ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0391.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: catalase; flavonoids; hydrogen peroxide; proline, soluble sugars
Online: 15 June 2021 (09:25:13 CEST)
The role of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on enhancing tolerance of plants to abiotic stresses is well reported, but the effects of RGPRs on plants under salinity stress are not widely studied in the literature. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of Halomonas sp. and Azotobacter sp. on antioxidant activity, secondary metabolites, and biochemicals changes of purple basil under salinity stress conditions. The applied salt concentrations in this study were 50, 100, and 150 mM sodium chloride (NaCl). Salinity stress had a negative effect on plant growth parameters. Moreover, a reduction in some of the osmolytes and oxidative stress markers was observed. Inoculated plants ameliorated the oxidative damage by reducing the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents and by increasing osmolytes (proline, total proteins, and soluble sugars), antioxidant enzymes activities (catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) and secondary metabolites (flavonoids). Overall, among treatments, plants inoculated with Azotobacter showed a better impact on physiological attributes to alleviate the adverse effects of 150 mM NaCl salinity stress on basil growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0534.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Ascorbate oxidase; Biomimetics; Catalase; Coordination compounds; Peroxidase
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:49:52 CET)
Biomimetic compounds are an alternative for to the limited action and fragile nature of enzymes. This work deals with the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of catalytic activity of two new biomimetic models for the active centers of ascorbate oxidase and catalase. [Cu3(S,S(+)cpse)3(H2O)3][Cu3(R,R(-)cpse)3(H2O)3]·17H2O (model for ascorbate oxidase, 1), and [Mn2(S,S(+)Hcpse)4(NaClO4)2(NaOH)(CH4O)]n·[(C2H6O)2]n·[(CH4O)2]n (model for catalase, 2) were prepared through the synchronic method (yields > 78%). The compound 1 has electronic and optical characteristics for racemic compound. The magnetic properties and electrochemical behavior evidence electronic transfer between metal centers. Meanwhile, the compound 2 showed polymeric properties in solid state and dimeric behavior in solution. Compound 1 was able to effectively catalyze the oxidation of ascorbic acid to dehydroascorbic acid (65.6% and 78.24% for racemic and enantiomeric pure compounds) showing structural and functional similarity to the natural enzyme. Besides, Compound 2 catalyzed the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide toward oxygen and water molecules (45%), evidencing that the prepared complex mimics the action of catalases. These two biomimetic models are relationship between them for the structural ligands, the coordination form to metal center and the catalytic activity as oxidase. This research shows the relationship with the design, evaluation, and comprehension of fundamentals aspects for the biomimetic models of active center of metalloenzymes that have importance for biological and industrial processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0323.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: catalase activity; hydrogen peroxide; hydroquinone; anilinium sulfate; ammonium molybdate
Online: 29 October 2019 (04:04:50 CET)
Background: Catalase is a vital antioxidant enzyme that dismutates H2O2 into water and molecular oxygen. Many protocols have been developed to measure catalase enzyme activity. Spectrophotometric methods are the most common assays that used to assess catalase enzyme activity. Methods: Because the rate-limiting step during catalase enzyme activity depends upon the dissociation of hydrogen peroxide, the developed assay measures the reaction between a hydroquinone/anilinium sulfate/ammonium molybdate reagent and Unreacted Hydrogen Peroxide, which results in the production of a purple, disubstituted quinone compound with a maximum absorbance value at 550 nm. Results: To clarify the precision of the developed method, the coefficients of variation were determined to be 2.6% and 4.7% for within run measurements and between run measurements, respectively. This method returned results that correlated well (r = 0.9982) with the results returned using the peroxovanadate method to assess catalase enzyme activity. Additionally, we examined the use of the newly developed hydroquinone assay to measure catalase enzyme activity in liver and bacterial homogenate samples. Conclusion: These results demonstrated that this assay can be used for scientific research and routine health applications because it is inexpensive, simple, accurate, and rapid. This method is suitable for use in clinical pathology laboratories because it is simple and produces precise and reproducible results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0360.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Breast cancer; Oxidative stress; Healthy lifestyle; Catalase; Gene–environment interaction
