ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0028.v1
Online: 2 September 2022 (02:41:17 CEST)
Introduction: Blood pressure is described as the ratio of systolic pressure to diastolic pressure, with its normal values ranging from 100/60 to 140/90. For the risk of blood pressure, both men and women have the possibility of developing hypertension. The habits of people who consume coffee will impact increasing blood pressure. The frequency of drinking coffee over 3 cups per day can affect blood pressure, although fact, only because of this habit that a person has an increase in blood pressure. Aims: This study aims to determine the relationship between coffee drinking habits and increased blood pressure in the community. Method: This type of research uses an analytical description research method with a cross-sectional design of e population of the community around Pontianak city the habit of drinking coffee. The samples in this study were 50 people with a sampling technique using Probability sampling, namely with the Stratified Random Sampling technique. Data collection for coffee drinking habits using questionnaire sheets and observation sheets using a sphygmomanometer. Data analysis used Person Chi-Square and obtained p-value = 0.312 (p>0.05%). Result: These results showed that there was between coffee drinking habits and an increase in blood pressure. Conclusion: Researchers advise health workers to provide health promotion about coffee drinking rules and coffee drinking doses that are good for health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0318.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Other Keywords: Drinking water management; drinking water criteria; groundwater; reverse osmosis; sustainable development; water aesthetics
Online: 17 August 2022 (10:08:44 CEST)
A Water demand per capita will rise in the Arab world as a result of climate change and population expansion. One of the most important aims in coping with population increase around the world is to conserve water supplies. As a result, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia constructed Al Wajeed Water Treatment System to meet the demands of the southern population. This research aims to assess the drinking water quality produced from the AlWajeed Water Treatment System. Monthly water samples were collected (January 2018 to January 2021) from the Al Wajeed Water Treatment Framework (4sites), extending to governorates; Bishah`s distribution system (5sites) and Tathleeth`s distribution system (7sites). Water quality criteria, such as physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, revealed that the majority of water samples collected from the Al Wajeed Water Framework and its environs are of a good quality matched the national and international standards. Few sites showed water quality criteria, such turbidity, fluoride and total coliform did not comply with national and global standards. The obtained results explained the importance of monitoring and follow-up programs for drinking water criteria. In addition, they can help the authorities and stakeholders in the sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0131.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: Alcohol; Adolescence; Cognition; Drinking motives
Online: 5 September 2020 (08:18:57 CEST)
Increased motivation towards alcohol use and suboptimal behavioural control are suggested to predispose adolescents to Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs). Paradoxically however, most adolescent AUDs resolve over time without any formal intervention, suggesting adolescent resilience to AUDs. Importantly, studies directly comparing adolescent and adult alcohol use are largely missing. We therefore aimed to unravel the moderating role of age in the relation between alcohol use and motivational and control-related cognitive processes in 45 adolescent drinkers compared to 45 adults. The results showed that enhancement drinking motives and impulsivity related positively to alcohol use. Although enhancement drinking motives and impulsivity were higher in adolescents, the strength of the relation between these measures and alcohol use did not differ between age groups. None of the alcohol use-related motivational measures (i.e., craving, attentional bias, approach bias) and behavioral control measures (i.e., interference control, risky decision making, working-memory) were associated with alcohol use or differed between age groups. These findings support the role of impulsivity and affective sensitivity in adolescent drinking, but question the moderating role of age therein. The current study contributes towards understanding the role of age in the relation between alcohol use and cognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0429.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Adolescents; passive drinking; forced drinking; alcohol misuse; interactive video-based education; pre-post intervention study
Online: 27 October 2022 (08:50:37 CEST)
