SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0464.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cannabidiol; liposomal cannabidiol; NegEnt; panic disorders; cognitive psychotherapy; alprazolam
Online: 27 February 2023 (09:07:43 CET)
The article presents the potential of liposomal cannabidiol in the treatment of Panic Disorder, when used in integration with Complex Cognitive Psychotherapy. The advantages of the integrated treatment, developed by the Author, and based on the use of liposomal cannabidiol combined with cognitive psychotherapy, are discussed. A new and original tool is presented and described, developed, and tested for the first time by the Author and called NegEnt Panic Blocker.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0080.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cannabis; cannabinoids; tetrahydrocannabinol; cannabidiol; cerebral palsy; pediatrics
Online: 3 October 2023 (02:58:34 CEST)
Cannabinoids are prescribed to children with cerebral palsy (CP) despite limited evidence. We aimed to assess the prescription practices of cannabinoids in children with CP with a particular focus on indications, what kind of preparations are used and how well cannabinoids are tolerated. Furthermore, we investigated how physicians acquire knowledge on cannabinoid medication. We asked physicians with expertise in the care of children with CP about their prescription prac-tices of cannabinoids. Data was collected through an online survey, which was distributed by email. In addition to the demographic information of participants, we also inquired about the indications for the prescription of cannabinoids, about experiences regarding efficacy, and ob-served side effects of the therapy. Seventy physicians from Europe, North America and Australia completed the survey. Forty-seven participants were experienced in the treatment of children with CP by cannabinoids. The most common indication was epilepsy (69%), followed by spasticity (64%) and pain (63%). The pre-scribed preparations and doses varied considerably. Half of the participants evaluated the effect of the cannabinoids as moderate. Twenty-nine physicians reported side effects, most frequently drowsiness (26%), somnolence (19%), fatigue (13%), and diarrhea (13%). Despite the lack of evidence to date, cannabinoids are used to treat children with CP in a wide variety of indications. Randomized controlled trials in this vulnerable patient group are therefore of utmost importance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: therapeutic cannabis; cannabidiol; aromatherapy; NegEnt; Herbal Neurocare
Online: 9 June 2020 (13:44:33 CEST)
The article describes a research project that included the conception, development, testing and dissemination of a new drug, based on cannabidiol and called NegEnt (registered name and trademark).In this contribution, the author fully describes a new product for Aromatherapy that was developed and how it can be used for significant progress on various treatments for different conditions in psychiatry, neurology, and medicine. It also presents completed work for new herbal medicines at affordable costs worldwide.The clinical research program launched and the organizational and legal solutions identified are described to scientifically evaluate in accordance with a single case research study design. NegEnt's pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, pharmacodynamics, therapeutic efficacy, and tolerability is examined.In the last part of the article there is an outline of the project formulated for the development in Sicily in the province of Enna where NegEnt is produced in accordance with an innovative project of regional social promotion and based on the cultivation of cannabis Sativa Light, otherwise known as Progetto Demetra. This project established an operational module that is managed by a non-profit social enterprise called the Higher Institute for Cognitive Sciences, the ALETEIA LAB for Therapeutic cannabis, and as an ethical enterprise, which is called Herbal Neurocare (registered name and trademark). It contributes to improved health as well as promoting the economic and social development of this economically depressed area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0080.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: cannabidiol; electric cell-substrate impedance sensing; oral cancer
Online: 7 October 2022 (14:32:52 CEST)
Cannabidiol (CBD) is an active diterpenoid compound that is extracted from the leaves and stem of Cannabis sativa. Previous studies show that CBD is a non-psychotropic compound with significant anti-cancer effects. This study determines its cytotoxic effect on oral cancer cells and OECM1 cells and compares the outcomes with a chemotherapeutic drug, cisplatin. This study determines the effect of CBD on the viability, apoptosis, morphology and migration of OECM1 cells. Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) is used to measure the change in cell impedance for cells that are treated with a series concentration of CBD for 24 hours. AlamarBlue and annexin V/7-AAD staining assays show that CBD has a cytotoxic effect on cell viability and induces cell apoptosis. ECIS analysis shows that CBD decreases the overall resistance and morphological parameters at 4 kHz in a concentration-dependent manner. There is a significant reduction in the wound-healing recovery rate for cells that are treated with 30 μM CBD. This study demonstrates that ECIS can be used for in vitro screening of anticancer drugs and is more sensitive, functional and comprehensive than traditional biochemical assays. CBD also increases cytotoxicity on cell survival and the migration of oral cancer cells, so it may be a therapeutic drug for oral cancer