Online: 23 September 2022 (07:11:45 CEST)
Lifestyle has been associated with breast cancer risk through different pathways, including oxidative stress. Antioxidant enzymes are endogenous defense mechanisms against oxidative stress damage, and this response might be modulated by the genetic variation in these enzyme-codifying genes. This study aimed to analyze the synergistic effect of an antioxidant Healthy Lifestyle Index (HeLiX) composed of principal components of Western dietary pattern, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity, and genetic polymorphisms in the first-line antioxidant response family genes SOD, GPX, and CAT on breast cancer risk. We included 176 SNPs, and only CAT rs554576 remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons. Breast cancer odds were reduced at the highest (T3) and medium (T2) tertiles of the HeLiX. When stratified by HeLiX, we observed a reduced risk of breast cancer with at least one T-allele, and the effect increased in a dose-dependent manner. Compared to the reference category (HeLiX T1 and AA genotype), women at the HeLiX T3 with AT and TT genotypes in postmenopausal women showed an OR = 0.15 (95% CI 0.07–0.32). For HeLiX T2 and AT genotype OR = 0.26 (95% CI 0.13–0.54); for TT genotype OR = 0.24 (95% CI 0.12–0.45). For premenopausal women, at the HeLiX T3 and AT genotype OR = 0.29 (95% CI 0.13–0.62); for the TT genotype OR = 0.21 (95% CI 0.08–0.51). We also observed an inverse association for HeLiX T2 and TT genotype (OR 0.39 95% CI 0.17–0.87). Our study shows a significant synergistic gene-environment interaction on an additive scale, contributing to understanding pathways involved in breast cancer etiology and prevention.
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: exhaustive exercise; oxidative stress; regular physical activity; saliva; peroxidase; catalase; superoxide dismutase
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:27:32 CEST)
Acute intense exercise causes significant oxidative stress and consequently an increase in total antioxidant capacity; however, the mechanisms and combined effects of intense exercise and smoking on oxidative stress among active and non-active smokers are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute intense exercise on antioxidant enzyme activity responses in active and non-active individuals exposed to cigarette smoke. The study included 40 subjects who were equally classified as: smokers that did exercise (SE), smokers that did not do exercise (SnE), non-smokers that did exercise (NSE), and non-smokers that did not do exercise (NSnE). The adjusted Astrand test was used to exhaust the subjects. Salivary enzymes of peroxidase (POX), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured, by spectrophotometry methods, at 3 different time points: pre-test (TP1), post-test (TP2), and one hour after finishing the test (TP3). Significant (p<0.05) group x time interactions were found for the three enzymes. Salivary POX, CAT and SOD increased in all groups from TP1 to TP2 and decreased from TP2 to TP3. Only the NSE showed a significant difference between TP1 to TP3 in POX and SOD by +0.011 ± 0.007 and +0.075 ± 0.02 (U/ml), respectively. The NSE showed significantly higher levels of POX, CAT and SOD in TP2 compared to the other groups. Furthermore, NSE and NSnE had higher levels of POX, CAT and SOD in TP1 and TP3 (p<0.05) compared with SE and SnE. Only in the NSnE, were no differences observed in CAT compared with SE and SnE in TP3. These results showed that the antioxidant level at rest and in the recovery time after the acute intense exercise was lower in SE and SnE compared with NSE and NSnE, suggesting that smoking habit may reduce the ameliorating effect of regular physical activity on acute exercise-induced oxidative stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0010.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: ascorbate; ascorbate-glutathione cycle; capsaicin; catalase; dihydrocapsaicin; glutathione; NADP-dehydrogenases; superoxide dismutase
Online: 2 August 2020 (10:52:06 CEST)