Passive and forced drinking harm was prevalent but less recognized in Chinese adolescents. We educated adolescents on such harm to reduce their intention to drink. Students (n=1244) from 7 secondary schools in Hong Kong participated in a video-based health talk on passive and forced drinking harm. Paired t-test was used to assess their change in knowledge of passive and forced drinking, health and social harm of drinking after the health talk. McNemar's chi-squared test and adjusted multivariable logistic regression (AOR) were used to assess their change in intention to drink and intention to quit. Students were less likely to drink (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.19-0.42) and more likely to quit drinking (OR 3.50, 1.10-14.6) after the health talk. Increased knowledge of passive drinking was associated with less intention to drink (AOR 0.93, 0.90-0.97), increased knowledge of health harm (adjusted b 0.06, 0.05-0.08), and social harm of drinking (adjusted b 0.12, 0.10-0.16). Similar associations were observed in forced drinking (intention to drink: AOR 0.87, 0.79-0.96; health harm: adjusted b 0.16, 0.12-0.19; social harm: adjusted b 0.36, 0.28-0.43). We showed preliminary evidence that the health talk on passive and forced drinking reduced the intention to drink in adolescents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0498.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Microplastics (MPs); Nanoplastics (NPs); Drinking Water
Online: 19 April 2021 (14:31:09 CEST)
Microplastics (MPs) are small pieces of plastics. They are ubiquitous in the environment and can enter the freshwater environment from surface run-off and wastewater effluent (treated and untreated), industrial effluent, degraded plastic waste, and atmospheric deposition. They are not usually destroyed but convert into one phase to another. They are a source of air pollution, occurring in dust and airborne fibrous particles. Mostly MPs are non-biodegradable while some MPs are biodegradable, which can be decomposed in the presence of ultraviolet (UV) light or by the action of microorganisms. Popular methods: chemical, spectroscopic, and thermo-analytical are available for the determination of the chemical composition and size of plastic particles. This chapter discusses the uses, health hazards, sources, and transport of MPs particles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular disease; smoking; drinking; underserved; disparities
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:55:10 CET)
The number one leading cause of death in 2017 for Americans was cardiovascular disease, and health disparities can exacerbate risks. This study evaluates the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n=437,436) to estimate population risks for behavioral, socio-economic, psychological, and biological factors. A general linear model with a quasi-binomial link function indicated higher risks for the following groups: smokers, individuals with higher body-mass index scores, persons unable to work, individuals with depression, workers who missed more days due to mental issues, the elderly, those in race categories “indigenous Americans, Alaskan non-Hispanics” or “other, non-Hispanic,” and individuals with lower income. The results confirm previous studies and raise more questions about drinking and cardiovascular disease. Policy and ethical considerations are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Drinking Water Source Protection; Drinking Water Safety; System Theoretic Process Analysis; Principle Components Analysis; Hazard Analysis.
Online: 3 April 2019 (11:43:49 CEST)
The success of source protection in ensuring safe drinking water is centered around being able to understand the hazards present in the catchment then plan and implement control measures to manage water quality risk to levels which can be controlled through downstream barriers. The programs in place to manage source protection are complex sociotechnical systems involving policy, standards, regulators, technology, human factors and so on. This study uses System Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to analyze the operational hazards of a typical drinking water source protection (DWSP) program and identify control measures to ensure safe operations. To validate the results a questionnaire was developed and distributed to specialists in DWSP in Taiwan, Australia and Greece. Using Principle Components Analysis (PCA) of the questionnaire responses, the study identified four critical success factors (CSFs) for DWSP. The four factors identified are ‘Policy and Government Agency Support of Source Protection’, ‘Catchment Risk Monitoring and Information’, ‘Support of Operational Field Activities’ and ‘Response to Water Quality Threats’. The results of this study provide insight into the approach of grouping of source protection measures to identify a series of targeted CSF for operational source protection programs. Using CSF can aide catchment management agencies in ensuring that the risk level in the catchment is managed effectively and that threats to public health from drinking water are managed appropriately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0020.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Alcohol drinking; Drug misuse; Family environment; Indonesian students.
