ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0017.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: financial performance; flexible employment; labour productivity; teleworking; workplace employment relations survey
Online: 4 January 2017 (10:00:05 CET)
There is an increasing concern on the quality of jobs and productivity witnessed in the flexible employment arrangements. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between various employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Home-based working-teleworking, flexible timing and compressed hours are the main employment types examined using the Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in years 2004 and 2011. The workplace performance is measured by two outcomes- the financial performance and labour productivity. First, the determinants of those flexible employment types are explored. Second, the ordinary least squares (OLS) method is followed. Third, an instrumental variable (IV) approach is applied to account for plausible endogeneity and to estimate the causal effects. The findings reveal a significant and positive relationship between these types of flexible employment arrangements and the workplace performance. Education, age, wage, quality of relations between managers-employees, years of experience, the area of the market the workplace is operated and the competition are significant factors and are positively associated with the propensity of the flexible employment arrangements implementation. This can have various profound policy implications for employees, employers and the society overall, including family-work balance, coping with family demands, improving the firm performance, reducing traffic congestion and stress among others. It is the first study that explores the relationship between flexible employment types and workplace performance using an IV approach. This allows us to estimate the causal effects of flexible employment types and the possible associated social implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0007.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Bayesian networks; directed acyclic graphs; employee loyalty; employment arrangements; flexi-time; job satisfaction; teleworking; workplace employment relations survey
Online: 7 July 2016 (12:12:14 CEST)
This study explores the relationship between job satisfaction, employee loyalty and two types of flexible employment arrangements; teleworking and flexi-time. The analysis relies on data derived by the Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS) in 2004 and 2011. A propensity score matching and least squares regressions are applied. Furthermore, Bayesian Networks (BN) and Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs) are employed in order to confirm the causality between employment types explored and the outcomes of interest. Finally, an instrumental variables (IV) approach based on the BN framework is proposed and applied in this study. The results support that there is a positive causal effect from these employment arrangements on job satisfaction and employee loyalty.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1316.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: chicken; value; chain; imports; employment
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:44:42 CEST)
The development of the chicken value chain in The Gambia has immense potentials to lead to the modernisation of agriculture and creating employment for young people and women. Chicken can be raised throughout the year in most parts of The Gambia. With increasing populations, environmental degradation and loss of rangelands, chicken is easier to producer than other livestock, such as cattle and small ruminants. The development of the chicken value chain in The Gambia is also mainly constrained at commercialisation. Commercial farmers in The Gambia are not able to compete with cheap import. Critical inputs such as day-old chicks and feed are imported. Most farms are operating below 40% capacity and only less than 4% utilisation of the available processing capacity. At full capacity and with some needed investments along the value chain, The Gambia has the capacity to meet the demand for chicken and eggs. 88% of the value chain actors believe that the imposition of tariffs on chicken imports will lead to the upward transformation of the chicken value chain being able to employ at least 10% of the Gambian population.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0887.v1
Online: 13 September 2023 (11:15:16 CEST)
This single case study aims to address a gap in literature regarding the establishment of microenterprises for people with physical disability in Vietnam. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven people with physical disability including the Director of a non-government organisation supporting six entrepreneurs with physical disability who were engaged in teaching English to school aged children after school. Data was analysed utilising Lingelbach, De La Vina and Asel’s (2005) three characteristics that improve probability of entrepreneurial success in developing countries. This framework aided in examining the approach of establishing microenterprises by the non-government organisation. The entrepreneurs with physical disability reported earnings above average wages and feeling empowered by participating in the microenterprises. These feelings of empowerment were reportedly associated with greater independence, increased self-efficacy and a confidence in planning for their futures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0059.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Self-employment; household determinants; financial Crisis
Online: 7 June 2019 (12:48:50 CEST)
While some researchers have suggested that the self-employment (SE) sector is a haven during a financial Crisis, others believe that SE is not necessarily the desired outcome, but an indicator that the labor market is tightening for some groups. Few researchers have compared the SE sector before and after the occurrence of a significant financial Crisis, especially in developed countries. This paper analyzes the determinants of entry into self-employment during the 2008 Spanish Crisis. Using data from the Encuesta de Presupuesto Familiar (EPF), results show that although the rate of SE did not experience a significant change during this time the Crisis affected people differently based on gender, with being females more affected than males. Results also suggest differences between Comunidades Autonomas in how the self-employment sector behaved during the Crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0150.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: bus rapid transit; employment; accessibility; equity