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0143.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Salmonella; novel antibacterial agents; cannabidiol; co-therapy; bacterial genetics
Online: 12 September 2022 (09:55:22 CEST)
New generation antibiotics are needed to combat the development of resistance to antimicrobials. One of the most promising new classes of antibiotics is cannabidiol (CBD). It is a non-toxic and low-resistance chemical that can be used to treat bacterial infections. The antibacterial activity of Cannabis sativa L. byproducts, specifically CBD, has been of growing interest in the field of novel therapeutics. As research continues to define and characterize the antibacterial activity that CBD possesses against a wide variety of bacterial species it is important to examine potential interaction between CBD and common therapeutics such as broad-spectrum antibiotics. Here, we show that CBD-antibiotic co-therapy can effectively fight S. typhimurium via membrane integrity disruption. This research serves to examine the potential synergy between CBD and three broad-spectrum antibiotics for potential antibiotic-CBD co-therapy. In this study, we reveal that Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) growth is inhibited at very low dosages of CBD-antibiotic. This interesting finding demonstrates that CBD and CBD-antibiotic co-therapies are viable novel alternatives to combating Salmonella typhimurium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0642.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: MDPV; cannabidiol; conditioned place preference; self-administration; anxiety; mice
Online: 28 June 2021 (11:35:52 CEST)
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a new psychoactive substance (NPS) and the most widespread and life-threatening synthetic cathinone of the “bath salts”. Preclinical research has proven the cocaine-like psychostimulant effects of MDPV and its potential for abuse. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid that has emerged as a new potential treatment for drug addiction. Here, we tested the effects of CBD (20 mg/kg) on MDPV (2 mg/kg)-induced conditioned place preference and MDPV (0.05 and 0.075 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration paradigm. We also assessed the effects of the combination of CBD, and MDPV (3 and 4 mg/kg) on anxiety-like behaviour using the elevated plus maze (EPM). CBD mitigated the MDPV-induced conditioned place preference. On the contrary, CBD administration throughout the MDPV (0.075 mg/kg/infusion) self-administration increased drug-seeking and taking behaviours, but only in the high-responders group of mice. Additionally, CBD exerted anxiolytic-like effects, but only in MDPV-treated mice. Taken together, our results indicate that CBD modulation of MDPV-induced motivational responses in mice vary depending on the requirements of the learning task, resulting in a complex response. More research attempting to decipher the behavioural and molecular interactions between CBD and MDPV is needed.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Asian elephant; Elephas maximus; cannabidiol; cannabis; CBD; endocannabinoid system
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:59:03 CEST)
The Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) is one of the largest herbivore mammals in the world. A portion of the total elephant population is under human care, where health problems such as skin lesions and decreased appetite are reported. The objective of this study was to apply the therapeutic properties of cannabidiol (CBD) to aid treatment of palmar abscesses and a suboptimal food intake in a female Asian elephant in Mexico. A CBD-isolate compounded medication was administered orally at a dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day. CBD administration showed positive effects such as reduction in abscess size, decreased food selectivity, increased food intake, weight gain and increased mobility. More research in elephants is needed to understand their cannabinoid pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics and proposing a dosage range and therapeutic applications for this species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1434.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: carbon nanodots (CNDs); cannabidiol (CBD); drug delivery; encapsulation; bioavailability; adsorption
Online: 23 October 2023 (11:12:37 CEST)
