ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0087.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Myelodysplastic syndrome; Positron Emission Tomography; [18F]fluoro-thymidine; small animal imaging
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:14:33 CEST)
Higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (HR-MDS) has a poor prognosis in the absence of efficient therapy. The evaluation of new therapies in animal models of HR-MDS is hampered by the absence of accurate in vivo biomarkers of the disease. In this study we compared [18F]Fluoro-desoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) and [18F]Fluoro-thymidine (FLT)-PET imaging for disease follow-up in a triple transgenic MMTVtTA/TetoBCL-2/MRP8NRASD12 mouse model of HR-MDS. Normal control FVB/N mice (G1,n=9) and HR-MDS mice (G2,n=12) underwent both FDG- and FLT-PET procedures at 2-day intervals, on a dedicated small animal device. Blood cell counting, BCL-2 and Mac-1hi/Gr-1lo expression measurements in blood were performed before each PET procedure. Visually, PET images of G2 mice demonstrated homogeneous FDG uptake in the whole skeleton similar to that observed in G1 mice, and abnormal FLT hot spots in bone marrow not observed in G1 mice. The intensity of FLT hot spots in bone marrow was higher in 3-months old G2 mice than in 2-months old G2 mice, concordant with a higher percentage of cells expressing Mac-1hi/Gr-1lo and lower platelets counts. We conclude that FLT-PET/CT imaging is a more valuable surrogate non-invasive quantitative marker of HR-MDS bone marrow involvement than FDG-PET/CT in our mouse model of HR-MDS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0292.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer biomarker; Proteomic analysis; Myelodysplastic syndromes; Frutalin; MDS-RS; MDS-EB
Online: 24 January 2022 (10:53:36 CET)
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are diseases that occur when blood-producing cells in the bone marrow are damaged; such damage can affect one or more types of blood cells. Common types of MDS are refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts and refractory anemia with excess blasts (MDS-RS and MDS-EB, respectively). This work analyzed the proteomics of the medullary plasma of 10 patients with MDS-RS and MDS-EB compared to healthy control people. Overexpressed proteins that may be potential candidates for biological markers for the evaluation, study, and diagnosis of these diseases have been identified. These samples were subjected to immunodepleting, concentrated, and digested for further analysis by mass spectrometry. The ratios between selected groups and healthy people were calculated. Seven overexpressed proteins in both syndromes were identified as potential biomarker candidates: vitronectin (VTN), (2) fibrinogen (FGA), (3) pregnancy zone protein (PZP), (4) kininogen (KNG1), (5) immunoglobulin lambda chain (IGLL1), (6) complement factor C4b, and (7) hemopexin (HPX). A modified affinity chromatographic column with lectin frutalin (FTL) was used for non-depleted samples. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) was expressed in the samples from both syndromes. Surprisingly, IgM from patients with syndromes was over retained on the frutalin (FTL) column when compared with the control group. We further hypothesized that over retention of this protein by the FTL is due to the presence of α-galactosidic residues in the IgM of MDS-RS and MDS-EB patients. Differential recognition of proteins on non-depleted samples from the use of FTL appears to be a powerful tool for proteomic analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0137.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); oxidative stress; cytokines; inflammation; 5-Azacitidine; somatic alterations
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:36:28 CET)
This study focused on the impact of the treatment with the hypomethylating agent 5-Azacitidine on the redox status and inflammation in 24 MDS patients. Clinical and genetic features of MDS patients were recorded and peripheral blood samples were used to determine the activity of the endogenous antioxidant defense system (superoxide dismutase, SOD, catalase, CAT, glutathion peroxidase, GPx, and reductase, GRd, activities), markers of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation, LPO, and advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP). Moreover, pro-inflammatory cytokines and plasma nitrite plus nitrate levels as markers of inflammation, and CoQ10 plasma levels, were also measured. Globally, MDS patients showed less redox status in terms of a reduction in the GSSG/GSH ratio and in the LPO levels, and increased CAT activity compared with healthy subjects, with not changes in SOD, GPx and GRd activities, and AOPP levels. When analyzed the evolution from early- to advanced stages of the disease, the GPx activity, GSSG/GSH ratio, LPO and AOPP increased, with a reduction in CAT. GPx changes were related with the presence of risk factors such as high-risk IPSS-R or mutational score. Besides, there was an increase in IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α plasma levels, with further increase of IL-2 and IL-10 from early to advanced stage of the disease. However, we did not observe any association between inflammation and oxidative stress. Finally, 5-azacitidine treatment generates oxidative stress in MDS patients, without affecting inflammation levels, suggesting that oxidative status and inflammation are two independent processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0366.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cell-free DNA; liquid biopsy; cancer; next-generation sequencing (NGS); minimal residual disease; measurable residual disease; molecular residual disease (MRD); leukemia; lymphoma; myeloma; myeloproliferative neoplasms; myelodysplastic syndrome
Online: 25 January 2022 (08:13:24 CET)
The study of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and other peripheral blood components (known as “liquid biopsies”) is promising and has been investigated especially in solid tumors. Nevertheless, it is increasingly showing greater utility in the diagnosis, prognosis, and response to treatment of hematological malignancies; in the future, it could prevent invasive techniques, such as bone marrow (BM) biopsy. Most of the studies about this topic have been focused on B cell lymphoid malignancies; some of them have shown that cfDNA can be used as a novel way for diagnosis and minimal residual monitoring in B cell lymphomas, using techniques such as next-generation sequencing (NGS). In myelodysplastic syndromes, multiple myeloma, or chronic lymphocytic leukemia, liquid biopsies may allow for an interesting genomic representation of the tumor clones affecting different lesions (spatial heterogeneity). In acute leukemias, it can be helpful in the monitoring of early treatment response and the prediction of treatment failure. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the evaluation of cfDNA permits the definition of clonal evolution and drug resistance in real-time. However, there are limitations such as the difficulty in obtaining sufficient circulating tumor DNA for achieving a high sensitivity to assess minimal residual disease or the lack of standardization of the method and clinical studies to confirm its prognostic impact. This review focuses on clinical applications of cfDNA on minimal residual disease in hematological malignancies.