ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0684.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: climate analogue; climate change; model ensemble; twin region; analogue region; national forest inventories; species suitability; forest adaptation; forestry practice; Europe
Online: 29 March 2021 (11:28:36 CEST)
Climate analogues provide forestry practice empirical evidence of how forests are managed in “twin” regions, i.e. regions where the current climate is comparable to the expected future climate at a site of interest. But the uncertain future climate creates uncertainty in how to adapt the forests. We therefore investigate how the uncertainty in future climate affects tree species suitability and whether there is a common underlying pattern. Like most studies we employ different ensemble variants of RCP 4.5 and 8.5. But instead of focusing on a single point in future time, we resolve each variant in a climate trajectory from 2000 to 2100. We calculate climatic distances between the climate trajectories of our site of interest and the current climate in Europe, generating maps with twin regions from 2000 to 2100. Forest inventories from the twin regions allow us to trace the changes in the prevalence of 23 major tree species. We find that it is not the direction but rather the velocity of the change that differs between the scenarios. We use this pattern to propose a tree species suitability concept that integrates the uncertainty in future climate. Twin regions provide further information on silvicultural practices, pest management, product chains etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0240.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: sustainable assets; sustainable strategies; income of forestry household; forestry income; non-forestry income
Online: 20 May 2019 (10:25:08 CEST)
This study aims to identify the factors determining the income of forestry household in South Korea. We examine an empirical analysis using 3-year panel data conducted by the Korea Forest Service charged with maintaining South Korea's forest lands. The hypothesized factors determining the income of forestry household are classified into four types of assets and three types of livelihood strategies. We divided the income of forestry household (IFH) into three elements: forestry income (FI), non-forestry income (NFI), and transfer income (TI). We assessed the influences of household assets and livelihood strategies on each income. A random effect model was used as a statistical analysis with valid 979 of forestry household for three years. We found that household head's age, labor hours, savings, business category, cultivated land size, and region are significantly associated with IFH. Also, FI is influenced by labor capacity, cultivated size, business category, forestry business portfolio, and region while NFI is determined by household head's age, household head's gender, forestry business portfolio, and savings. TI is affected by household head's age, household head's education level, forestry business portfolios, savings, and region. The effect sizes and directions vary across different types of income (IFH, FI, NFI, and TI). The findings show that forestry in South Korea is highly dependent on sustainable assets and strategies. It is therefore expected that the effectiveness of forest policies to increase the income of forestry household would be differed by the source of each income. The results of this study draw attention to the need for an income support policy that should consider the characteristics of household assets and livelihood strategies in order to enhance IFH in South Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0223.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Abiotic Stress; Forestry; Tree Physiology; Plant Selection; Urban Forestry
Online: 8 March 2021 (13:42:34 CET)
Responses to water stress were measured for sugar maple (Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum Marshall) sources from Oklahoma (Caddo sugar maple), Missouri, Tennessee, Ontario and a black maple (Acer saccharum subsp. nigrum F. Michx.) source from Iowa. Seedling sources were selected for differences in temperature and precipitation of their geographic origins. Seedlings were preconditioned through moist (watered daily) or dry (watered every 4-7 days) cycles and then exposed to prolonged water stress. Dry preconditioned sugar maple seedlings from Oklahoma, Missouri, and Tennessee, sources from warmer and/or drier climates with greater relative evapotranspiration potentials, declined less rapidly in net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and water use efficiency (WUE) as water stress increased than dry preconditioned seedlings from Ontario and Iowa having origins in cooler, moister climates. Under imposed water stress the Ontario and Iowa sourced seedlings increased their root to shoot ratios and decreased their specific leaf area, mechanisms for drought avoidance. However, no corresponding changes in these values occurred for Oklahoma, Missouri, and Tennessee sources. Results from this study suggest greater tolerance of water stress in the Oklahoma, Missouri and Tennessee ecotypes from the western and southern range of sugar maple resulted primarily with WUE rather than other water stress coping mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0479.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wildfires; carbon cycle; forestry carbon emissions
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:13:04 CET)
Forest plantations can substantially contribute to carbon sequestration and greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation at the country and global scale. Forest fires (specially when combined with droughts) may significantly reduce such carbon sequestration capability. IPCC has global scale estimates for such losses, but they can vary widely depending on crops, climate, topography and management, among others. IPCC defines a factor for biomass loss as a consequence of forest fires, expressed as a fraction of total biomass. This methodology implies using aggregated data and the default emission factor, being only recommended for countries where wildfires are not a key category. In Chile, and over the last decade, there are between 5,000 to 8,000 wildfires annually (average 6,398 for the period 2011-2020), burning an average of 122,328 hectares each year. Countries may progress in the refinement of such factors depending on the availability and reliability of local values. This paper aims at estimating C_f values for the main forest plantation species in Chile: Pinus radiata, Eucalyptus nitens, and Eucalyptus globulus, across different age-classes and forest fire severities. To this aim we assessed the biomass loss after forest fires for a stratified sample of forest plots for the season 2018-2019. We fitted a model to predict the amount of biomass loss during fires, and in this way, predict the emissions associated to wildfires. The model employs very simple predictive variables, age and species, because statistics for burnt areas in plantations are only provided by age-classes and species, without details about productivity or management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0441.v1