The dynamic interaction between carbon nanodots (CNDs) and cannabidiol (CBD) has captured significant attention as an innovative avenue for redefining drug delivery and amplifying therapeutic effectiveness. This in-depth review delves into the intricate synergy between these two elements, unveiling their profound potential in medicine. Commencing with an examination of the unique characteristics of CNDs and the techniques governing their synthesis, we discuss their versatility as drug carriers, highlighting their invaluable role in advancing CBD delivery. Cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive compound sourced from cannabis, has emerged as a focal point for its diverse therapeutic attributes. Nevertheless, the limitations posed by its restricted bioavailability and susceptibility to degradation pose substantial hindrances to realizing its full potential. Here, we elucidate how the amalgamation of CBD with CNDs transcends these challenges. We delve into the mechanisms that underlie this synergy, such as the augmentation of solubility and the safeguarding of CBD against premature breakdown, providing an intricate analysis. We will also journey you through a comprehensive exploration of diverse CBD loading techniques onto CNDs, dissecting the realms of physical encapsulation, covalent bonding, and adsorption processes. In summation, the combination of CNDs and CBD presents an extraordinary opportunity to elevate therapeutic outcomes. This synergetic paradigm masterfully tackles pivotal challenges in drug delivery, thereby paving the path for pioneering medical solutions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0551.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cannabinoids; Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol; cannabidiol; non-cannabinoids; flavonoids; terpenes; secondary metabolites
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:13:18 CET)
The Cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) produces an estimated 545 chemical compounds of different biogenetic classes. In addition to economic value, many of these phytochemicals have medicinal and physiological activity. The plant is most popularly known for its two most prominent and most studied secondary metabolites— Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD). Both Δ9-THC and CBD have a wide therapeutic window across many ailments and form part of a class of secondary metabolites called cannabinoids—of which approximately over 104 exist. This review will focus on non-cannabinoid metabolites of Cannabis sativa that also have therapeutic potential, some of which share medicinal properties similar to those of cannabinoids. The most notable of these non-cannabinoid phytochemicals are flavonoids and terpenes. We will also discuss future directions in cannabis research and development of cannabis-based pharmaceuticals. Caflanone, a flavonoid molecule with selective activity against the human viruses including the coronavirus SARS-COV2, and certain cancers, is one of the most promising non-cannabinoid molecules that is being advanced into clinical trials. As validated by thousands of years of the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes, vast anecdotal evidence abounds on the medicinal benefits of the plant. These benefits are attributed to the many phytochemicals in this plant, including non-cannabinoids. The most promising non-cannabinoids with potential to alleviate global disease burdens are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1133.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: cannabidiol; neuroHIV; Tat transgenic mice; antinociception; anxiety; 2-arachidonoylglycerol; arachidonic acid
Online: 18 October 2023 (08:12:36 CEST)
(1) Background: Some evidence suggests that cannabidiol (CBD) has potential to help alleviate HIV symptoms due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Here we examined acute CBD effects on various behaviors and the endocannabinoid system in HIV Tat transgenic mice. (2) Methods: Tat transgenic mice (female/male) were injected with CBD (3,10,30 mg/kg) and assessed for antinociception, activity, coordination, anxiety, and recognition memory. Brains were taken to quantify endocannabinoids and related lipids. Additionally, CBD and metabolite 7-hydroxy-CBD were quantified in the plasma and cortex. (3) Results: Tat decreased striatal-related nociception and locomotion, with some sex-dependent effects on coordination. CBD had no effect on nociception and coordination, but increased locomotor activity. For anxiety, differential CBD effects were noted for sex, with decreasing anxiety-like behavior in males only. In the striatum and spinal cord, male sex was associated with lower 2-arachidonoylglycerol and with elevated concentrations of its proinflammatory metabolite arachidonic acid. CBD metabolism was altered by sex and Tat. (4) Conclusion: Findings indicate that acute CBD effects are not altered by HIV Tat, and CBD has minimal effects on behavior and the endocannabinoid system. Interestingly, sex-dependent alterations were noted for endocannabinoids and related lipids, which may be of relevance in view of potential CBD-based treatment options for people living with HIV.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1495.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: cannabidiol; cannabis; adverse reaction; adverse event; pharmacovigilance; serotonin; 5-HT1A receptor
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:49:03 CEST)