Capsicum is the genus where a number of species and varieties have pungent features due to the exclusive content of capsaicinoids such as capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. In this work, the main enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems in pepper fruits from four varieties with different pungent capacity has been investigated at two ripening stages. Thus, a sweet pepper variety (Melchor) from California type fruits, and three autochthonous Spanish varieties were used, including Piquillo, Padrón and Alegría riojana. The capsaicinoids contents were determined in pericarp and placenta from fruits showing that these phenyl-propanoids were mainly localized in placenta. The activity profile of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD, total and isoenzymatic), the enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle (AGC) and four NADP-dehydrogenases indicate that some interaction with the capsaicinoid metabolism seems to occur. Among the results obtained on enzymatic antioxidant, the role of an Fe-SOD and the glutathione reductase from the AGC is highlighted. Additionally, it was found that ascorbate and glutathione content were higher in those pepper fruits which displayed the greater contents of capsacinoids. Taken together, all these data indicate that antioxidants may contribute to preserve capsaicinoids metabolism to maintain their functionality in a framework where NADPH is perhaps playing an essential role.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0222.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ROS; oxidative stress; catalytic antioxidants; superoxide dismutase; catalase; peroxidase; manganese; salen-type ligands; animal studies
Online: 11 July 2020 (03:30:41 CEST)
Manganosalen complexes are coordination compounds that possess a chelating salen-type ligand, a class of bis-Schiff bases obtained by condensation of salicylaldehyde and a diamine. They may act as catalytic antioxidants mimicking both the structure and the reactivity of the native antioxidant enzymes active site. Thus, manganosalen complexes have shown to exhibit superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, and they could potentially facilitate the scavenging of excess ROS, thereby restoring the redox balance in the damaged cells and organs. Initial catalytic studies compared the potency of these compounds as antioxidants in terms of rate constants of the chemical reactivity against ROS, giving catalytic values approaching and even exceeding that of the native antioxidative enzymes. Although most of these catalytic studies lack of biological relevance, subsequent in vitro studies have confirmed the efficiency of many manganosalen complexes in oxidative stress models. These synthetic catalytic scavengers, cheaper than natural antioxidants, have accordingly attracted intensive attention for the therapy of ROS-mediated injuries. The aim of this review is to focus on in vivo studies performed on manganosalen complexes and their activity on the treatment of several pathological disorders associated with oxidative damage. This disorders, ranging from the prevention of fetal malformations to the extension of lifespan, include neurodegenerative, inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases, tissue injury, and other damages related to liver, kidney or lungs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0475.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus; liver; duckweed; Lemna minor; Cu; Zn; Glutathione Peroxidase; GPx; Glutathione-S-Transferase; GST; Superoxide dismutase; SOD; Catalase; CAT; remediation assessment
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:41:41 CEST)
A two-fold integrated research study was conducted; firstly, to understand effects of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) on the growth and oxidative stress in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus; secondly, to study the beneficial effects of the duckweed Lemna minor L. as a heavy metal remover from wastewater. Experiments were conducted in mesocosms with and without duckweed. Tilapia fingerlings were exposed to Cu (0.004 and 0.02 mg/L) and Zn (0.5 and 1.5 mg/L) and fish fed for four weeks. We evaluated the fish growth performance, the hepatic DNA structure using comet assay, the expression of antioxidative genes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx and glutathione-S-transferase, GST) and GPx and GST enzymatic activity. The results showed that Zn exhibited more pronounced toxic effects than Cu. Low dose of Cu did not influence the growth whereas higher doses of Cu and Zn significantly reduced the growth rate of tilapia compared to control, but addition of duckweed prevented weight loss. Further, in the presence of a high dose of Cu and Zn, DNA damage decreased, antioxidant gene expressions and enzymatic activities increased. In conclusion, results suggest that duckweed and Nile tilapia can be suitable candidates in metal remediation wastewater assessment programs.