Online: 31 March 2020 (04:21:07 CEST)
Hymenaea courbaril is an endangered species, promising to reforestation programs and mainly explored as a wood source. The available information concerning long-term storage methods, seed recalcitrance, parental, and substrate influence is scarce. This study focused on the seed behavior according to population origin and during one-year storage, also testing the efficiency of the low-temperature conservation. Variations between the uncertainty indexes were found to the studied populations after long-term storage. There was no significant loss of the germination potential in consequence of the prolonged storage period. Although, older seeds promoted gradually greater delayed germination. Germination speed, synchrony, and uncertainty indexes were substantially different between the -20° conservation and control. H. courbaril seeds are capable of long-term storage without losing their germination potential, indicating an orthodox behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0140.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: common lands; baldios; wild mushrooms; non-timber forest products; Portugal; community; community forestry; forest governance
Online: 24 May 2017 (17:01:57 CEST)
Forest community connections are crucial to ensure forest stewardship and sustainability. We explored the potential of mushrooming to enable such connections in contexts where these connections have been historically broken, alienating local people from forests. Taking the case of the recent devolution of a community forest (baldios) in central Portugal to the local population, we present a five-year pilot project to rework mycology from a mushroom-centered approach to a mushroom-in-baldios approach. Mushrooms were used as an entry-point to connect the forest ecology with the challenges of governance and community building. The devised activities provided an opportunity for people inside and outside the local community to adventure into the woods and find out more about their socio-ecological history, develop communal and convivial relationships and engage in the responsible gathering of wild mushrooms. However, the hosting of mushroomers to know, value and engage with the community forest recovery has constantly working against the enclosure of mushrooms to provide marketable forms of leisure. The outcome of these activities depends on the relationships established between mushrooms, mycologists, local administrators, commoners and poachers, all operating within a framework that favors the eradication of resources instead of long-term relationships that sustain places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0012.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: urban forestry; work analysis; residual biomass; pruning costs
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:24:12 CET)
The Italian Stone Pine (Pinus pinea L.) is one of the most employed ornamental trees in towns with Mediterranean climates. For example, in the city of Rome, Pinus is the most common genus, with more than 51,000 trees. This study investigates technical and economic features of maintenance operations of Stone Pines and evaluates the productivity and costs of the observed yards. Pruning and felling are the most frequent management operations of trees in towns and this study analyzes the features of these operations carried out in 14 work sites. The operations were carried out either with aerial platforms (19 trees) or ascending the crown by tree-climbing (6 trees). The operations were sampled with time studies (12 trees for pruning and 13 for felling). Work time was measured from the beginning of operations to the transport of the residual biomass to the collection and loading point, using centesimal stopwatches and video recording. The total residual biomass was weighed or assessed. Total observation time amounted to 63.1 hours. The evaluation of the costs of each work site considered the fixed and the variable costs and the costs for the labor force. A Multiple Linear Regression model (statistics: determination coefficient R2: 0.74, adjusted R2: 0.67, p-value < 0.001) which utilizes four regressors easily evaluable before the work, was adopted to predict the gross time of the operations. This paper can contribute to optimize trees maintenance methods in urban sites and to assess the potential residual wood biomass attainable from urban forestry maintenance in the city of Rome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0510.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Brexit; land use change; Wales; agricultural policies; forestry
Online: 19 November 2020 (12:24:39 CET)
Changes in agricultural policy may have rapid impact even on landscapes which have taken millennia to form. Here we explore the potential of UK leaving the EU as a catalyst for profound changes in pastoral landscapes in Wales. Impending change of the trading regime governing agricultural produce, concurrent to public pressure to use agricultural subsidies for environmental goals, may lead to unforeseen consequences for Welsh natural environment. We employ a combination of change demand modelling and ‘story and simulation approach’ to predict the effect of five hypothetical scenarios on land use and land use change in Wales by 2030. We show that the most extreme trade scenario would result in a near-uniform distribution of broadleaf woodland across most of Wales. Abandonment of marginal and low productivity grazing would likely give way to afforestation, initiating a return to forested landscapes not seen in Wales for several thousands of years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0326.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forestry; forests; restorativeness; semantic differential method; waste management