Cannabidiol, is the first cannabis-derived drug approved for the treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), Dravet syndrome (DS), and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC). The current study performed a descriptive analysis followed by a disproportionality analysis of potential adverse events caused by CBD extracted from the database VigiBase®. Further, biological plausibility of the association between CBD and the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, as possible cause of adverse events was analyzed and discussed. Data were extracted from VigiBase® database using VigiLyze® signal detection and signal management tool. Adverse events in VigiBase® reports were coded using MedDRA, version 19 of Preferred Terms (PTs). Data were uploaded into SPSS software and analyzed via disproportionality analysis. Statistically significant disproportionality signals for CBD were found for “weight decreased” 5.19 (95% CI: 4.54 - 5.70), “hypophagia” 3.68 (95% CI: 3.22 - 5.27), and “insomnia” 1.6 (95% CI: 1.40 - 1.83). Positive IC025 values were found for “weight decreased” (2.2), “hypophagia” (1.3), and “insomnia” (0.5), indicating a surplus of reported cases. CBD’s interactions with 5-HT1A serotonin receptors may offer a potential biological explanation for the occurrence of insomnia in patients. It is noteworthy that the risk profiles mentioned in the prescribing information for CBD as antiepileptic agent by regulatory agencies showed disparities specifically related to the adverse event “insomnia”.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0418.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cannabidiol; Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; cancer; nausea; vomiting; pain management; antitumor; marijuana
Online: 24 August 2022 (10:42:56 CEST)
Cannabis has been used as an herbal remedy for thousands of years and recent research indicates promising new uses in medicine. Researchers have been particularly interested in the potential uses of cannabinoids in treating cancer due their ability to regulate cancer-related cell cycle pathways, leading to many beneficial effects such as tumor growth prevention, cell cycle obstruction, and cell death. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge on mechanisms of cannabinoids and their role in treating chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, relieving cancer-associated pain, and obstructing tumor cell growth.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0668.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: marijuana; medicinal cannabis (MC); chronic pain (CP); cannabidiol (CBD); tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Online: 26 November 2020 (11:22:28 CET)
Rationale:First discovered in 1990, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) was initially shown to have an intimate relationship with central areas of the nervous system associated with pain, reward, and motivation. Recently, however, the ECS has been extensively implicated in the cardiovascular system with contractility, heart rate, blood pressure, and vasodilation. Emerging data demonstrates modulation of the ECS plays an essential role in cardio metabolic risk, atherosclerosis, and can even limit damage to cardiomyocytes during ischemic events.Patient Concerns:This case describes a 63-year-old male who presented to a primary care physician for a medical cannabis (MC) consult due to unstable angina (UA) not relieved by morphine or cardiac medications; having failed all first- and second-line poly-pharmaceutical therapies. The patient reported frequent, unprovoked, angina and exertional dyspnea.Diagnosis:Having a complex cardiac history, the patient first presented 22 years ago after a suspected myocardial infarction (MI). He re-presented in 2010 and underwent stent placement at that time for inoperable triple-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD) which was identified via percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. UA developed on follow up and, despite medical management over the past 6 years, his UA became progressively debilitating.Interventions and Outcomes:In conjunction with his standard cardiac care, patient had a gradual lessening of UA related pain, including frequency and character, after using an edible form of medical cannabis (MC) (1:1 CBD:THC). Following continued treatment, he ceased long term morphine treatment and describes the pain as no longer crippling. As demonstrated by his exercise tolerance tests, the patient experienced an improved functional capacity and reported an increase in his daily functioning, and overall activity.Lessons:This case uniquely highlights MC in possibly reducing the character, quality, and frequency of UA; while concordantly improving functional cardiac capacity in a patient with CAD. Additional case reports are necessary to verify this.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0364.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Polymeric micelles; cannabidiol (CBD); spray-drying; ocular drug delivery; corneal epithelial cells
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:48:27 CET)