Online: 14 March 2019 (07:12:12 CET)
Investments in public transit infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean often aim to reduce spatial and social inequalities by improving accessibility to jobs and other opportunities for vulnerable populations. The Metropolitano, Lima’s Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) project had as one of its central goals to connect low-income populations living in the peripheries to jobs in the city center. We examine the contribution of Lima’s BRT system to accessibility to employment in the city, particularly for low-income public transit users. Building on secondary datasets of employment, household socio-demographics and Origin-Destination surveys before and after the BRT began operations, we assess its effects on potential accessibility to employment, comparing impacts amongst lower versus higher income populations. Findings suggest that the BRT line reduced travel times to reach jobs, in comparison with traditional public transport in the city, amongst populations living within walking distance of the system. However, we also find that the coverage of the BRT declines in areas with high concentrations of poor and extreme poor populations, limiting the equitability of the accessibility improvements. We analyze the distributional effects of BRT infrastructure and services, discussing policy avenues that can improve the prospects for BRT system investments to include the poor in their mobility benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1169.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: SROI; employment support measures; employment measures for potential working women; economic revitalization of local cities in Japan
Online: 16 August 2023 (10:33:58 CEST)
In Japan, where the working population is declining, there is a growing expectation that the potential working population will play an active role, and in this context, administrative measures such as the promotion of women's activities have been implemented. However, there is no end to the number of women who leave the workforce after life events such as childbirth or child rearing. For example, in Fukuoka Prefecture (population 5.1 million) alone, where we are based, it is estimated that there are 43,300 potential female workers. Many of these women have have been employed in the past, but have left the workforce due to childbirth, family care, or other reasons, and still wish to work. However, although this group has potential employment needs, they have not yet engaged in specific job-hunting activities, and thus are on the periphery of the labor market, without access to the current active labor market. There are many promising potential employees there, and support for their career redevelopment and participation in the labor market is required. On the other hand, few studies have been conducted in Japanese prefectures to systematically estimate social value, i.e., to determine the scope of impact on society and the stakeholders. This is an obstacle to the formulation of policies for women's advancement and the establishment of related social projects. This paper is aware of this problem and, based on the support for women seeking to re-enter society (career redevelopment) that the authors are implementing, selects seven prefectures in Kyushu, which is also a wide economic zone, as a support area and estimates the social value to companies and families in these areas by using SROI. As a result, it was derived that if 3,586 individuals were reemployed, the SROI ratio (1:X) X would be 76.1 in the first year of reintegration assistance activities and X would be 313.3 in the fourth year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: reasonable accommodation; employment; vocational/employment rehabilitation; persons with health issues; persons with disabilities; persons with chronic diseases
Online: 12 April 2018 (13:49:13 CEST)
Employment implies economic independence, social inclusion, non-discrimination and impacts people’s life in areas beyond work. Therefore, for persons with disabilities (PwD), that include persons with chronic diseases (PwCD), equal employment opportunities must be provided and reasonable accommodation (RA) in employment carefully designed. The objectives of this study done in Slovenia were: (i) to translate and adapt RA Factor Survey (RAFS; Dong et al., 2010); (ii) to examine psychometric properties of its expanded Slovenian modification Aspects of RA survey (ARAS); (iii) to find out the views of professionals in the field by ARAS; (iv) to present Slovenian model of employment rehabilitation concerning PwD and PwCD. ARAS was developed with the collaboration of professionals performing focus groups, it consists of three parts Influencing factors, Contents areas and Barriers with 78 items. Data were collected from 140 professionals and underwent descriptive statistics and factor analysis. The results showed that the key factors for RA implementation are attitude and support of employer/organization. Other important factors are employee and his/her employment, the conditions to implement RA, and the awareness of employee and work environment. ARAS might be used as a framework to assist in the development, improvement, and implementation of RA in practice. This is discussed in the broader context of equal opportunities for employment of PwD including PwCD and the welfare model in Slovenia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0219.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; automation; productivity; employment; automotive industry