Online: 12 November 2020 (08:20:55 CET)
Rubbish in a forest environment is a great threat to this ecosystem, but this threat may also apply to the lost benefits for visitors to the forest. Previous studies proved that forest areas have a positive effect on obtaining psychological relaxation in the people visiting them. However, it was not known whether this restorative experience could be disturbed in any way by the presence of an open dump in the forest. To check how the presence of a landfill affects the visitors, an experiment was planned in which the respondents observed a forest area with a landfill and a forest landscape without a landfill for 15 minutes (control). The respondents then assessed the landscape using the semantic differential method and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS). An analysis of these observations showed that the presence of a landfill in the forest significantly changed the appreciation of the landscape by the respondents, the values of positive experiences decreased, and the negative experiences increased. Restorativeness was also reduced. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the presence of garbage in the forest may interrupt the restorative experience of its visitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0058.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, General & Theoretical Computer Science Keywords: laser scanning; point cloud; tree modelling; precision forestry
Online: 3 July 2019 (09:38:08 CEST)
Laser scanning is an effective tool for acquiring geometric attributes of trees and vegetation, which lays a solid foundation for 3-dimensional tree modelling. Existing studies on tree modelling from laser scanning data are vast. Nevertheless, some works don’t ensure sufficient modelling accuracy, while some other works are mainly rule-based and therefore highly depend on user inputs. In this paper, we propose a novel method to accurately and automatically reconstruct tree branches from laser scans. We first extract an initial tree skeleton from the input tree point cloud, then simplify the skeleton through iteratively removing redundant components. A global-optimization approach is performed to fit a sequence of cylinders to approximate the geometry of the tree branches. Experiments on various types of trees from different data sources demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of our method. The resulted tree models can be further applied in the precise estimation of tree attributes, urban landscape visualization, etc.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0031.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: forestry; forest management; forest products; land-use; West Africa.
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:43:27 CET)
According to this study, approximately half of Africa's forests are utilized primarily or partially for the production of wood and non-wood commodities. Aims to evaluate Africa's forestry and forest products, namely Wood Forest Products (WFPs) and Non-wood Forest Products (NWFPs) in the sixteen (16) West African countries. While adhering to the following guidelines: wood extraction and preparation, analyzing wood primarily used as an energy source in Africa, identifying non-wood forest products in Africa, the state of export, trade, and customs procedures in West Africa, and examining the role of forests and forest stakeholders in Africa's low-carbon economy transition. An exploratory literature review of selected wood forest products and non-wood forest products (plants and animals) in West Africa identifying the country, the natural land area with the natural habitat issues of the forest, the species most harvested and traded in the West African sub-region. The study reemphasized some government legislation, policies, and market trade failures and limitations while also stating that trees may help in the low-carbon revolution through interventions aimed at maintaining, improving, and restoring natural capital have demonstrated that high environmental requirements of sustainable forest management (SFM) may be met in both natural and planted forests. The study identified a systematic assessment of the most common forest products (wood and non-wood forest products) considering the available data on the national forest reserves of the selected countries in West Africa. The study also revealed the need for biodiversity conservation of the available forest reserves to help mitigate the impact of global warming targeting the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goal 13- Climate Action. Which is focused on integrating climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction, and early warning signs into the national policies, improving forest planning and management education, awareness-raising, and institutional capacity within the sub-region.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0699.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; trail mapping; conservation; forestry; canopy cover
Online: 28 December 2020 (12:32:22 CET)
Trail detection in mixed canopy ecosystems has important implications for forest management, monitoring, and conservation, although active sensor technology for sub-canopy trail detection is still developing. In order to assess the effectiveness of UAV(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)-borne lidar (light detection and ranging) data for small trails (< 2.5m width) in mixed forest canopy cover, we collected lidar data and trail characteristics (canopy cover and trail width) and created a high definition surface model map from the resulting lidar data, and also a high-resolution satellite imagery map using Google Earth. Through participatory mapping methods, seven respondents with limited prior geospatial experience completed a rapid identification of trails on both maps. Respondents’ trails were georeferenced in order to compare the rate of detectability between maps. We found greater detection on the lidar-derived map compared to the Google Earth map. Detectability in Google Earth maps was positively correlated with wider trails and trials with lower canopy. In lidar maps, trail detectability increased with wider trails, but canopy cover had no effect on detection rates. Our data indicate that a mixed-method approach that combines UAV-mounted lidar with high-resolution satellite imagery and participatory mapping increases rapid detection rates of small trails under varying canopy cover and trail widths.
