Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Noninvasive Biological Samples to Detect and Diagnose Infections due to Trypanosomatidae Parasites: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Version 1 : Received: 21 February 2020 / Approved: 23 February 2020 / Online: 23 February 2020 (13:44:05 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Sereno, D.; Akhoundi, M.; Sayehmri, K.; Mirzaei, A.; Holzmuller, P.; Lejon, V.; Waleckx, E. Noninvasive Biological Samples to Detect and Diagnose Infections due to Trypanosomatidae Parasites: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1684. Sereno, D.; Akhoundi, M.; Sayehmri, K.; Mirzaei, A.; Holzmuller, P.; Lejon, V.; Waleckx, E. Noninvasive Biological Samples to Detect and Diagnose Infections due to Trypanosomatidae Parasites: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1684.

Journal reference: Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1684
DOI: 10.3390/ijms21051684

Abstract

Unicellular eukaryotes of the Trypanosomatidae family include human and animal pathogens that belong to the Trypanosoma and Leishmania genera. Diagnosis of the diseases they caused requires the sampling of body fluids (blood, lymph, peritoneal fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, etc.) or organ biopsies (bone marrow, spleen, etc.), which are mostly obtained through invasive methods. Body fluids or appendages can be alternatives to these invasive biopsies but appropriateness remains poorly studied. To further address this question, we perform a systematic review on clues evidencing the presence of parasites, genetic material, antibodies, and antigens in body secretions, appendages, or the organs or proximal tissues that produce these materials. Paper selection was based on searches in PubMed, Web of Science, WorldWideScience, SciELO, Embase, Google. The information of each selected article (n=333) was classified into different sections and data were extracted from 77 papers. The presence of Trypanosomatidae parasites has been tracked in most of organs or proximal tissues that produce body secretions or appendages, in naturally or experimentally infected hosts. The meta-analysis highlights the paucity of studies on Human African Trypanosomiasis and a the absence on animal Trypanosomiasis. Among the collected data high heterogeneity in terms of the I2 statistic (100%) is recorded. A high positivity is recorded for antibody and genetic material detection in urine of patients and dogs suffering leishmaniasis, and of antigen for leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Data on conjunctival swab can be analyzed with molecular methods solely for dogs suffering canine visceral leishmaniasis. Saliva and hair/bristle showed a pretty good positivity that support their potential to be used for leishmaniasis diagnosis. In conclusion, our study pinpoints significant gaps that need to be filled in order to properly address the interest of body secretion and hair or bristle for the diagnosis of infections caused by Leishmania and by other Trypanosomatidae parasites.

Subject Areas

Leishmaniases; Chagas disease; Human African Trypanosomiasis; Animal trypanosomiasis; Diagnosis; non-invasive; Meta-analysis; Vector Born diseases; Neglected tropical disease; Diagnosis

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