Online: 9 July 2021 (12:59:00 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an automation mechanism that runs in a computer system performing tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision making or translation . Some authors argue that recent developments in AI are leading to a wave of innovation in organizational design and changes to institutionalized norms of the workplace . Techno-optimists even named this present phase the ‘second machine age’, arguing that it now involves the substitution of the human brain (Brynjolfsson and McAfee 2014). Potentially, the ability to apply AI in a generalized way can produce significant technical, economic and social effects in firms. But how many of these AI applications are ready and how far can they be from reaching the manufacturing industry market? The paper will answer the question: what are the implications on industrial productivity and employment in the automotive sector with the recent automation trends in Portugal? We will focus on AI as the most relevant emergent technology to understand the development of automation in areas related to robotics, software, and data communications in Europe (Moniz 2018). R&D investments in industrial processes in general may reflect productivity improvements derived from the increased automation process. Our results will be based on case studies from the automotive and components sector combined with database search by keywords that signal intelligence automation developments and AI applications selected from national R&D projects (on robotics, machine learning, collaborative tools, human-machine interaction, autonomous systems, etc) supported by European structural funds. The implications on industrial productivity and employment will be discussed in relation to automation trends in the automotive sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Employment; Governance Indicators; Oil Economy; Reforms; Welfare
Online: 5 January 2021 (10:28:29 CET)
Many countries are raising questions on the intentions behind Saudi reforms. The low oil prices in 2008-09 were the awakening call for Saudis, and later in 2014, it became the reason to look for the economy that is less dependent on oil. The article studies the initiated social reforms and social impact of foreign cultural activities. It scrutinizes the Saudi social fabric under the social exchange theory and looks for the positive and negative effects of cultural exchanges. The paper also considers the COVID-19 situation in KSA as it has broken the chain of cultural events planned all over the country to promote tourism and improve the image of KSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0025.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Bandwidth Employment; Real time protocol; TCP; header reduced
Online: 1 November 2021 (15:52:52 CET)
Timeworn telecommunication are progressively being substituted by a new one that run over IP networks, which is recognized as voice over internet protocol (VoIP). VoIP has a number of qualities (e.g., inexpensive call rate), which make it progressively widespread in the telecommunication domain. However, VoIP faces plentiful obstacles that slow its growth. One of the major obstacles is poorly utilizing the network bandwidth. A number of techniques have been offered to handle this obstacle, including packet multiplexing techniques. This paper designs an original multiplexing techniques, called packet multiplexing and carrier header (PM-CH), to decrease the quantity of the bandwidth consumed by VoIP. PM-CH protect the bandwidth by multiplexing the packets in a header and using the Timestamp field in the RTP header. The achievement of the PM-CH technique was examined depends on connection capacity and payload shortening. Simulation outcomes show that the PM-CH technique outperforms the contrast technique in the two factors. For instance, the PM-CH technique’s connection capacity outperforms the comparable technique by 58.9% when the connection bandwidth is 1000 kbps. Consequently, the PM-CH technique attains its objective of reducing the unexploited bandwidth caused by VoIP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0394.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: family caregivers; labour force; labour supply; employment; China
Online: 13 November 2020 (20:49:44 CET)
Unpaid family caregivers must consider the economic trade-off between caregiving and paid employment. Prior literature has suggested labour force participation (LFP) to decline with caregiving intensity, but no study has evaluated this relationship by accounting for the presence of both kinks and discontinuities. Here we used respondents of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study baseline survey who were non-farming, of working-age (aged 45-60) and had a young grandchild and/or a parent/parent-in-law. For women and men separately, a caregiving threshold-adjusted probit model was used to assess the association between LFP and weekly unpaid caregiving hours. Instrumental variables were used to rule out the endogeneity of caregiving hours. Of the 3,718 respondents in the analysis, for men, LFP was significantly and inversely associated with caregiving that involved neither discontinuities nor kinks. For women, a kink was identified at the caregiving threshold of 8 hours per week such that before 8 hours, each caregiving hour was associated with an increase of 0.0257 in the marginal probability of LFP, but each hour thereafter was associated with a reduction of 0.0014 in the marginal probability of LFP. These results have implications for interventions that simultaneously advance policies of health, social care and labour force.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0336.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Readymade Garments; Covid-19; Worker; Employment; Economy; Bangladesh
Online: 28 June 2020 (10:07:58 CEST)
The outbreak of Corona Virus effected negatively on the world’s economy which has already touched the maximum sectors. Readymade garments sector has the large contribution in Bangladesh’s economy. For increasing the locked down period, it is hitting badly by stopping production and cancellation of orders with some issues. This paper will represent the brief scenario and impacts of garments sector in recent days and the economy status of Bangladesh for the pandemic. The study is based on secondary data, collected from different authentic journals and web portals etc. Bangladesh’s garments earnings mostly depended on export but on these days, the buyers are cancelling their orders and the factories are being failed to give payments to the worker, some are being shut down also. As the duration of locked down is increasing, there is a huge chance to get unemployed and Bangladesh can be faced an undisciplined condition in near future. BGMEA and BKMEA are taking necessary steps to support the worker. Ensuring health security, the authorities are trying to reopen the factories limitedly to meet up the immediate needs. The government has taken the situation on most priority and introduce some improvement packages to run the economy smoothly and reduce the losses of the country for the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Gender And Sexuality Studies Keywords: Pakistan; Rahim Yar Khan; female employment; gender discrimination