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: ecosystem disservices; green infrastructure; site design; tree selection; urban forestry
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:42:48 CEST)
As urban development increases in density, the space to grow urban trees becomes more constrained. In heavily developed areas, small stature trees can be planted to reduce both above- and below-ground conflicts with infrastructure elements. However, even these species have their limits when placed in extremely confining conditions. In this study, we build on past work to determine the minimum planting widths of small stature urban trees. We found that species, stem diameter, and the height at which stem diameter measurements occurred were all strong predictors of trunk flare diameter (adjusted R2 of 0.843). Additionally, we modelled the relationship between planting space and the presence or absence of hardscape conflicts – using the predictions derived from this effort to project the potential cost savings in two United States cities. Study results provide a guideline to create sufficient space for urban trees and minimize infrastructure damage and associated cost savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0051.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Forestry; Forest industries; forest products trade; modeling; Cobweb; COVID-19
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:34:06 CEST)
The GFPMX projects forest area and stock, consumption, production, imports, exports, and prices of industrial roundwood, fuelwood, sawnwood, wood-based panels, wood-pulp, and paper and paperboard, in 180 countries, and currently from 2018 to 2070. The core principle of the model is the Cobweb theorem, according to which markets are not necessarily in equilibrium, but take some time to adjust to shocks, such as demand shifts, leading to oscillatory dynamics of prices and quantities. The paper presents the model structure and the estimation of its parameters from international statistics on production, trade, forest area, and forest stock. This is followed by an application of the GFPMX to the impact on the global forest sector of the economic recession caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0146.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Amazon rainforest; forestry degradation; greenhouse gas emission; remote sensing application.
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:25:25 CET)
This work presents the dynamics of forest clearing in the Brazilian Amazon during the period 2006–2019 in which includes the approval of the new Brazilian Forest Code in 2012. The study was carried out in the Brazilian Amazon, Pará State and in the municipality of Novo Progresso (Pará State). The analysis was based on deforestation and fire hotspot datasets issued by the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE), produced based on optical and thermal sensors onboard different satellites. Deforestation data was also used to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the slash-and-burn practices. The work showed a good correlation between the occurrence of fires in the newly deforested area in the municipality of Novo Progresso and the slash-and-burn practices. The same trend was also observed in the Pará State, suggesting a common practice along the deforestation arch. The study indicated positive coefficients of determination of 0.72 and 0.66 between deforestation and fire occurrences for the municipality of Novo Progresso and Pará State, respectively. The increased number of fire occurrences in the primary forest suggests possible ecosystem degradation. Deforestation reported for 2019 surpassed 10,000 km2, a significant intensification comparatively higher than the previous ten years which was on an average of 6,760 km2. The steady increase of deforestation in the Amazon after 2012 has been a worldwide concern because of the forest loss itself as well as the massive GHG emitted in the Brazilian Amazon (295 million tons of net CO2 equivalent in the year 2019). Better correlation of deforestation and fires occurrences reported from satellite images confirmed the slash-and-burn practice and the secondary effect of deforestation, which degrades primary forest surrounding the deforested areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0357.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: biodiversity loss; climate change; ecosystems; exotic species; agriculture; forestry; fisheries
Online: 25 February 2020 (05:06:15 CET)
