ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0460.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: multiepitope; recombinant protein; immunodiagnosis; Chagas disease
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:17:58 CET)
Background: Chagas disease is still a neglected disease considered a public health problem. Early diagnosis of cases is important to improve the prognosis of infected patients and prevent transmission. Serological tests are the method of choice for diagnosis. However, two serological tests are currently recommended to confirm positive cases. In this sense, more sensitive and specific serological tests need to be developed to overcome the problems currently faced. This study aimed to develop a new recombinant multiepitope protein for the diagnosis of Chagas disease, hereafter named rTC. Methods: The rTC was constructed based on amino acid sequences from different combinations of Trypanossoma cruzi antigens in the same polypeptide and tested in ELISA for detecting different Chagas disease. Results: rTC1 was able to discriminate between indeterminate (IND) and cardiac (CARD) cases and cross-reactive diseases, and healthy samples, with 96.6% sensitivity and 97.96% specificity, respectively. Conclusion: These data suggest a preliminary study that rTC1 has the po-tential to be tested in future studies against a larger serological panel for the diagnosis of Chagas disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0059.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: chagas disease; cardiomyopathy; mitochondrial stress; endoplasmic reticulum stress; 2-aminopurine
Online: 3 August 2018 (04:36:58 CEST)
Trypanosoma cruzi infection results in debilitating cardiomyopathy, which is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the endemic regions of Chagas disease (CD). The pathogenesis of Chagasic cardiomyopathy (CCM) has been intensely studied as a chronic inflammatory disease until recent observations reporting the role of cardio-metabolic dysfunctions. In particular, we demonstrated accumulation of lipid droplets and impaired cardiac lipid metabolism in the hearts of cardiomyopathic mice and patients, and their association with impaired mitochondrial functions and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in CD mice. In the present study, we examined whether treating infected mice with an ER stress inhibitor can modify the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathy during chronic stages of infection. T. cruzi infected mice were treated with an ER stress inhibitor 2-Aminopurine (2AP) during the indeterminate stage and evaluated for cardiac pathophysiology during the subsequent chronic stage. Our study demonstrates that inhibition of ER stress improves cardiac pathology caused by T. cruzi infection by reducing ER stress and downstream signaling of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor (P-elF2α) in the hearts of chronically infected mice. Importantly, cardiac ultrasound imaging showed amelioration of ventricular enlargement, suggesting that inhibition of ER stress may be a valuable strategy to combat the progression of cardiomyopathy in Chagas patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Chagas disease; cost of illness; mortality premature; efficiency; organizational; life expectancy
Online: 15 April 2020 (10:18:15 CEST)
Economic burden due to premature mortality has a negative impact not only in health system even though in the society. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential years of work tenure lost (PYWL) due to Chagas disease in Colombia from 2010-2017. National data on mortality by sex and ages between 15 and 62 dues to Chagas from 2010 to 2017. The PYWL methodology was applied to assess the impact of Chagas disease in workers who suffer from them. In total, 1,261 deaths were analyzed in the study, of which 60% corresponded to males. The loss of labor productivity caused by Chagas disease was estimated at $29 million. Overall, 48,621 PYWL were lost, and there was an average of 21 years for all subjects with Chagas. Throughout the analyzed period, PYWL increased substantially, and it is necessary to continue with early detection programs to avoid premature death in working age population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0054.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Chagas Disease; surface proteins; disperse protein family; Trypanosoma cruzi
Online: 3 February 2023 (03:11:08 CET)
Abstract Chaga´s disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infections is included in the group of neglected diseases, and efforts to develop new therapeutic or immunoprevention approaches have not been successful. After the publication of the T. cruzi genome, the number of molecular and biochemical studies on this parasite have increased considerably, many of which are focused on families of variant-surface-proteins, especially the trans-sialidases, mucins and mucin-associated proteins. The disperse gene protein 1 family (DGF-1) is one of the most abundant families in the T. cruzi genome, however, the large gene size, high copy numbers, and low antibody titers detected in infected humans make it an unattractive study target. Here, we argue that the DGF-1 gene family although not being the most obvious participant of the host-parasite immunological gamble, where T. cruzi appears to have the upper hand, it may play an important role in more basic host-parasite interactions that deserve further examination.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0166.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Chagas Disease; Trypanosoma cruzi; benznidazole; nifurtimox; antimicrobial susceptibility test