Online: 3 September 2021 (14:46:44 CEST)
The family environment has an important role in determining children’s personality and behavior. This study examined the impact of the family environment on alcohol and drug misuse among Indonesian students. Data were obtained from the National Illicit Drug Use Survey of students in Indonesia in 2016, conducted in 18 provinces. The subjects were 35,340 students from 1284 schools and universities with an age range of 12-25 years. The survey used the self-administered modified NODC Structured Illicit Drug questionnaire. The results show that 13.7% of students ever drank alcohol and 2.1% of students misused drugs within the previous year. Among students who drank alcohol, 11% also used drugs. In the latter group, they were likely to have been victims of verbal and physical violence by their parents and never discussed any problems with their parents. Living with a family with existing risky behavior (alcohol drinking and/or drug misuse) was the strongest risk factor of alcohol drinking (aOR: 4.78; 4.27-5.37) and drug misuse (aOR: 2.32; 1.79-3.01). These results indicate that the family environment affects these risky behaviors in this target population. Making adjustments through parental support, control, and parenting style, particularly in initiating parent–child communication, may have benefits in preventing alcohol drinking and drug use in this target population.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0495.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Sulforaphane; Alcohol; Burkholderia; Binge drinking; MHS cells; Melioidosis
Online: 25 January 2021 (13:03:02 CET)
Binge drinking is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of pneumonic melioidosis can occur in healthy humans; however, binge alcohol intoxication is a major risk factor. Previous findings indicate that a single binge alcohol episode increases Burkholderia spp. infection by reducing alveolar macrophage function. The aim of this study was to test the ability of the phytonutrient sulforaphane (SFN) to rescue the phagocytic function of alveolar macrophages when infected with Burkholderia spp. in vitro. B. thailandensis E264 was used as a useful BSL-1 model to determine the effects of SFN pre-treatment. The primary outcome was macrophage phagocytic killing, while the secondary outcome was the nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like (Nrf2) signaling response measured by western blot analysis. Results indicate that alveolar macrophages pre-treated with SFN (5 M) and challenged with 0.2% (v/v) alcohol for 3 or 8 h prior to live B. thailandensis infection improved intracellular killing of B. thailandensis ~2-fold compared to MH-S cells treated with alcohol alone. These data demonstrate that SFN may be an effective pre-treatment option to prevent alcohol mediated immune dysfunction and restore macrophage phagocytic killing of Burkholderia spp. and other similar opportunistic pathogens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: adolescent; young adults; gender; smoking; drinking; Asian city
Online: 16 January 2018 (04:49:45 CET)
The study aims to explore gender differences in smoking and drinking in three Asian cities—Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, and assesses the magnitude of these gender differences across cities. A total of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15 to 24 years, residing in both urban and rural area of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei were selected by multistage sampling methods and surveyed by face to face interview. The gender differences are significant for smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors in each city. With respect to smoking-only, males are more than 30.66 times as likely to report it compared with females in Hanoi, followed by Shanghai and Taipei. The above trend holds true when further examining drinking-only and both smoking and drinking. The magnitude of gender differences in smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors widely vary across the three cities. Future research is needed to further examine the mechanisms behind these gender differences and how these differences may be utilized to prevent and reduce smoking and drinking in the adolescent and young adult population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0076.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: water consumption; drinking water; consumer preference; water usage purposes
Online: 5 July 2022 (13:45:20 CEST)
The aim were to determine the drinking water preferences of people applied to a family health center. This cross-sectional study was carried out from April 01st to May 31st, 2022. The data were evaluated using the chi-square test and percent ratios with a significant of P < 0.05. The mean age of all 432 respondents was 48.03±15.86. It was determined that those aged 31-45 had drunk more bottled water (p<0.01) and more spring water (p<0.001), that those aged 65 and over more purified water (p<0.001), that women more tap water (p<0.001), that married people had drunk more demijohn and tap water (p<0.001, each one), that divorced/widows had drunk more packaged and purified water (p<0.001, each one), that the illiterate/literate bottled water (p<0.001, per one), that those who had no income/people who lived on the state or municipal assistance only carboy water (p<0.001). This study suggests that the biggest factor that positively affected the drinking water preference was the packaging of the water. However, the drinking rates of mains water and spring water were quite low. Convincing the authorities to make the mains water drinkable is of great importance in terms of overcoming the public's distrust of mains water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition; Hydration; Dementia: Eating; Drinking; Food; Ethnic minorities; Culture
Online: 25 March 2022 (02:47:59 CET)
Eating and drinking difficulties are common in dementia, but little is known about the experiences of ethnic minority groups managing these difficulties at home. We undertook qualitative semi-structured interviews, exploring the meaning of food, the impact of dementia on eating and drinking and carers’ experiences of support. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interviewed 17 carers and people with dementia from ethnic minority backgrounds, using reflexive thematic analysis to analyse data. Food/drink had strong links to identity, culture and emotions. Providing culturally familiar foods, celebrating traditional festivals and supporting previous food-related roles promoted reminiscence, which encouraged people with dementia to eat and drink, as did social interactions. However, these strategies sometimes led to distress in those with more advanced dementia. Food choices were also influenced by carer strain, generational differences and the impact of health conditions. Despite a strong sense of duty to care for relatives at home, there was low awareness of community support services. Carers expressed a need for culturally tailored support for managing dementia-related eating and drinking difficulties at home. Healthcare professionals must provide contextually relevant advice to carers, being mindful of how cultural backgrounds can affect dietary choices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Sustainability model; SDGs; Clean water; Drinking water; Water security.
