealed that adolescent girl students from single-parent homes experience financial difficulties. The study also explored that students with single parents are more likely to be absent from school, to come late to school, to score low marks, and to drop out of school. Therefore, having an understanding of the benefits of having intact parents for the well-being of adolescents and raising children together should be advocated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0394.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parenting; 5HTTLPR; serotonin transporter; maternal sensitivity; polymorphism; gene X environment
Online: 26 January 2022 (12:19:45 CET)
The current systematic review examines whether there is an association between the genetic 5-HTTPLR pol-ymorphism and parenting and the mechanisms by which this association operates. The literature was searched in various databases such as PubMed, Scopus and ScienceDirect. In line with our inclusion criteria, nine articles were eligible out of 22. Most of the studies, analysed in this review, found an association between 5HTTLPR and parenting. Four studies found a direct association between 5-HTTLPR and parenting with conflicting findings: two studies found that mothers carrying the short variant were more sensitive to their infants, while two studies found that parents carrying the S allele were less sensitive. In addition, several studies found strong interaction between genetic and environmental factors, such as childhood stress and disruptive child behaviour, quality of early care experiences, poor parenting environment, and quality of environment. Only one study found an association between children’s 5HTTLPR and parenting. Parenting can be described as a highly complex construct influenced by multiple factors, including environmental, parenting and child charac-teristics. According to the studies, maternal 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is most likely associated with sensitive parenting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0291.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: value communication; lecturing; parenting; value theory; Professor Obiora Ike; Edo state
Online: 5 May 2023 (03:59:49 CEST)
This study seeks to interrogate the degree to which lecturers and students of higher institutions in Nigeria perceive the role of lecturers doubling as parents under the term lecturenting, i.e., a coinage used to refer to a person who performs the dual roles of lecturing and parenting students of higher institutions. The study is based on Professor Obiora Ike’s ideology of communication of values, normally applicable to traditionally homes only. The research used a quantitative survey of 266 undergraduates and 109 lecturers, totaling 375 respondents from two purposively selected higher institutions in Nigeria, namely: Edo state University Uzairue and Federal Polytechnic Auchi, both in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo state, Nigeria. A questionnaire with a set of nine semi-structured questions was used to obtain data from the students during the school semesters between July 15 and August 31, 2022. The study was based on the value theory. Findings indicate that lecturers frequently engage in lecturenting which helped improve the academic performance of students but shows that students do not want lecturenting on their behavioral change. The study concludes that the more lecturers engage in Lecturenting, the more positive impact it will have on their students. It is recommended that lecturers should engage in the practice of lecturenting as it helps to improve student academic performance and that students should perceive lecturenting as positive as well as be favorably disposed to it and approach their lecturers for counselling frequently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Smartphone Addiction; Middle School Students; Smartphone Usage Types; Depression; Parenting Attitude
Online: 6 September 2020 (16:27:01 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smartphone addiction of middle school students and smartphone usage types, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude. This study was also performed with the aim of verifying the relationships among depression, ADHD, perceived stress, interpersonal problems, and parenting attitude, which are predictors of smartphone addiction. The subjects of this study were 487 local middle school students (234 males and 253 females). The measurement instruments used were the smartphone addiction scale, depression scale (PHQ-9), ADHD scale (K-ARS), perceived stress scale (PSS), interpersonal problem scale (KIIP-SC), and the parenting attitude scale. This study identified the relationships between the variables with correlation analysis and examined the predictors of smartphone addiction with hierarchical multiple regression analysis. According to the study results, the factors that influenced smartphone addiction were gender, stress, and interpersonal problems. In addition, when the confounding variables of smartphone addiction were controlled to examine the effects of smartphone usage types on smartphone addiction, social media use and music/videos were found to have a positively significant effect on smartphone addiction while study had a negatively significant effect. The order of the usage types with the highest influence on smartphone addiction was enjoying music/videos, social media use, and study. This suggests that selective intervention depending on the main smartphone usage type can be effective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1761.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: specific learning disabilities; children; parenting; authoritarian; intervention; quality of life; experimental design