Ocular drug delivery is one of the most challenging administration routes due to the very low drug bioavailability. In this work, we produce and characterize mucoadhesive mixed polymeric micelles (PMs) made of chitosan and poly(vinyl alcohol) backbones graft-hydrophobized with short poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks and use them to encapsulate cannabidiol (CBD), an anti-inflammatory cannabinoid. CBD-loaded mixed PMs are physically stabilized by ionotropic crosslinking of the CS domains with sodium tripolyphoshate and spray-drying. These mixed PMs display CBD loading capacity of 20% w/w and sizes of 100-200 nm, and spherical morphology (cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy). The good compatibility of the unloaded and CBD-loaded PMs is assessed in a human corneal epithelial cell line. Then, we confirm the permeability of CBD-free PMs and nanoencapsulated CBD in cornea cell monolayers under liquid-liquid and air-liquid conditions. Overall, our results highlight the potential of these polymeric nanocarriers for ocular drug delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0346.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Cannabidiol; hemp oil; soft decarboxylation; antioxidant properties; reactive oxygen species; apoptosis; osteosarcoma
Online: 12 March 2021 (16:28:51 CET)
This study aimed to obtain and characterize extracted hemp oil enriched in cannabidiol (CBD) by decarboxylation of cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) and to give new insights into its antioxidant and anticancer effects. Optimization of CBDA decarboxylation in hemp oil was performed, and CBD and CBDA contents and purities were determined by “flash chromatography”, 1H- and 13C-NMR. The antioxidant properties of CBD-enriched oil were investigated by Fe2+ chelating activity, Fe3+ reducing antioxidant power assay, O2− scavenging activity, HO− scavenging ability and lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay and its cytotoxicity, apoptosis- and oxidative stress-inducing effects on NHDF, MeWo, HeLa, HepG2 and HOS cells were determined. The CBD concentration in hemp oil was increased by CBDA soft decarboxylation optimized at 90°C, for 1 h and resulted oil was capable of reducing iron, scavenging free radicals, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation in cell-free oxidative conditions. CBD-enriched oil promoted NHDF proliferation at up to 15 µg CBD/mL, while inducing apoptosis and ROS production and modulating antioxidant enzymes’ gene expression in cancer cells, being selective for osteosarcoma cells and induced apoptosis by p53- and ROS-independent mechanisms. CBD-enriched hemp oil demonstrated antioxidant properties in oxidative conditions and promoted normal fibroblasts’ proliferation, while inducing apoptosis and ROS production in cancer cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0340.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Cannabidiol; Alzheimer's disease; Huntington's disease; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson’s disease; Prion disease; Proteinopathies
Online: 21 May 2020 (09:43:09 CEST)
Cannabidiol is a well-known non-psychotropic phytocannabinoid from Cannabis sativa, which exerts a broad range of neuropharmacological activities in the central nervous systems. Over the past years, compelling evidence from preclinical and clinical studies support therapeutic potentials of cannabidiol in various neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by the accumulation of misfolded or aggregated protein due to the defective protein homeostasis or proteostasis network, termed as proteinopathies. Because of its role in the protein homeostasis network, cannabidiol could be a potent molecule to revert not only age-associated neurodegeneration but also other protein misfolding disorders. In this review, we discuss the potentiality of cannabidiol as a pharmacological modulator of the proteostasis network, highlighting its neuroprotective and aggregates clearing system inducing potentials in the neurodegenerative diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1512.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cannabidiol; delta-9-hydrocannabinol; CBD; THC; THP-1 macrophages; Cannabis sativa; inflammation; lipopolysaccharide
Online: 22 May 2023 (11:00:01 CEST)
Inflammation is the response of the innate immune system to any type of injury. Although acute inflammation is critical for survival, dysregulation of innate immune response leads to chronic in-flammation. Many synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs have side effects, and thus, natural an-ti-inflammatory compounds are still needed. Cannabis sativa L. may provide a good source of in-flammation-reducing molecules. Here, we tested the anti-inflammatory properties of cannabis ex-tracts and pure cannabinoids in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in human THP-1 macrophages. We found that pre-treatment with cannabidiol (CBD), delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), or extracts containing high levels of CBD or THC reduce the level of induction of various cytokines. The CBD was more efficient than THC, and the extracts were more efficient than pure cannabinoids. Finally, IL-6, IL-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were most sensitive to pre-treatments with CBD and THC, while IL-1β, IL-8 and TNF-α were less responsive. Thus, our work demonstrates the potential of use of cannabinoids or/and cannabis extracts for the reduction of inflammation and establishes IL-6 and MCP-1 as the sensitive markers for the analysis of the effect of cannabinoids on inflammation in macrophages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: autism spectrum disorder; cannabinoids; cannabidiol; cannabidivarin; THC; problem behaviors; sleep; epilepsy; side effects.