Online: 24 January 2022 (02:08:49 CET)
Water resources are under pressure because of human activities. Its management faces the challenge of enhancing long-term water security while minimizing undesirable economic, social, and environmental impacts along with its production chain. Since water and wastewater treatment plants are designed to maintain and conserve freshwater provisioning services, it is paramount to understand how it operates before proposing options for sustainability. At this point, the diagnosis phase claims for methods scientifically-based, systemic, and more objective to provide information for decision-makers towards strategic management of water resources. This work applies the five-sector sustainability model (5SenSu) to assess Brazil's twenty major water and wastewater treatment companies (WWTC) to quantify their sustainability levels that allow ranking procedures and the establishment of benchmarks for improvements. Under comparative basis, results identified the top-three sustainable companies, CORSAN, CASAN, and SANEPAR, which should be considered examples of best practices. Specifically, the following best-ranked companies in each sector within 5SenSu should be used as benchmark patterns for more oriented best practices: SANEAGO, sector 1; AGESISA, sector 2; CORSAN, sector 3; CASAL, sector 4; MA, sector 5. This work contributes to the advancement in modeling sustainability assessment of human-managed systems (applied in WWTCs in this present study) from a systemic and epistemologically rooted approach, avoiding shortcomings and misleading discussions on the sustainability issue. Quantifying sustainability of WWTCS from 5SenSu allows the identification of those sectors/indicators that requires immediate cleaner production practices by decision-makers to improve overall sustainability, besides identifying those companies more aligned with the requirements of UN SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: alcohol drinking; health knowledge; physician attitudes; standard drink; wine
Online: 9 August 2018 (08:07:39 CEST)
Despite epidemiological findings of improvements in cardiovascular risk factors with a light-to-moderate intake of alcohol, many misconceptions remain regarding alcohol intake and the risks and benefits of consumption. We sought to examine physician attitudes and recommendations regarding alcohol intake in a cohort of Argentine physicians and to establish their sources of knowledge. An online national survey was distributed through the Argentine Federation of Cardiology (FAC) to cardiologists, internal medicine specialists, general and other subspecialty physicians in Argentina. The survey was completed by 745 physicians, of whom 671 (90%) were cardiologists. In total, 35% of physicians viewed moderate alcohol intake to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, 36% believed only wine offered such benefits, 24% viewed any intake to be harmful, and 5% had other opinions. More than half (57%) self-reported their knowledge to come from academic sources. Regarding knowledge of drinking guidelines, only 41% of physicians were aware of the concept of ‘standard drink’. Physicians were generally not comfortable converting ‘standard drinks’ into other metric units, however men tended to be more comfortable than women (p=0.052). Physicians were not satisfied with their knowledge of drinking guidelines (3.01 ± 2.73, on a 0-10 scale). Physicians were generally comfortable in counselling patients regarding safe-limits of consumption (6.22 ± 3.20, on a 0-10 scale). Argentine physicians were not satisfied with their knowledge of alcohol consumption guidelines or their understanding of the reported metrics. Only one-third of study participants viewed moderate alcohol intake as beneficial for cardiovascular health. This study shows the necessity to optimize the sources of knowledge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0202.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: bacterial inactivation; drinking water; electromagnetic fields; electroporation; Escherichia coli
Online: 30 November 2017 (11:22:25 CET)
Bacteria play a key role in both human health and disease. One of the most prevalent harmful bacteria is E. coli which is responsible for several illnesses ranging from diarrhea, stomach cramp and fever. In this work we explore the application of moderate electric or magnetic fields for treating deionized water that is contaminated with E. coli. We found that moderate alternating electric (AC) fields (10 V/cm to 1kV/cm) and moderate static magnetic fields (10 to 65 mT) can significantly inactivate E. coli by up to 90% or more. This provides the possibilities of developing a low cost and a practical bacteria inactivation technique using electric or magnetic fields.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0214.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Drinking water; potable water; public health surveillance; quality control; government.