Online: 26 September 2023 (11:55:36 CEST)
Background: The high prevalence of learning disabilities among children confirm that learning disabilities are surprisingly common. In absence of routine screening, many children still go undetected with a huge individual and family burden, while at the same time existing interventions are conflicting. The purpose of the study is to report on the design, implementation and evaluation of an innovative pilot intervention aiming to improve the quality of life of the family of students with specific learning disabilities. Method: For the purposes of this study, we used an experimental research design, using two groups (intervention and control). The intervention included four meetings with parents of children from the intervention group. To assess the quality of life of the students' family and the parenting style, the following measuring tools were used. They conducted at times and locations convenient to each participant. The instruments used to measure outcomes were two standard weighted questionnaires, the parenting style questionnaire and the family quality of life questionnaire. Findings: The results showed that the intervention program had significantly positive effects on both parenting style and children’s quality of life. Specifically, a decrease in parental authoritarianism and an increase in parental support were observed. Also, an increase in child-parent interaction, emotional and general well-being was found. Conclusion: The intervention program did improve the quality of life of the children by increasing all the variables related to the measurement of their quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1971.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: harsh parenting; aggressive behavior; peer victimization; hostile attribution bias; male juvenile delinquent
Online: 28 June 2023 (08:52:18 CEST)
Harsh parenting could be regarded as a harsh form of behavior, feelings and attitude towards children in the process of parenting. According to the theory of intergenerational transmission of violence, harsh parenting is an important factor affecting children's aggressive behavior, but the theory does not clarify the specific action path between the harsh parenting and aggressive behavior. In order to reveal the relationship between harsh parenting and aggressive behavior of juvenile delinquents, 604 male juvenile delinquents (N=604, Mage=16.57 years, SD=0.612 years) were investigated using Harsh Parenting Questionnaire, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, Multidimensional Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Word Sentence Association Paradigm for Hostility in Chinese version. Analysis using structural equation modeling procedures showed that (a) all variables were positively associated with each others; (b) the partial indirect effect of harsh parenting on aggressive behaviors was realized through the mediator of peer victimization and hostile attribution bias independently, (c) as well as the partial indirect effect through the mediator of peer victimization and hostile attribution bias sequentially. The results suggested that harsh parenting can explain the high aggressive behavior of male juvenile delinquents. Moreover, harsh parenting may also lead to the formation of hostile attribution bias by increasing the risk of peer victimization, and ultimately lead to the formation of highly aggressive behaviors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0228.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: attachment; parent-child relationship; parenting; contextual (context-specific); sport; academic; hierarchical model
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:19:06 CET)
Bowlby’s (1969/1982) attachment theory has been employed as a broad and integrative framework to explore human wellness across a range of disciplines. Attachment theory has even been labelled one of the last surviving “grand theories” not to have been completely dismissed, replaced, or extensively reworked (e.g., Carr, 2012; Mercer, 2011). However, despite the ubiquitous nature of some of the theory’s fundamental tenets, there are always possibilities for new conceptual development, extension, and revision. In this paper, we critically explore the idea of “context-specific” attachment within parent-child relationships. We briefly outline critical assumptions and key areas of attachment and articulate potential rationale, conceptualisation, and relevance of contextual attachment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0307.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social cognition; social information processing; mother-child relationships; parenting style; kindergarten; social functioning
Online: 26 November 2019 (04:11:54 CET)