Online: 2 October 2019 (10:52:18 CEST)
As a traditional Muslim country, the problem of gender discrimination in employment among women in Pakistan is more common. If we let it develop without taking measures, it will seriously restrict the speed and quality of Pakistan’s domestic economic development in the long run. In this study, the author obtained the first-hand information on the employment status of professional women in the Rahim Yar Khan region of Pakistan through questionnaire survey, supplemented by the public data of the Federal Statistical Office of Pakistan, and combined with the existing research results of the predecessors. Sex discrimination in employment of professional women in Pakistan. Through the collection of the data obtained from the questionnaire, the author found that economic factors are one of the main factors that cause local women to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Specifically, it includes the imbalance of labor supply and demand and the pursuit of maximum profits. At the same time, the traditional Muslim culture, women's own literacy and the imperfect legal system in Pakistan are also the key factors that cause female employees in the local area to encounter gender discrimination in employment. Women’s gender discrimination in employment is a universal problem. In any country in the world, gender discrimination may exist as long as women are involved in the work. Based on Pakistan's basic national conditions and relevant professional knowledge, the author provides several suggestions for eliminating the problem of gender discrimination in employment for local female employees in Pakistan. 1) The Pakistani government should further promote the domestic economic growth, increase the number of jobs, and ease the imbalance between the supply and demand of labor. At the same time, encourage self-employment and provide corresponding policy support. A variety of measures are also intended to address local gender discrimination in employment for women. 2) The government's leadership accelerates the transformation of the concept of the whole society. On the one hand, it requires the whole society to correctly understand the social status and social contribution of women, and strives to bring the concept of equality between men and women into the hearts of the people. It is intended to encourage qualified women to go out of the family to participate in social work. At the same time, correctly guide corporate values. Enterprises should not unilaterally pursue the maximization of interests, and should take the initiative to assume social responsibilities. 3) Women should also actively and consciously improve their literacy. Including not only active learning advanced cultural knowledge and professional skills. For the professional skills that have already been mastered, you must study harder and make yourself more and more progressive. At the same time, families should guarantee that girls of the appropriate age receive the education they deserve, so that they can gather their strengths in the workplace in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0014.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: elasticity of substitution; cointegration; self-employment; structural breaks
Online: 3 December 2018 (09:01:28 CET)
This paper provides estimates of the elasticity of substitution between operational and managerial jobs in the US economy covering a period of almost five decades, derived from an aggregate CES production function. Estimating the long-term relationship between (the log of) the aggregate employment/self-employment ratio and (the log of) the returns from paid-employment relative to self-employment and testing for structural breaks, we report different estimates of the elasticity of substitution in each of the two regimes identified. Our results help to understand and interpret one of the most intriguing aspects in the evolution of self-employment rates in developed countries: the reversal of the trend in self-employment rates. Our estimates show that a higher level of development is associated with a greater number of entrepreneurs and smaller firms. Some rationales for understanding the growth of the elasticity between paid-employment and self-employment, including the recent trends in the digital economy—are also suggested.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: degrowth; sustainable consumption; sustainable production; inequality; sustainability; employment
Online: 25 October 2016 (09:50:29 CEST)
“De-[Constructing] Growth” is offered as a deeper and more useful conceptualization that avoids the negative connotations of, and resistance to, “degrowth” by decoupling profit from unsustainable consumption, production, and inequality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0035.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: public health; epidemiology; SARS-CoV-2; employment; education; training
Online: 2 August 2022 (04:33:55 CEST)
Although previous studies have focused on the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on various professional groups (particularly in the health and nursing care sector), this study aims to close a research gap by assessing perspectives of students and young professionals in epidemiology and public health in Germany in terms of shifts in workload, work content, and related challenges caused by the pandemic. We conducted a cross-sectional survey between mid-February and mid-March 2022. Quantitative data were analyzed via standardized mean differences. Qualitative data based on answers to open-ended questions were analyzed via a qualitative content analysis. Overall, 172 individuals participated in this survey. Results indicate that students felt burdened the most by lack of exchange with other students and lecturers. Study participants employed in public health experienced changes in their employment, because they had changes in their work content- and administration-wise, which was accompanied with a high burden due to the workload. Multiple demands that can have an impact on both acquired skills and mental health during the professional qualification phase were mentioned by the participants. Therefore, more in-depth analyses are needed for investigating the impact the pandemic will have on the (future) public health workforce in the long run.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1716.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Policy proposal, elderly government officials, the employment, public sector organizations.