Bangladesh has a history of species introduction from different geographic regions. The country was a major trade route during the early-modern era and was under British colonial rule until 1947s. Many species of plants and animals are either domesticated or cultivated at different times that were brought into the country by the settlers, seamen, and traders. The deliberate preferences of fast-growing, high-yielding exotics in recent decades also threaten the existence of native species and their genetic resources in the country. Here we provide an overview of the invasive alien species in Bangladesh, likely pathways of their introduction, their impacts on ecosystem and people, and strategies for their effective management and regulation. Many exotic plants and animals both terrestrial and aquatic have found to be invasive in the country with negative impacts on local ecosystems, biodiversity, and livelihoods. Collectively, those species possess serious threats to country’s agriculture, forestry, and fisheries sector. Although initially introduced to favor primary productivity or other environmental benefits, many of these are now regarded as obnoxious pest or weed in Bangladesh. A comprehensive list of invasive species both for native and exotics and a framework to characterize them is also absent in the country. We recommend a separate statutory body and appropriate rules and policies for the introduction, monitoring, and management of alien species in the country. Community awareness, advocacy, surveillance, capacity building of relevant government staff and agreement with neighboring countries for transboundary management of invasive alien species is also necessary.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0322.v2
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: antisense oligonucleotides; antisense therapy; DNA insecticides; RNAi; medicine; agriculture; forestry
Online: 31 May 2018 (12:11:59 CEST)
Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO), short single-stranded polymers based on DNA or RNA chemistries and synthesized in vitro, regulate gene expression by binding in a sequence-specific manner to an RNA target. The functional activity and selectivity in the action of ASOs largely depends on the combination of nitrogenous bases in a target sequence. This simple and natural property of nucleic acids provides an attractive route by which scientists can create different ASO-based techniques. Over the last 50 years, planned and realized applications in the field of antisense and nucleic acid nanotechnologies have produced astonishing results and posed new challenges for further developments, exemplifying the essence of the post-genomic era. Today the majority of ASOs are chemically modified and/or incorporated within nanoparticles to enhance their stability and cellular uptake. This review critically analyzes some successful cases using the antisense approach in medicine to address severe diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and spinal muscular atrophy, and suggests some prospective directions for future research. We also examine in detail the elaboration of unmodified insect-specific DNA insecticides and RNA preparations in the areas of agriculture and forestry, a relatively new branch of ASO that allows circumvention of the use of non-selective chemical insecticides. When considering the variety of successful ASO modifications with an efficient signal-to-noise ratio of action, coupled with the affordability of in vitro oligonucleotide synthesis and post-synthesis procedures, we predict that the next half-century will produce a fruitful yield of tools created from effective ASO-based end products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0128.v1
Subject: Keywords: forestry production; carbon dioxide emissions; ARDL; Granger-causality; Ghana; econometrics
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:06:54 CET)
In this study, the causal-effect between carbon dioxide emissions and forestry production and trade was investigated in Ghana by employing a data spanning from 1961 to 2014 by using the VECM and ARDL model. Evidence of the long-run equilibrium relationship in the VECM shows that, a 1% increase in veneer sheet production reduces carbon dioxide emissions by 1.47% in the long-run. There was evidence of a bidirectional causality between carbon dioxide emissions and veneer sheet production, carbon dioxide emissions and wood charcoal production, and a unidirectional causality running from carbon dioxide emissions to wood fuel production and plywood production to carbon dioxide emissions. Evidence from the long-run equilibrium relationship in the ARDL model shows that; a 1% increase in plywood production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.17% in the long-run, a 1% increase in sawnwood production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.17% in the long-run, a 1% increase in wood charcoal production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.36% in the long-run and a 1% increase in wood fuel production will increase carbon dioxide emissions by 0.37% in the long-run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0103.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Arboriculture; Canker and Cracking; Emerald Ash Borer; Tree Biology; Urban Forestry
Online: 9 October 2022 (03:13:32 CEST)