Children's ability to adjust to the social rules and expectations in the educational environment is of major concern to researchers and practitioners alike. Accordingly, the main purpose of the present study was to examine predictors of children's social functioning in kindergarten with a specific focus on (a) maternal factors; and, (b) children's social cognition. Using a multi-method (self-reports and direct assessments), multi-informant (child, mother, teacher) design, we collected data from 306 kindergarten children and their mothers tapping the mother's social cognitions (general and child-related) and parenting style, and children's social cognition (social information processing) and functioning in kindergarten. We found direct associations between the mother and child's social cognitions, between the mother's authoritarian parenting style and her child's less competent social cognition and behavior, and between the child's social cognition and social functioning. Finally, as hypothesized, we found a number of interesting mediated effects. Most notably, we found that the association between the mother's social cognition (her tendency to attribute hostile intent to unknown others) and the child's social cognition (his/her tendency to generate less competent responses) is fully mediated by the mother's higher levels of authoritarian parenting style. The important theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: early childhood development; stimulating parenting practices; effective early childhood reading practices; rural China; mixed methodology
Online: 8 January 2021 (13:26:49 CET)
Studies have shown that nearly half of rural toddlers in China have cognitive delays due to an absence of stimulating parenting practices, such as early childhood reading, during the critical first three years of life. However, few studies have examined the reasons behind these low levels of stimulating parenting, and no studies have sought to identify the factors that limit caregivers from providing effective early childhood reading practices (EECRP). This mixed-methods study investigates the perceptions, prevalence and correlates of EECRP in rural China, as well as associations with child cognitive development. We use quantitative survey results from 1,720 caregiver-child dyads across 100 rural villages/townships in northwestern China and field observation and interview data with 60 caregivers from these same sites. The quantitative results show significantly low rates of EECRP despite positive perceptions of early reading and positive associations between EECRP and cognitive development. Qualitative results suggest that low rates of EECRP in rural China are not due to the inability to access books, financial or time constraints, or the absence of aspirations. Rather, the low rate of book ownership and absence of reading to young children is driven by the insufficient and inaccurate knowledge of EECRP among caregivers, which leads to their delayed, misinformed reading decisions with their young children, ultimately contributing to developmental delays.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0230.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: perceiving campus non-physical bullying; Refusal parenting style; negative affect experiences; negative coping style; mediating effect
Online: 17 January 2022 (14:09:27 CET)
To explore the impact of parenting styles on the perception of campus non-physical bullying, 492 students in upper elementary school grades were surveyed by using the Delaware Bullying Victimization Scale, the Negative Coping Style Scale, the Negative Affect Scale, and the Egna Minnen Beträffende Uppfostran Questionnaire. The questionnaire survey was conducted in the fifth and sixth grades of eight primary schools in Zhejiang province. The results showed that cyberbullying was not significantly related to an anxious parenting style, but negative affect experiences, negative coping styles, negative family parenting styles, and the perception of campus non-physical bullying were all positively correlated with each other (p < 0.05). The refusal parenting style was shown to be an important factor that affected students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying; it was observed to directly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying and indirectly affect students’ perception of campus non-physical bullying by influencing negative affect experiences and negative coping styles. In conclusion, negative affect experiences and negative coping styles had a chain-like mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perception of campus verbal bullying. Moreover, negative affect experiences had a partial mediating effect between the refusal parenting style and students’ perceptions of campus cyberbullying, relationship bullying, and non-physical bullying total scores. Implications and suggestions based on these results are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0465.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: beliefs about the aetiology of sexual orientation; sexual prejudice; same-sex couples; same-sex parenting; gay fathers; lesbian mothers
Online: 12 January 2021 (12:34:39 CET)
Research found that those who believe sexual orientation is inborn have generally positive attitudes towards gay men and lesbians. However, other studies have also found that these beliefs could include negative eugenic ideas. This study aims to investigate the role of people’s beliefs about the aetiology of sexual orientation on attitudes towards adoption for both gay and lesbian couples. We hypothesized that this relationship would be mediated by sexual prejudice. To test the predictions, 256 Italian heterosexual participants were asked to answer to a scale about their beliefs regarding the aetiology of sexual orientation, sexual prejudice, and attitudes towards adoption by same-sex couples. Results confirmed that the relationship between aetiology beliefs and adoption support was fully mediated by sexual prejudice. These investigation results suggest that the belief that sexual orientation is controllable may serve to justify one’s prejudice and, in turn, result in a lower support for same-sex couples’ adoption.