Online: 15 September 2022 (02:17:24 CEST)
This study identified and mapped worldwide surveillance actions and initiatives of drinking water quality implemented by government agencies or public health services. The scoping review was conducted between July 2021 and August 2022 based on the Joanna Briggs Institute. The search was performed in relevant databases and grey literature; 49 studies were obtained. Quantitative variables were presented as absolute and relative frequencies, while qualitative variables were analyzed using the IRaMuTeQ software. The actions developed worldwide and their impacts and results provided four thematic classes: (1) assessment of coverage, accessibility, quantity, and drinking water quality in routine and emergency situations; (2) analysis of physical-chemical and microbiological parameters in public supply networks or alternative water supply solutions; (3) identification of household water contamination, communication, and education with the community; (4) and investigation of water-borne disease outbreaks. Preliminary results were shared with stakeholders to favor early knowledge dissemination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0124.v1
Subject: Keywords: Drinking water; Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; Harmful algal blooms; Microcystin
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:25:15 CEST)
Clean, fresh, and safe drinking water is essential to human health and well-being. Occasionally, chemical pollutants taint surface water quality used for consumption. Microcystins (MCs) are toxic heptapeptides produced by freshwater cyanobacteria. These secondary metabolites can reach hazardous concentrations, impairing surface drinking water supplies. Inconsistent screening of MCs is not uncommon in Florida waters as no provisional guidance value is established to protect public health. The occurrence of MCs in Lake Manatee and Lake Washington was monitored over the potential peak algae bloom season (June-August). An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) quantified total MCs in two drinking water systems. Varied concentrations occurred between June and July, whereas concentrations peaked in August. Overall, MC prevalence was higher in Lake Manatee than Lake Washington. Colorimetric assays measured phosphate and nitrite in environmental water samples. Phosphate and nitrite concentrations strongly correlated with total MCs (p < 0.01). The results indicate the intrinsic nature of environmental MCs in surface drinking water supplies and the need to examine hepatotoxin dynamics to preserve drinking water quality in community served areas.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0049.v1
Subject: Keywords: diarrhoeal cases; drinking water; water sources; water pollution; Darbandikhan Lake
Online: 2 August 2020 (17:41:51 CEST)
Water pollution in Iraq has been extended disaster edge; this pollution is caused by wastes and sewages into soil and rivers, pollutant water sources influence the outbreak and serious epidemic status among the population.. The aim of this study is to determine the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources and characteristics of water-borne diseases especially diarrheal cases in Darbandikhan city. 166 water samples, collected from the different sources and areas, were tested for the presences of coliform bacteria as an indicator for pathogen contamination. Most probable number index was used for coliform enumeration. 161 diarrheal cases were taken as a sample from the patients were admitted to the general hospital in Darbandikhan district.. The questionnaire form was planned to view characteristics of diarrheal cases and patients were interviewed directly, the data was analyzed by STATA software application. 46% of the diarrheal cases used tap water for drinking. On the other hand, the reminder (54%) used other sources for the same purpose. All the risk factor such as type of water source, sufficiency of the water, duration of water storage and chlorination were associated with diarrhea. Almost half of the cases were children and three quarters were single. The data was analyzed by STATA version 13.1.This study indicated that the majority of drinking water sources in Darbandikhan city are not suitable for drinking, although net pipe system supplied chlorine significantly it has been proven that the tap water from the homes is not suitable for consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0405.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: drinking water; lead; Pb; flush; exposure prevention; intervention; lead service line
Online: 29 May 2018 (09:39:42 CEST)