Field observations of external wounds associated with two common tree injection methods compared open (plug-less) and sealed (plug) systems in green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) trees . A wound from any cause within 1.37 meters above the ground was common with 28.8% of all trees. The open system had statistically fewer (p<0.001) trees with at least one wound (11.6% of trees) than the sealed system (47.4% of trees). The open system had fewer (P<0.001) wounds (0.17, 0.04 SE) per tree and a smaller (P<0.001) total wound area (25.5 cm2, 8.7 SE) per tree, compared to the sealed system wounds (1.14, 0.13 SE) per tree and the total wound area (99.7 cm2, 16.2 SE) per tree. The incidence of a tree with a wound(s) within 1.37 m above the ground was 7.2 times more likely with trees treated though the sealed system. Wounds in the sealed system were observed to appear to have a high rate of improper application of plugs, which was associated in 77% of the cases to explain the wounds. Implications of study results are further provided to best protect ash trees, while at the same time reducing the incidence external wounding on ash trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0145.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: Highway Beautification; Transplant Shock; Transportation; Tree Health; Tree Establishment; Urban Forestry
Online: 6 November 2018 (14:22:48 CET)
Urban tree planting initiatives can experience high levels of mortality during establishment years. Mortality tied to the stresses of transplanting can be partially negated or exacerbated depending on the species selected, nursery materials used, site conditions present, and management practices employed. Past research has quantified post-planting survival, health, and growth. However, varying climates, species, land use types, and management practices warrant additional region-specific research. The purpose of this study is to assess the success of plantings along Florida highways and identify species, site, and management factors related to tree and palm health and establishment. Results show high annual establishment survival (98.5%) across 21 planting projects ranging from 9 to 58 months after installation, (n = 2711). For transplanted palms, the presence of on-site irrigation significantly improved establishment from 96.2% to 99.4%. No establishment differences were detected with regard to irrigation treatment for small-stature trees, shade trees, and conifers. Additionally, there were significant differences in tree health response among tree groups given species, management, and site factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0212.v4
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Carbon Dioxide; Net Zero; Sequestration; Biomass; Direct Capture; Global Warming; Landfills; Forestry
Online: 2 November 2021 (10:53:39 CET)
Many corporations and governments aspire to become Net Zero Carbon Dioxide by 2030-2050. Achieving this goal requires understanding where energy is produced and consumed, the magnitude of CO2 generation, and the Carbon Cycle. Many prior proposed solutions focus on reducing future CO2 emissions from continued use of fossil fuels. Examination of these technologies exposes their limitations and shows that none offer a complete solution. For example, bioethanol is shown to be both carbon and energy inefficient. Direct Air Capture technologies are needed to reduce CO2 already in the air. The most natural form of Direct Air Capture involves letting nature do the work of creating biomass via photosynthesis. However, it is necessary to break the Carbon Cycle by permanently sequestering that biomass carbon in “landfills” modified to discourage decomposition to CO2 and methane. Tree leaves and biomass grown on-purpose, such as high yield switchgrass, are proposed as good biomass sources for this purpose. Left unsequestered, leaves decompose with a short Carbon Cycle time constant releasing CO2 back to the atmosphere. While in any given year, leaves represent a small fraction of a tree’s above ground biomass, leaves can represent a substantial fraction of the total biomass generated by a tree when integrated over a tree’s lifetime. Understanding the chemistry of the distinct phases landfills undergo is the key to minimizing or eliminating decomposition. First, the compact cross-linked structure of cellulose and keeping water out will make it difficult for initial depolymerization to release sugars. Air ingress should be minimized to minimize Phase I aerobic decomposition. pH manipulation can discourage acid formation during Phase II. Lignocellulose is low in nutrients needed for anaerobic decomposition. Inhibitors can be added if needed. The goal is to move quickly to the dormant phase where decomposition stops. The cost for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) for growing and sequestering high yield switchgrass is estimated to be lower than CCS for steam reforming of methane hydrogen plants (SRM) and supercritical or combined cycle coal power plants. Thus, sequestration of biomass is a natural, carbon efficient, and low-cost method of Direct Capture. Biomass sequestration can provide CO2 removal on giga tonnes per year scale and can be implemented in the needed timeframe (2030-2050).