Online: 15 October 2019 (08:26:29 CEST)
We ascertain the in vitro Benznidazole (BZN) and Nifurtimox (NFX) susceptibility pattern of epimastigotes, trypomastigotes, and amastigotes of 21 T. cruzi strains, from patients, reservoir and triatomine bugs of various geographic origin. Using this panel of isolates, we compute the Epidemiological cut off value (COwt). Then, the frequency of the susceptible phenotype (Wild type) towards BZN and nifurtimox (NFX) within this set of strains belonging to 3 discrete typing units (DTUs), TcI, TcII, and TcV was deduced. We have observed that the susceptibility status of individual T. cruzi isolates toward BZN and NFX is related to the genetic background and to underlying factors probably related to the individual life trait history of each strain. Analyzing drug susceptibility in this conceptual framework would offers the possibility to evidence a link between isolates expressing a low susceptibility level (not wild-type) as define by the COwt value and none-curative treatment. It will also permit to tract drug-resistant parasites in T. cruzi population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0213.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: Chagas Disease; Laron Syndrome; Growth Hormone; Trypanosoma cruzi; GHR-/- mice; bGH mice
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:15:59 CET)
Chagas disease (CD) is one of the most devasting parasitic diseases in the Americas affecting 7 to 8 million people worldwide. In vitro and in vivo experiments have demonstrated that decreased growth hormone (GH) serum levels occur as CD progresses. Interestingly, inactivating mutations in the GH receptor in humans induce Laron syndrome (LS), a clinical entity characterized by increased GH and decreased insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) serum levels. The largest cohort of LS subjects lives in the southern provinces of Ecuador. Remarkably, CD prevalence in these individuals is diminished despite living in highly endemic areas. In the current ex vivo study, we employed serum from GHR -/- mice, also known as LS mice (a model of GH resistance with high GH and low IGF-1 levels), and serum from bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice (high GH and IGF-1), to test the effect on T. cruzi infection. We infected mouse fibroblast L-cells treated with serum from each type of mouse with metacyclic trypomastigotes from Trypanosoma cruzi (etiological CD infectious agent). Treatment with GHR-/- serum (LS mice) significantly decreased infection by 28% compared to 48% seen in control wild-type mouse serum (WT). Treatment with bGH mouse serum significantly decreased infection by only 41% compared to 54% from WT controls. Our results suggest that high GH and low IGF-1 in blood circulation, as typically seen in LS individuals, confers partial protection against T. cruzi infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0325.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Leishmaniases; Chagas disease; Human African Trypanosomiasis; Animal trypanosomiasis; Diagnosis; non-invasive; Meta-analysis; Vector Born diseases; Neglected tropical disease; Diagnosis
Online: 23 February 2020 (13:44:05 CET)
Unicellular eukaryotes of the Trypanosomatidae family include human and animal pathogens that belong to the Trypanosoma and Leishmania genera. Diagnosis of the diseases they caused requires the sampling of body fluids (blood, lymph, peritoneal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.) or organ biopsies (bone marrow, spleen, etc.), which are mostly obtained through invasive methods. Body fluids or appendages can be alternatives to these invasive biopsies but appropriateness remains poorly studied. To further address this question, we perform a systematic review on clues evidencing the presence of parasites, genetic material, antibodies, and antigens in body secretions, appendages, or the organs or proximal tissues that produce these materials. Paper selection was based on searches in PubMed, Web of Science, WorldWideScience, SciELO, Embase, Google. The information of each selected article (n=333) was classified into different sections and data were extracted from 77 papers. The presence of Trypanosomatidae parasites has been tracked in most of organs or proximal tissues that produce body secretions or appendages, in naturally or experimentally infected hosts. The meta-analysis highlights the paucity of studies on Human African Trypanosomiasis and a the absence on animal Trypanosomiasis. Among the collected data high heterogeneity in terms of the I2 statistic (100%) is recorded. A high positivity is recorded for antibody and genetic material detection in urine of patients and dogs suffering leishmaniasis, and of antigen for leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Data on conjunctival swab can be analyzed with molecular methods solely for dogs suffering canine visceral leishmaniasis. Saliva and hair/bristle showed a pretty good positivity that support their potential to be used for leishmaniasis diagnosis. In conclusion, our study pinpoints significant gaps that need to be filled in order to properly address the interest of body secretion and hair or bristle for the diagnosis of infections caused by Leishmania and by other Trypanosomatidae parasites.