Online: 27 September 2023 (16:01:19 CEST)
A promoting work for the elderly is an important way of empowering the participation of the elderly in society for economic development, which will lead to the well-being of the elderly. This is presented the policy proposal for elderly government officials employment in public sector organizations landscape study by policy research on EDFR which combines MACR, especially, elderly civil servants in public sector organizations of 56 - 60 years, and aged of 60 years to over, include the experts into the data. Comparing the employment forms elderly civil servants in public sector organizations of flexible employment and new employment models to differences at statistical significance level of 0.01, 0.05, respectively. Significance the policy proposal for elderly government officials employment at “Key” factors of the strategies, goals, measures, and operational guidelines to effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: medium-sized cities; employment; production specialisation; COVID-19; Northern Italy.
Online: 14 September 2023 (13:40:51 CEST)
In a globalised economy, metropolises seem to have an ‘extra gear’ compared to other urban centres: they attract the most skilled businesses, drive innovation in many fields and can count on material and immaterial assets that foster greater resilience to adverse events of various kinds. Against this backdrop, what lies ahead for medium-sized cities (MSCs)? This paper focuses on the case of Northern Italy and explores employment trends between 2012 and 2020 in 189 MSCs with a population of between 20,000 and 200,000 inhabitants. Using a descriptive approach, we investigate the evolutionary trajectories of these cities and their varying specialisations, over a period marked by a moderate recovery of the Italian economy following the Great Recession and by a further setback caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. In general, in terms of employment performance, the 189 cities in question were less dynamic than the metropolises, but it is nevertheless necessary to look at their individual circumstances in detail. Furthermore, the work shows significant differences between the MSCSs of the North-West and North-East in evolutionary trajectories and specialisation profiles. The most problematic situations also relate to cities with hub status in the wider context and are not focused only where there is a production structure linked to industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0046.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: health care, innovation, resistance, staff behavior, employment relationship, strategy, organizational climate
Online: 4 January 2021 (13:25:12 CET)
Frequent employee resistance to innovation is one of the main barriers of change failure in a health care organization and one of the negative stimuli of employment relationships. Identifying the reasons of resistance is a topical issue for every organization, as the speed of change can affect their competitiveness. Consequently, it is helpful not only to know the causes of potential resistance but also to be ready to control any implicit opposition. The organizational climate and the attitude of the staff play an important role in understanding and accepting innovation. Purpose of the study is to develop a model, which would facilitate the choice of an appropriate strategy necessary to enable the health care organization to eliminate or at least to reduce resistance to often essential innovative changes. The article analyses the root causes of resistance and identifies strategies that help to mitigate or eliminate staff resistance for innovation. Use of suggested model can make easier reducing staff resistance to change processes and thus speed up the implementation of innovations. This methodology can be used to eliminate the reasons for staff resistance to change in health care institutions of different countries, but it was tested in Lithuania and achieved good enough results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0439.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: graduate; employer; competencies; employment; labour market; emigration; economic development; educational policies
Online: 27 June 2018 (10:08:33 CEST)
The quality of an educational system is reflected not only in the instructive performances of the educational actors, but also in the degree in which it ensures an adequate professional integration. The undergraduate of today, the graduate of tomorrow needs an as accurate as possible information regarding the labour market, which cannot be achieved only by individual means, but also by resorting to carrier counselling services. The motivation of this research is closely connected to the improvement of the level of communication between the two aspects – on the one hand the academic one, by its finite products, and the economic one, on the other hand – and the opportunities that the cooperation between the two aspects might offer: adjusting the demand-supply ratio on the labor market and above all, stopping massive emigration of young graduates of higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0024.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: ICT skills mismatch, guaranteed minimum wage, SME’s sustainable competitiveness, employment, public policies
Online: 1 April 2019 (14:00:29 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to analyze the real impact of ICT skill mismatch on SME’s sustainable competitiveness in presence of minimum wage guaranteed. As part of public policies – the minimum wage need to maintain a balance between increasing employment and not being a burden for the companies, leading them to bankruptcies, especially in times of disruptive change in which economy have to be more resilient. The rapid progress in information and communication technologies has dramatically redefined the rising unemployment as a result of skills mismatch. This paper aims to understand, on one side if, there is a match between the supply demand of ICT skills and how increasingly powerful digital technologies affect skills, jobs, and the demand for human labour. On the other, if increasing productivity and a fair minimum wage could be an integrated approach in stimulating SME’s in increasing sustainable competitiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0452.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Informal employment; social security; state effectiveness; Maghreb countries; individual preferences; discrete choice model