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0422.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Rainforest; recovery; indicators; logging; grassland; shifting cultivation; forestry; national parks; traditional rights
Online: 20 August 2021 (19:02:09 CEST)
Recovery of forest after logging can be tested in many ways: the presence of particular species of fauna or flora, the similarity of the biodiversity of the recovering forest to that on neighbouring areas of undisturbed forest; or the characteristics of soils and streams whose conditions may have drastically changed during logging. Three cases of rainforest recovery after logging and clearance from Australia and Borneo exhibit different starting and different goals for recovery. Faunal indicators of recovery vary with size and with species dependence of the rainforest. Endemic forest species may have difficulty in recovering. Tree species richness and abundance may recover in two decades, but canopy closure takes longer. Compacted soils may retain low infiltration capacities for many decades. This diversity in recovery rates is confirmed when compared with those used elsewhere. Because the starting points for recovery vary, from damage by tropical cyclones and landslides, to clearance for shifting cultivation, pasture or agriculture, to post-logging conditions, universal indicators may be inappropriate. The desired endpoints of recovery also range from a “wilderness” state to a National Park for human enjoyment, biodiversity preservation, safeguarding rights of traditional forest-dwelling peoples, or a second round of selective logging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0282.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: adaptive forestry; dendroecology; diffuse–porous wood; drought years; vessel traits; wood anatomy
Online: 12 November 2018 (10:31:23 CET)
The distribution of Mexican Magnolia species´ occur under restricted climatic conditions. As many other tree species from the tropical montane cloud forests (TMCF), Magnolia species appear to be sensitive to drought. Through the use of dendrochronological techniques, this study aims to determine the climate influence on the vessel traits of M. vovidesii and M. schiedeana which are endangered tree species that are endemic to the Sierra Madre Oriental in eastern Mexico. Because most of the tree species in TMCFs are sensitive to climate fluctuations, it is necessary to investigate the differences in the climatic adaptability of the vessel architecture of these trees. This could allow us to further understand the potential peril of climate change on TMCFs. We compared vessel frequency, length and diameter in drought and non–drought years in two Mexican Magnolia species. We used tree–rings width and vessel traits to assess the drought effects on Magnolias’ diffuse–porous wood back to the year 1929. We obtained independent chronologies for M. vovidesii with a span of 75 years (1941–2016), while for M. schiedeana we obtained a span of 319 years (1697–2016). We found that temperature and precipitation are strongly associated with differences in tree–ring width (TRW) between drought and non–drought years. Our results showed anatomical differences in vessel trait response between these two Magnolia species to climatic variation. We suggest that our approach of combining dendroclimatic and anatomical techniques is a powerful tool to analyse anatomic wood plasticity to climatic variation in Magnolia species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: state ownership; forest management; forest enterprise; public enterprise; cluster analysis; European forestry
Online: 9 October 2017 (17:32:07 CEST)
State Forest Management Organizations (SFMOs) play a crucial role in the European forest sector, managing almost half the forests in the region. SFMOs are often managed for timber production only whereas, being publicly owned, they should play an important role in providing a vast range of public goods (e.g. soil protection, biodiversity conservation). Their management goals depend on the history and current conditions of the forest sector at a national level, as well as different challenges and the potential for development. Although there is a lack of knowledge about the current performance of SFMOs, there have been recent changes to their management goals and practices in response to the new demands expressed by society (e.g. transparency, social inclusion). The main purpose of this study is to analyse the current situation of SFMOs by clustering them according to indicators that reflect three pillars of the common understanding of sustainable forest management (SFM) concept. With the help of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), we grouped countries according to common characteristics of the forest sector at the national level. Results show three main clusters of SFMOs in Europe. The first cluster has rather small but commercially-oriented forestry unit together with other business activities and a strong focus on public services. The second sees itself as the protector of public interest, rather than commercially-oriented organisations. The third is mainly profit-seeking. The existence of diverse SFMO clusters shows the possibility of different approaches for SFM with a focus on different goals (e.g. profit gaining, public service delivery).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0282.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: cyclone; defect; hurricane; likelihood of failure; storm damage; typhoon; urban ecology; urban forestry
Online: 21 May 2022 (11:03:18 CEST)