Flushing tap water is often promoted as a simple and low cost approach to reducing water lead exposures. This study evaluated lead reduction when prevailing flush guidelines (30 seconds-2 minutes) are implemented in a city compliant with lead-associated water regulations (New Orleans, LA). Water samples (n=1,497) collected from a convenience sample of 376 residential sites (2015-2017) were analyzed for lead in samples collected: at 1) first draw (n=375), and after incremental flushes of 2) 30-45 seconds (n=375), 3) 2.5-3 minutes (n=373), and 4) 5.5-6 minutes (n=218). There was no significant reduction when compared to the first draw lead level, until the 6 minute flush (p<0.05); but most sites (52%) still had detectable lead (≥1 ppb) after 6 minutes. Older homes (pre-1950) and low occupancy sites had significantly higher WLLs (p<0.05).Each sample type had health-based standard exceedances at over 50% of sites sampled (max: 58 ppb). While flushing is an effective short-term approach to remediate high lead, prevailing flush recommendations are an inconsistently effective exposure prevention measure that can often inadvertently increase exposures. Public health messages should be modified to ensure appropriate application of flushing for specific cities, while acknowledging its short-comings and practical limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0359.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Drinking water; rapid sand filtration; Recreational areas; Exposure; Microcystis and Dolichospermum; Microcystins
Online: 25 July 2022 (08:16:59 CEST)
Africa’s water needs are often supported by eutrophic waterbodies dominated by cyanobacteria posing health threats to riparian populations from cyanotoxins, and Lake Victoria is no exception. In two embayments of the lake (Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf), cyanobacterial surveys were conducted to characterize the dynamics of cyanotoxins in lake water and water treatment plants. Forty-six cyanobacterial taxa were recorded and out of these 14 were considered potentially toxigenic (i.e., from the genera Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Pseudanabaena and Raphidiopsis). A higher concentration (ranging from 5-10 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) of microcystins (MCs) was detected in Murchison Bay compared to Napoleon Gulf, with a declining gradient from the inshore (max. 15 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1) to the open lake. In Murchison Bay, an increase either in Microcystis sp. biovolume and MC was observed over the last two decades. Despite high cell densities of toxigenic Microcystis and high MC concentrations, the water treatment plant in Murchison Bay efficiently removed the cyanobacterial biomass, intracellular and dissolved MC to below the lifetime guideline value for exposure via drinking water (< 1.0 µg MC-LR equiv. L-1). Thus, the potential health threats stem from the consumption of untreated water and recreational activities, along the shores of the lake embayments. MC concentrations were predicted from Microcystis cell numbers regulated by environmental factors such as solar radiation, wind speed in the N-S direction and turbidity. Thus, an early warning through microscopical counting of Microcystis cell numbers is proposed to better manage health risks from toxigenic cyanobacteria in Lake Victoria.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0136.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: lead ions; fluorescence detection; ionophore; Benzo-18-Crown-6-ether; drinking water
Online: 30 October 2018 (07:42:15 CET)
Drinking water contamination of lead from various environmental sources, leaching consumer products and intrinsic water-pipe infrastructure is still today a matter of great concern. Therefore, new highly sensitive and convenient Pb2+ measurement schemes are necessary, especially for in-situ measurements at a low-cost. Within this work dye/ionophore/Pb2+ co-extraction and effective water phase de-colorization was utilized for highly sensitive lead measurements and sub-ppb naked-eye detection. A low-cost ionophore Benzo-18-Crown-6-ether was used, and a simple test-tube mix and separate procedure was developed. Instrumental detection limits were in the low ppt region (LOD=3, LOQ=10), and naked-eye detection was 500 ppt. Note, however, that this sensing scheme still has improvement potential as concentrations of fluorophore and ionophore were not optimized. Artificial tap-water samples, leached by a standardized method, demonstrated drinking water application. Implications for this method are convenient in-situ lead ion measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0542.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: Passive drinking; perceived health status; mental health; family wellbeing; adolescents; Hong Kong Chinese
Online: 30 January 2023 (06:51:39 CET)
Background: Passive drinking is prevalent in adolescents worldwide, but its prevalence and harm are understudied. Methods: Secondary students (n=5840, grades 7-12) from 23 selected schools in Hong Kong participated in the survey from 2015-16. Students reported the harm of passive drinking, perceived health status, Patient Health Questionnaire-2, Perceived Stress Scale-4, perceived happiness, family health, happiness, and harmony in the questionnaire. The associations were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio, OR) and linear regression (unstandardized coefficient, b), adjusted for confounders. Results: 29.1% (95% CI 27.8 to 30.5%) of students experienced passive drinking in the past 30-day. Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a higher level of depressive symptoms (AOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.10), stress (adjusted b 0.76, 0.42 to 1.10), and lower level of perceived happiness (adjusted b -0.52, -0.72 to -0.33). Past 30-day parental passive drinking was associated with a lower level of family health (adjusted b -1.39, 95% CI -1.66 to -1.11), family happiness (adjusted b -1.36, -1.64 to -1.08), and family harmony (adjusted b -1.40, -1.70 to -1.10). Conclusion: Passive drinking was associated with poorer mental health, family wellbeing, and lower level of happiness among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0432.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: infrared spectroscopy; diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy; ion-exchange resin; drinking water