Online: 17 July 2020 (09:19:13 CEST)
The etiopathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains largely unclear. Among other biological hypotheses, researchers have evidenced an imbalance in the endocannabinoid (eCB) system, which regulates some functions typically impaired in ASD, such as emotional responses and social interaction. Also, cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating component of Cannabis sativa, has been recently approved for treatment-resistant epilepsy. Seizures represent frequent medical comorbidities of ASD and could be responsible for the onset or worsening of behavioral problems. Thus, it has been hypothesized that cannabinoids could be useful in improving some ASD symptoms. Our systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and aimed to summarize the literature regarding the use of cannabinoids in ASD. After searching in Web of KnowledgeTM, PsycINFO, and Embase, we included ten studies (eight papers and two abstracts). Four ongoing trials were retrieved in ClinicalTrials.gov. Findings are promising, as cannabinoids appeared to improve problem behaviors, sleep, hyperactivity, and communication deficits, with limited cardiac and metabolic side effects. Interestingly, they generally allowed to reduce the number of prescribed medications and decreased the frequency of seizures in epileptic patients. Mechanisms of action could be linked to the excitatory/inhibitory imbalance found in people with ASD. However, further trials need to be implemented with better characterization and homogenization of samples, and well-defined outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0232.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: food safety; risk assessment; Cannabis sativa; tetrahydrocannabinol; food supplements; cannabidiol; benchmark dose; health-based guidance value (HBGV); liver toxicity
Online: 24 November 2022 (02:53:03 CET)
In the European Union (EU), cannabidiol products require pre-marketing authorisation under the novel food regulation. Currently, 19 CBD applications are under assessment at the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). During the initial assessment of the application files, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) located several knowledge gaps in their 07 June 2022 statement on safety of cannabidiol as a novel food that need to be addressed before the evaluation of CBD can be concluded. Namely, the effect of CBD on the liver, gastrointestinal tract, endocrine system, nervous system, psychological function, and reproductive system needs to be clarified. Nevertheless, the available literature allows a benchmark dose (BMD)-response modelling of several bioassays, resulting in a BMD lower confidence limit (BMDL) of 20 mg/kg bw/day for liver toxicity in rats. Human data in healthy volunteers found increases in the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in a study at 4.3 mg/kg bw/day, which was defined by EFSA NDA panel as a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL). The EFSA NDA panel currently concluded that the safety of CBD as a novel food cannot be evaluated, leading to a so-called clock stop of the applications until the applicants provide the required data. Meanwhile, the authors suggest that CBD products still available as food supplements on the EU market despite the lack of authorisation must be considered as “unsafe”. Products exceeding a health-based guidance value of 10 mg/day must be considered as being “unfit for consumption” (Article 14(1) and (2) (b) of Regulation No 178/2002), while the ones in exceedance of the human LOAEL must be considered “injurious to health” (Article 14(1) and (2) (a) of Regulation No 178/2002).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0347.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Cannabidiol; S-Ketamine; Sex; Mice strain; Flinders Sensitive Line rats; Tail suspension test; Forced Swim Test.