Urban trees are often more sun- and wind-exposed than their forest-grown counterparts. These environmental differences can impact how many species grow – impacting trunk taper, crown spread, branch architecture, and other aspects of tree form. Given these differences, windthrow models derived from traditional forest production data sources may not be appropriate for urban forest management. Additionally, visual abnormalities historically labeled as “defects” in timber production may not have a significant impact on tree failure potential. In this study, we look at urban tree failures associated with Hurricane Irma in Tampa, Florida, USA. We used spatial analysis to determine if patterns of failure existed among our inventoried trees. We also looked at risk assessment data to determine which visual defects were the most common and the most likely to be associated with branch or whole-tree failure. Results indicate that there was no spatial pattern associated with the observed tree failures – trees failed or withstood the storm as individuals. While some defects like decay and dead wood were associated with increased tree failure, other defects like weak branch unions and poor branch architecture were less problematic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0231.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: forestry; wood-based sector; anti-crisis economic strategy; pandemic crisis; Analytic Hierarchy Process; Poland
Online: 14 May 2020 (06:15:23 CEST)
Forestry and the wood-based sector, including the wood industry, which is an important element of economic systems and a source of budget revenues for many countries in the world, found itself in the first quarter of 2020 in a situation of a serious threat of a prolonged crisis as a consequence of the pandemic. In this perspective, it is necessary to review existing sector strategies and look for new solutions to ensure first survival, then functioning and finally development of entities forming the wood market. In the scientific research, which is the subject of this work, an attempt was made to multi-criteria analysis of the selection of the optimal anti-crisis strategy for actors from forestry and the wood-based sector in the face of a pandemic. Preparatory studies were conducted on the example of Poland, where both forestry and the wood industry belong to the dominant sectors of the economy, conducting them at the turn of March and April 2020. The research was referred to the primary wood raw material market in Poland, which is the main link in the value chain, created first by the dominant owner: Państwowe Gospodarstwo Leśne "Lasy Państwowe" - the “State Forests” National Forest Holding (SFNFH), and then forest service entrepreneurs, to entities representing the wood industry. The work uses a concept modified for the purposes of the author's research scenario, based on the method of multi-criteria hierarchical analysis AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). The best possible decision was to be searched that would allow the selection of the optimal anti-crisis strategy for enterprises - actors of the sector concerned. Based on the collected results and their expert discussion, recommendations for sectoral policy for forestry and the wood-based sector were then formulated. The proposed solutions are located against the background of a dispute between the concept of institutional intervention and a model taking into account the effects of market factors. The work is both cognitive (optimization and adaptation of the research method) and practical up-to-date. An accurate development strategy for forestry and the wood-based sector is urgently needed and necessary to implement as quickly as possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0312.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: ecopolitana; greenscape; forestry plan; ecological network; green infrastructures; biodiversity; agroecology; conservation agricolture; Sentinel 2; LiDAR.
Online: 17 November 2021 (23:13:51 CET)
A national green planning strategy has recently been introduced in the Italian urban planning sector, aimed at making all local initiatives undertaken nationwide consistent with each other. At a regional level, Friuli Venezia-Giulia has recently implemented a Landscaping Plan, which is of an urban planning and ecological nature at an intermediate level between national and local. This article describes the local green plan of Latisana, which has been entitled Ecopolitana, given that it is represents the experimental phase, at a regional level, of the possibilities offered by landscape planning and design. Specifically, it outlines the multi-disciplinary approach used, demonstrating how landscape planning can be compared to the sustainable development of cities, with specific regard to the agricultural sector. Regarding the agricultural sector, a low-intensity cropping model is also suggested, based on the principles of agroecology and landscape ecology, which has already been implemented in the historical rural landscape of Plasencis (UD) and developed through GIS analysis and remote sensing processes. Its aim is to be the starting point for the achievement of the goals set in the 2030 Agenda, and especially Goals 13 (Climate action) and 15 (Life on land), given the current scarcity of agroecological infrastructures in the area of Latisana (UD) and the high percentage of soil used for intensive cropping.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0451.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: economic agroforestry zone; Salix spp.; Populus spp.; Alnus spp.; short rotation coppice (SRC); short rotation forestry (SRF); energy wood.
Online: 31 October 2022 (09:26:58 CET)
The main goal of the review is to provide a summary and an assessment of the potential of fast-growing tree species for suitable transformation of agroforestry areas for biomass production in the Baltic Sea region. The article summarizes the research on the management process of agroforestry zones by establishing short rotation plantations with tree species Salix spp., Populus spp., Alnus spp. and looks at the perspectives of planning of these zones as biomass producers. Short rotation forestry (SRF) with a combination of species and a rotation time of 15 to 30 years, depending on the species used, is the most suitable approach for management of these agroforestry zones. Willows (Salix spp.) and poplars (Populus spp.) are suitable for short rotation coppice (SRC), as these tree species can be harvested at much shorter intervals, respectively, 1–5 and 4–10 years, facilitating their use in agricultural systems. In Alnus spp. short rotation plantation the life cycle for energy wood production is assumed to be 15-30 years. The black alder plantations in agroforestry zones are used for sawnwood and firewood production, with a rotation span of 20–40 years. Calculated economic agroforestry zone repayment period is about 10-15 years, if costs and prices as in 2021 are used.