Online: 21 September 2018 (08:29:11 CEST)
Infrared spectroscopy is an effective method for the determination of compositions and concentrations of liquids, with advantages of fast response, no-sampling, flexible in use and is able for on-line monitoring. However, for trace substances in drinking water, such as nitrates and heavy metals, infrared spectroscopy is not sensitive enough for the quantitative and qualitative measurement. In this study, we improved the sensitivity of infrared spectroscopy for nitrite determination by developing an ion-exchange-enhanced diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, which consist of an accessory based on ion-exchange resin for enrichment and a FTIR spectrometer for measurement. Using this method, the limit of detection for nitrate is 1.7 mg/L, which is enough for drinking water sensing. We also verified the quantitative measurement ability of the method. Furthermore, the limit of detection and quantitative measuring range could be adjusted by changing the mass of resin and adsorption time. This study demonstrated the method can be used to detect trace nitrites in drinking water, can be applied in the field, and is sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive with a wide dynamic range.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0066.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: salinity; drinking water sodium (DWS), high blood pressure; maternal health; pond sand filter (PSF)
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:26:40 CET)
Increasing salt intake has substantial negative impacts on health and well-being. This review article focusses on the effect of salinity intrusion (SI) on the water quality and community health of coastal Bangladesh and to find out the effectiveness of interventions for reducing the negative effects of salinity. Saline water is a noteworthy reason for hypertension or high blood pressure in the coastal areas. Health status of women especially the pregnant women are vulnerable because of drinking water sodium (DWS) prompting to pre-eclampsia, high blood pressure and hypertension as well as infant mortality. Several interventions such as rainwater harvesting and Pond sand filter (PSF) system as well as managed aquifer recharge (MAR) usage and the integration of mixed sources were reviewed on the content of drinking water sodium (DWS). Although rainwater has the positive impact of low or no sodium intake on human health, it still possesses negative impacts from not having vital minerals. Despite what might be expected, in MAR a steady increment in sodium concentration through the span of the dry season was observed. It is, subsequently, important to increase awareness about drinking water sodium (DWS) intake by providing and adopting correct technological interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0048.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: emergency rainwater tanks; earthquake; Wellington; health hazards; drinking-water quality; E. coli; lead; zinc
Online: 13 October 2016 (05:41:48 CEST)
The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience. However, little attention has been paid to potential health hazards associated with consumption of these supplies. To assess health hazards for householders in emergency situations, six 200-litre emergency water tanks were installed at properties across the Wellington region, with five tanks being allowed to fill with roof-collected rainwater and one tank being filled with municipal tapwater as a control. Such tanks are predominantly set aside for water storage, and once filled, feature limited drawdown and recharge. Sampling from these tanks was carried out fortnightly for one year, and samples analysed for E. coli, pH, conductivity, a range of major and trace elements, and organic compounds, enabling an assessment of the evolution of water chemistry in water storage tanks over time. Key findings were that the overall rate of E.coli detections in the rain-fed tanks was 17.7%, which is low in relation to other studies. We propose that low incidences of E.coli may be due to biocidal effects of high zinc concentrations in tanks, originating from unpainted galvanised steel roof cladding. Lead concentrations were high compared to other studies, with 69% of rain-fed tank samples exceeding the World Health Organisation’s health-based guideline of 0.01 mg/L. Further work is required to determine risks of short-term consumption of this water in emergency situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0038.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: historical reconstruction; modeling; drinking water; water quality; VOC; epidemiological study; health study; Camp Lejeune
Online: 4 August 2016 (10:09:23 CEST)