Online: 25 October 2021 (12:32:45 CEST)
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-intoxicating compound extracted from Cannabis sativa, showing antidepressant-like effects in different rodent models. However, inconsistent results have been described depending on the species and the strain used to assess depressive-like behaviour. Moreover, only a few studies have investigated the effect of CBD in female rodents. Therefore, we aimed to i) investigate the effects of CBD in two different strains of mice (Swiss and C57BL/6) and in a rat model of depression based on selective breeding (Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Lines, FSL and FRL) subjected to tests predictive of antidepressant-like effects; and ii) investigate the influence of sex in the effects of CBD in both mice and rats. CBD induced an antidepressant-like effect in male Swiss but not in female Swiss or C57BL/6 mice in the tail suspension test (TST). In male FSL rats, CBD produced an antidepressant-like effect one-hour post-injection. However, in female FSL, CBD induced a bimodal effect, increasing the immobility time at one hour and decreasing it at two hours. Ketamine produced an antidepressant-like effect in male and female FSL rats at different doses. In conclusion, strain, sex, and administration time affect CBD's behavioural response to rodents exposed to tests predictive of antidepressant effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0077.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol; cannabidiol; cannabinoids; NLRP3 inflammasome; STAT3; TYK2; cytokine storm; interleukins; TNF-α; macrophages; primary lung bronchial epithelial cells
Online: 8 April 2022 (08:51:26 CEST)
Cannabinoids, mainly cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are the most studied group of compounds obtained from Cannabis sativa because of their several pharmaceutical properties. Current evidence suggests a crucial role of cannabinoids as potent anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases; however, the mechanisms remain largely unclear. Cytokine storm, a dysregulated severe inflammatory response by our immune system, is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic inflammatory disorders, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which results in the accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we hypothesized that CBD and THC reduce the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines by inhibiting key inflammatory signalling pathways. The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome signalling has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases, which results in the release of pyroptotic cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Likewise, the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) causes increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We studied the effects of CBD and THC on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in human THP-1 macrophages and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). Our results revealed that CBD and, for the first time, THC, significantly inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation following LPS + ATP stimulation, leading to a reduction in the levels of IL-1β in THP-1 macrophages and HBECs. CBD attenuated the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and both cannabinoids inhibited the generation of oxidative stress post-LPS. Our multiplex ELISA data revealed that CBD and THC significantly diminished the levels of IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) after LPS treatment in THP-1 macrophages and HBECs. In addition, the phosphorylation of STAT3 was significantly downregulated by CBD and THC in THP-1 macrophages and HBECs, which was in turn, attributed to the reduced phosphorylation of tyrosine kinase-2 (TYK2) by CBD and THC after LPS stimulation in these cells. Overall, CBD and THC were found to be effective in alleviating the LPS-induced cytokine storm in human macrophages and primary HBECs, at least via modulation of NLRP3 inflammasome and STAT3 signalling pathways. The encouraging results from this study warrant further investigation of these cannabinoids in vivo.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: endocannabinoid system; anandamide; 2-AG; cannabis; cannabinoid receptor 1; cannabinoid receptor 2; PPARSa, b; Ht1a; TRPV1; GPR55; cannabidiol; CBD; THC; CBG; CBC; tetrahydrocannabinol
Online: 26 June 2019 (07:28:52 CEST)