Online: 16 April 2021 (22:29:59 CEST)
State legitimacy and effectiveness could be seen by the way to deliver welfare to citizens to mitigate social grievances, that could eventually lead to conflicts (Kivimäki, 2021). Social security systems in Maghreb countries are quite similar in their architecture and aims to provide social insurance to all the workers in the labor market. However, they suffer from the same main problem: the low rate of enrollment of workers. Many workers (employees and self-employed) work informally without any social security coverage. The issue of whether informal jobs are chosen voluntarily by workers or as a strategy of last resort is controversial. Many authors recognize that the informal sector is heterogeneous and it is made up of workers who voluntary choose it and others who are pushed inside because of entry barriers to the formal sector (Günther & Launov, 2012). Using the SAHWA survey and discrete choice models, this article confirms the heterogeneity of the informal labor market in three Maghreb countries: Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Furthermore, this article highlights the profiles of workers who voluntarily choose informality, which is missing from previous studies. Finally, this article proposes policy recommendations in order to extend social security to informal workers and to include them in the formal labour market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0341.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Green total factor productivity; Economic agglomeration; Employment density; Dynamic spatial Dupin model; Spatial spillover
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:41:24 CEST)
In the context of carbon emissions peak, environmental issues highlight the importance of the green economy, how does economic agglomeration release growth potential and enable the coordinated development of the economy and environment? There are few works of literature to analyze it within the framework of spatial economy. This paper constructs a theoretical model to clarify the influence mechanism of economic agglomeration on green total factor productivity (GTFP), and then uses a dynamic SDM model to test the theoretical hypothesis. This contribution has three main findings. First, there is a "U-shaped" curve relationship between economic agglomeration and GTFP, and the formation mechanism is that economic agglomeration has a threshold effect on the agglomeration externalities such as infrastructure sharing, knowledge spillover, and labor market upgrading. Second, the mismatch of industrial structure is an important reason that the economic agglomeration in this region has not produced an obvious spatial spillover effect on other regions; Relaxing restrictions on the concentration of economic activity to regional centers would contribute to the improvement of GTFP. Third, GTFP has the classic "snowball effect" in the time dimension, but has the obvious "warning effect" in the space and time dimension. Based on this, this paper believes that at the present stage, it is necessary to adapt to the layout of economic geography, promote the rational allocation of human resources in the territorial space, promote the coordination between economic agglomeration and the development goal of green economy, and at the same time, it is necessary to cultivate the cooperative linkage mechanism of green economy development and transformation among cities.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0072.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: racial discrimination; employment; United Kingdom; The Netherlands; black and ethnic minorities; women; Islam; alienation
Online: 14 December 2016 (07:54:52 CET)
The measurement of discrimination in employment is a key variable in understanding dynamics in the nature of and change in ‘race relations’. Measuring such discrimination using ‘situation’ and ‘correspondence’ tests was influenced by John Rex’s sociological analyses, begun in in England in the 1960s, and replicated in Europe and America in later decades. This literature is reviewed, and the methodologies of testing for employment discrimination are discussed. Recent work in Britain and The Netherlands is considered in detail in the light of changing social structures, and the rise of Islamophobia. Manchester, apparently the city manifesting the most discrimination in Britain, is considered for a special case study, with a focus on one individual, a Muslim woman seeking intermediate level accountancy employment. Her vita was matched with that of a manifestly indigenous, white Briton. Submitted vitas (to 1,043 potential employers) indicated significant discrimination against the Muslim woman candidate. Results are discussed within the context of Manchester’s micro-sociology, and Muslim women’s employment progress in broader contexts, drawing on our work in Jordan and Palestine. We conclude with the critical realist comment that the “hidden racism” of employment discrimination shows that capitalist societies continue to be institutionally racist, and the failure to reward legitimate aspirations of minorities pushes ethnic minorities into a permanent precariat, with implications for social justice and social control, which denies minority efforts to “integrate” in society’s employment systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: corporate social responsibility; environment; employment; R&D; annual reports; financial and non-financial statements; competition.