A U.S. government health agency conducted epidemiological studies to evaluate whether exposures to drinking water contaminated with volatile organic compounds at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, were associated with increased health risks to children and adults. These health studies required knowledge of contaminant concentrations in drinking water—at monthly intervals—delivered to family housing, barracks, and other facilities within the study area. Because concentration data were limited or unavailable during much of the period of contamination (1950s–1985), the historical reconstruction process was used to quantify estimates of monthly mean contaminant-specific concentrations. This paper integrates many efforts, reports, and papers into a synthesis of the overall approach to, and results from, a drinking-water historical reconstruction study. Results show that at the Tarawa Terrace water treatment plant (WTP) reconstructed (simulated) tetrachloroethylene (PCE) concentrations reached a maximum monthly average value of 183 micrograms per liter (ug/L) compared to a one-time maximum measured value of 215 ug/L and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s current maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 ug/L during the period November 1957–February 1987. At the Hadnot Point WTP, reconstructed trichloroethylene (TCE) concentrations reached a maximum monthly average value of 783 ug/L compared to a one-time maximum measured value of 1,400 ug/L during the period August 1953–December 1984. The Hadnot Point WTP also provided contaminated drinking water to the Holcomb Boulevard housing area continuously prior to June 1972, when the Holcomb Boulevard WTP came on line (maximum reconstructed TCE concentration of 32 ug/L) and intermittently during the period June 1972–February 1985 (maximum reconstructed TCE concentration of 66 ug/L). Applying the historical reconstruction process to quantify contaminant-specific monthly drinking-water concentrations is advantageous for epidemiological studies when compared to using the classical exposed versus unexposed approach.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0148.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: microcystin; saxitoxin; cylindrospermopsin; anatoxin-a; anatoxin-a(S); cyanobacteria; organic anion transporting polypeptide; phosphatase inhibitor; acetylcholinesterase; neurotoxicity; water quality; eutrophication; drinking water
Online: 20 March 2017 (06:17:48 CET)
Cyanobacteria are ubiquitous phototrophic bacteria that inhabit diverse environments across the planet. They dominate many eutrophic lakes impacted by excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) forming dense accumulations of biomass known as cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms or cyanoHABs. Their dominance in eutrophic lakes is attributed to a variety of unique adaptations including N and P concentrating mechanisms, N fixation, colony formation that inhibits predation, vertical movement via gas vesicles, and the production of toxic or otherwise bioactive molecules. While some of these molecules have been explored for their medicinal benefits, others are potent toxins harmful to humans, animals, and other wildlife known as cyanotoxins. In humans these cyanotoxins affect various tissues, including the liver, central and peripheral nervous system, kidneys, and reproductive organs among others. They induce acute effects at low doses in the parts-per-billion range and some are tumor promoters linked to chronic diseases such as liver and colorectal cancer. The occurrence of cyanoHABs and cyanotoxins in lakes presents challenges for maintaining safe recreational aquatic environments and the production of potable drinking water. CyanoHABs are a growing problem in the North American (Laurentian) Great Lakes basin. This review summarizes information on the occurrence of cyanoHABs in the Great Lakes, toxicological effects of cyanotoxins, and appropriate numerical limits on cyanotoxins in finished drinking water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0429.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Microplastics; Polyethylene Ocean Water; Microplastics identification; Microorganisms identification; Ocean Water quality; Drinking water; Food quality; Cancer and microplastics; plastic and ocean; particle physics; particle accelerators in environmental studies.
Online: 18 September 2020 (11:03:59 CEST)
The study presented hereafter shows a new methodology to reveal traces of polyethylene (the most common microplastic particles, known as a structure of C2H4) in a sample of ocean water by the irradiation of a 50 keV, 1 µA electron beam. This is performed by analyzing the photon (produced by the electrons in water ) fluxes and spectra (i.e. fluxes as a function of photon energy) at different types of contaminated water with an adequate device and in particular looking at the peculiar interactions of electrons/photons with the potential abnormal atomic hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), carbon (C), phosphorus (P) compositions present in the water, as a function of living and not living organic organisms with a PO4 group RNA/DNA strands in a cluster configuration through a volumetric cells grid.