The endocannabinoid system has been found to be pervasive in mammalian species. It has also been described in invertebrate species primitive as the Hydra. Insects apparently are devoid of this otherwise ubiquitous system that provides homeostatic balance to the nervous and immune systems, as well as many other organ systems. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) has been defined to consist of three parts: 1. Endogenous ligands, 2. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), and 3. Enzymes to degrade and recycle the ligands. Two endogenous molecules have been identified as ligands in the ECS to date. These are the endocannabinoids: Anandamide (arachidonoyl ethanolamide) and 2-AG (2-arachidonoyl glycerol). Two G-coupled protein receptors have been described as part of this system, with other putative GPC being considered. Coincidentally, the phytochemicals produced in large quantities by the Cannabis sativa L plant, and in lesser amounts by other plants, can interact with this system as ligands. These plant-based cannabinoids are termed, phytocannabinoids. The precise determination of the distribution of cannabinoid receptors in animal species is an ongoing project, with the canine cannabinoid receptor distribution currently receiving the most interest in non-human animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0393.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: cannabidiol (CBD); ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC); cannabinol (CBN); ∆8-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆8-THC); cannabinoids; CBD oil; nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR); PULCON methodology; 1H NMR; qNMR
Online: 17 May 2021 (16:56:15 CEST)
Toxicologically relevant levels of the psychoactive ∆9-tetrahydocannabinol (∆9-THC) as well as high levels of non-psychoactive cannabinoids potentially occur in CBD (cannabidiol) oils. For consumer protection in the fast-growing CBD oil market, facile and rapid quantitative methods to determine the cannabinoid content are crucial. However, the current standard method, i.e., liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS), requires a time-consuming multistep sample preparation. In this study, a quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (qNMR) method for screening cannabinoids in CBD oils was developed. Contrary to the HPLC-MS/MS method, this qNMR features a facile sample preparation, i.e., only diluting the CBD oil in deuterochloroform. Pulse length-based concentration determination (PULCON) enables a direct quantification using an external standard. The signal intensities of the cannabinoids were enhanced during the NMR spectra acquisition by means of multiple suppression of the triglycerides which are a major component of the CBD oil matrix. The validation confirmed linearity for CBD, cannabinol (CBN), ∆9-THC and ∆8-THC in hemp seed oil with sufficient recoveries and precision for screening. Comparing the qNMR results to HPLC-MS/MS data for 46 commercial CBD oils verified the qNMR accuracy for ∆9-THC and CBD but with higher limits of detection. The developed qNMR method paves the way for increasing the sample throughput as a complementary screening before HPLC-MS/MS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1078.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: bacterial resistance; methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA); multi drug resistant (MDR) bacteria; Cannabis sativa; phytocannabinoids (PCs); endocannabinois (ECs); synthetic cannabinoids (SCs); synthetic procedures; cannabichromene (CBC); cannabigerol (CBG); cannabidiol (CBC)
Online: 16 May 2023 (04:29:36 CEST)
Due to the rapid emergence of multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens against which current an-tibiotics are no longer functioning, severe infections are becoming practically untreatable. Con-sequently, the discovering of new classes of effective antimicrobial agents with novel modes of action is becoming increasingly urgent. The bioactivity of Cannabis sativa, an herbaceous plant used for millennia for medicinal and recreational purposes, is mainly due to its content in phytocan-nabinoids (PCs). Among the 180 PCs detected, cannabidiol (CBD), Δ8 and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinols (Δ8-THC and Δ9-THC), cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), cannabinol (CBN) and some their acidic precursors have demonstrated from moderate to potent antibacterial effects against Gram-positive bacteria (MICs 0.5–8 µg/mL), including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), epidemic MRSA (EMRSA), as well as fluoroquinolones and tetracycline-resistant strains. Particularly, the not psychotropic CBG was also capable to inhibit MRSA biofilm formation, to eradicate that mature, and to rapidly exterminate MRSA persiters cells. On this scenario, CBG, as well as other minor not psychotropic PCs, such as CBD, and CBC could represent promising compounds for developing novel antibiotics with high therapeutic potential. Anyway, further studies are necessary, needing abundant quantities of such PCs, scarcely provided naturally by Cannabis plants. Here, after an extensive overture on cannabinoids including their reported an-timicrobial effects, aiming at easing the synthetic production of the necessary amounts of CBG, CBC and CBD for further studies, we have, for the first time, systematically reviewed the synthetic pathways utilized for their synthesis, reporting both reaction schemes and experimental details.