Online: 8 November 2018 (12:06:32 CET)
The commitment of the EU to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is projected in the EU law about annual reporting by businesses. Since EU member states further develop this framework by their own domestic laws, annual reporting with CSR information is not unified and just partially mandatory in the EU. Do all European businesses report CSR information and what public declaration to society do they provide with it? The main dual purpose of this paper is identifying the parameters of this annual reporting duty and studying the CSR information provided by the ten largest Czech companies in their annual statements for 2013-2017. Based on legislative research and the teleological interpretation, the current EU legislative framework with Czech particularities is presented and, via a case study exploring 50 annual reports, the data about the type, extent and depth of the CSR is dynamically and comparatively assessed. It appears that, at a minimum, large Czech businesses satisfy their legal duty and e-report on CSR in a similar extent, but in dramatically different quality. Employee matters and adherence to international standards are used as a public declaration to society more than the data on environmental protection, while social matters and R&D are played down.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0064.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: digital transit; sustainable development; labor market; professional employment; economic sustainability; pace of development; artificial intelligence (AI); corporate social responsibility.
Online: 4 October 2021 (15:36:30 CEST)
This article explores the question of the rate of digital progress in the context of the labor market. Specific features of the current situation are indicated: temporality of socio-technological transformations, which is becoming less and less compatible with the harmonious development of man and society; the pace at which machines acquire intelligence; total devaluation of mental labor; unresolved issue of the role of man in the world of intelligent machines; the criticality of the problem of the labor market, due to its global nature, social significance and the rate of socio-technological changes. It is emphasized that these circumstances in the short term threaten the sustainable development of the global society, whose reactions to the transformation of technological and socio-economic infrastructure are significantly lagging behind. It is concluded that there is an urgent need to strengthen social responsibility, determined by the new ethics of relations between humans and machines with AI, supplemented by the primacy of the dignity of the social role of humans. The authors point out the urgent need to revise ideas about work as the main purpose of a person and about realization in the profession as the main factor that determines the self-esteem of an individual and his social status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0592.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: higher education expansion; sustainable employment; perceived organizational support; career adaptability; self-exploration; environment exploration; sustainable career guidance; sustainability competencies
Online: 24 July 2020 (14:12:38 CEST)
The research aims to examine the extent to which the perceived organizational support (POS) predicted career related self and environmental exploration via the mediation effect of career adaptability. Multi-group comparisons based on the gender, majors and places of origin were also performed to evaluate the differences among these variables. An internet survey was conducted to collect empirical data from 611 Chinese undergraduates. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted to demonstrate the proposed relations in the model and multiple group analysis. Clearly supported was the direct relations between POS and career related self and environmental exploration and the mediation effect of career adaptability. The results also showed that gender and major are the moderating variables for the proposed model, and no significance difference among the rural and urban subgroups was found. POS could be effectively delivered to students in general, marginalized social groups, such as females and those majored in the humanities and social sciences in particular. Four dimensions of career adaptability (concern, control, curiosity and confidence) could also be targeted at in order to promote students’ sustainable employment. The findings provide a better understanding of the career construction model by incorporating the contextual factor in a collective cultural environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: blue-collared migrants; climate resilience; adaptation; new climates; poverty alleviation; employment challenges; sustainable livelihoods; climate shocks; cultural nuances; social dynamic; support measures; pre-departure training; retraining opportunities; poverty reduction; inclusive development
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:27:51 CEST)
This paper explores the challenges faced by blue-collared international migrants in adapting to new and unfamiliar climates while pursuing job opportunities, with a focus on poverty alleviation. Drawing on existing research and empirical evidence, the study investigates the trials encountered by these migrants as they navigate climate shocks and assesses the potential impacts on poverty reduction efforts. The findings underscore the significant difficulties blue-collared migrants experience when confronted with abrupt changes in climate conditions, adversely affecting their physical and mental well-being, as well as their employment prospects. The process of adjustment involves not only acclimating to new climate patterns but also navigating cultural nuances and social dynamics, exacerbating stress and feelings of isolation. Consequently, these challenges can perpetuate poverty by disrupting employment stability and limiting opportunities for career advancement. To address these issues, the paper proposes comprehensive support measures, including targeted pre-departure training programs, access to retraining opportunities, and assistance in securing sustainable livelihoods. By prioritizing climate resilience and empowering blue-collared migrants to adapt effectively to new climates, it becomes possible to enhance their livelihood prospects, reduce poverty levels, and foster sustainable development. The paper concludes by highlighting the significance of integrating climate adaptation strategies with poverty alleviation efforts to create a more inclusive and resilient future for blue-collared migrants in their pursuit of sustainable livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0093.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: nanotechnology applications in road maintenance; preventative road surface maintenance; nanotechnology clear-seals; New-age (Nano) Modified Emulsions (NME); pot-hole repairs; modified binder slurry seals; hydrophobic slurries; hydrophobic road surface sealants; labour intensive maintenance; rapid employment creation through nanotechnology usage in road maintenance
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:34:49 CET)
: Nanotechnology options to road surface maintenance offers several advantages compared to traditionally used materials. The small particle sizer of hydrophobic Nano-Silane modified Nano-Polymers (NSNP) enables these nanotechnology products to deeply penetrate existing road surfaces, sealing micro-cracks and render surfacings to be water-resistant for extended periods of time. In comparison, traditionally used products contain minimum partial sizes of about 1 – 5 microns, that provide a superficial protection that wears off in a relatively short period of time. These traditional products are often associated with vehicle contamination while drying and requires the re-instatement of road markings. None of these disadvantages are associated with applicable NSNP technologies that are quick drying, with no vehicle contamination risks and is equivalent to a “clear-seal” requiring no reinstatement of road markings. In a similar vein, pot-hole repairs can be done using applicable, easy to use, pre-packed and treated pot-hole repair kits that are water-repellent and quick-drying at a fraction of the costs of conventional cold-mix products. Resurfacing using NME binder slurries can be done labour-intensively on a pre-treated NSNP surfacing, restoring cracked surfacing and providing a water-resistant long-lasting protective layer without the removal of existing cracked areas. The implementation of nanotechnology solutions for road surface maintenance operations is directly associated with ease of use, labour-intensive operations, prevention of considerable deterioration in riding quality due to removal and manual re-instatement of cracked surfaces, time and cost savings and a reduction in the risk of water damage to the sub-structure. TRANSLATE with x English ArabicHebrewPolish BulgarianHindiPortuguese CatalanHmong DawRomanian Chinese SimplifiedHungarianRussian Chinese TraditionalIndonesianSlovak CzechItalianSlovenian DanishJapaneseSpanish DutchKlingonSwedish EnglishKoreanThai EstonianLatvianTurkish FinnishLithuanianUkrainian FrenchMalayUrdu GermanMalteseVietnamese GreekNorwegianWelsh Haitian CreolePersian TRANSLATE with COPY THE URL BELOW Back EMBED THE SNIPPET BELOW IN YOUR SITE Enable collaborative features and customize widget: Bing Webmaster Portal Back TRANSLATE with x English ArabicHebrewPolish BulgarianHindiPortuguese CatalanHmong DawRomanian Chinese SimplifiedHungarianRussian Chinese TraditionalIndonesianSlovak CzechItalianSlovenian DanishJapaneseSpanish DutchKlingonSwedish EnglishKoreanThai EstonianLatvianTurkish FinnishLithuanianUkrainian FrenchMalayUrdu GermanMalteseVietnamese GreekNorwegianWelsh Haitian CreolePersian TRANSLATE with COPY THE URL BELOW Back EMBED THE SNIPPET BELOW IN YOUR SITE Enable collaborative features and customize widget: Bing Webmaster Portal Back