Subject: Keywords: Bus network design; Trip length distribution; Bi-modal MFD; Space allocation; Bus operations
Online: 26 June 2020 (12:26:27 CEST)
Public transport systems are considered to be a crucial aspect of a sustainable urban development, as they allow more passengers to efficiently travel across an urban area at low environmental and economic costs. Multiple factors can influence the public transport level of service. All take roots in the network structure and the operating regime, i.e. how bus lines are arranged atop the street network and how the service frequency is adjusted to meet urban mobility patterns. This is known as the bus network design problem and has been the subject of several studies. The problem is so challenging that most studies until now resort to strong assumptions such as a static description of the peak hour demand, homogeneous user behavior, and equal trip lengths. Potential effects of different types of user behavior and trip lengths patterns on the user and/or operator cost function have not been investigated whatsoever. Moreover, the existing studies have not considered the effects of the bus network structure on private car users, the level of interactions between the two modes, and the passenger mode choice that depends on the traffic conditions. This paper aims to close this gap and provide a general framework considering multiple trip length patterns, two types of user behavior, and the effects that the bus network structure might have on the traffic performance and passenger mode choice. For modeling different trip length patterns, the proposed approach combines all origin-destination pairs with the same trip length and uses the trip length distribution as an intermediate level of abstraction. As such, it allows to solve the optimal bus network design problem in an analytical way, while considering a more realistic setting including network congestion, mixed traffic, and different mode choice decisions depending on trip lengths and walking preferences. Numerical analysis reveals that both, the user behavior and the trip length patterns, have significant effects on the operator and user cost function. Results show that the probability of choosing any given mode is not constant across the user trip lengths, but follows certain distribution. This distribution is not unique, but varies across the trip length patterns, indicating the importance of modeling the mode choice at the trip length level. Finally, the analysis demonstrates the significance of addressing simplifications made in previous studies.
Subject: Keywords: Optimal bus dispatching system; Modular bus units; Frequency setting problem; 3D-MFD
Online: 28 June 2020 (20:13:46 CEST)
This study proposes a novel flexible bus dispatching system where a fleet of fully automated modular bus units, together with conventional buses, serves the passenger demand. These modular bus units can either operate individually or combined (forming larger modular buses with a higher passenger capacity). This provides enormous flexibility to manage the service frequencies and vehicle allocation, reducing thereby the operating cost and improving passenger mobility. We develop an optimization model used to determine the optimal composition of bus units and the optimal service frequency at which the buses (both conventional and modular) are dispatched across each bus line. We explicitly account for the dynamics of traffic congestion and complex interactions between the modes at the network level based on the recently proposed three-dimensional macroscopic fundamental diagram (3D-MFD). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first application of the 3D-MFD and modular bus units for the frequency setting problem in the domain of bus operations. Numerical results show the improvements in the total system cost made by adapting the number of combined modular bus units and their dispatched frequencies to the evolution of both, the car and the passenger demand. A comparison with the commonly used approach that considers only the bus system (neglecting the complex multimodal interactions and congestion propagation) reveals the value of the proposed modeling framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: cell transmission model; dynamic traffic assignment; exclusive bus lanes; intermittent bus lanes; network design
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:53:04 CET)
The urban transportation network design problem involving exclusive bus lanes (XBLs) has been widely discussed and analyzed in recent years. An improved and more flexible transit lane management strategy—intermittent bus lanes (IBLs)—prove to be potentially more efficient and car-friendly than XBLs. The common benefit of XBLs and IBLs arises from the fact that they separate the bus and car traffic and hence can eliminate the impacts of slowly moving buses on the car traffic. This paper proposes a cell transmission model for separate car and bus traffic (CTM-SCB) in a network with some dedicated roadway segments reserved for buses. By encapsulating the CTM-SCB model, an XBL-based network design problem and an IBL-based network design problem are then formulated and solved, respectively, where the former model statically sets bus lanes while the later one allows a dynamic allocation of bus lanes. A synthetic freeway-arterial network and a real-world urban street network (where the latter was extracted from the Harbin South New Industrial City) are used as test networks for evaluating the proposed models and methods. The numerical results show that both XBLs and IBLs enjoy significant operational efficiency benefits compared to the situation of no protected bus lanes. However, we believe that the expected improvement from XBLs to IBLs need further tests and validations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0150.v1
Online: 14 March 2019 (07:12:12 CET)
Investments in public transit infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean often aim to reduce spatial and social inequalities by improving accessibility to jobs and other opportunities for vulnerable populations. The Metropolitano, Lima’s Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) project had as one of its central goals to connect low-income populations living in the peripheries to jobs in the city center. We examine the contribution of Lima’s BRT system to accessibility to employment in the city, particularly for low-income public transit users. Building on secondary datasets of employment, household socio-demographics and Origin-Destination surveys before and after the BRT began operations, we assess its effects on potential accessibility to employment, comparing impacts amongst lower versus higher income populations. Findings suggest that the BRT line reduced travel times to reach jobs, in comparison with traditional public transport in the city, amongst populations living within walking distance of the system. However, we also find that the coverage of the BRT declines in areas with high concentrations of poor and extreme poor populations, limiting the equitability of the accessibility improvements. We analyze the distributional effects of BRT infrastructure and services, discussing policy avenues that can improve the prospects for BRT system investments to include the poor in their mobility benefits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0691.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Electric bus; bus network; simulation; scheduling; charging infrastructure; depot charging; opportunity charging; optimisation; genetic algorithm; TCO
Online: 29 July 2020 (10:38:58 CEST)
Bus operators around the world are facing the transformation of their fleets from fossil-fuelled to electric buses. Two technologies prevail: Depot charging and opportunity charging at terminal stops. Total cost of ownership (TCO) is an important metric for the decision between the two technologies, however, most TCO studies for electric bus systems rely on generalised route data and simplifying assumptions that may not reflect local conditions. In particular, the need to re-schedule vehicle operations to satisfy electric buses’ range and charging time constraints is commonly disregarded. We present a simulation tool based on discrete-event simulation to determine the vehicle, charging infrastructure, energy and staff demand required to electrify real-world bus networks. These results are then passed to a TCO model. A greedy scheduling algorithm is developed to plan vehicle schedules suitable for electric buses. Scheduling and simulation are coupled with a genetic algorithm to determine cost-optimised charging locations for opportunity charging. A case study is carried out in which we analyse the electrification of a metropolitan bus network consisting of 39 lines with 4748 passenger trips per day. The results generally favour opportunity charging over depot charging in terms of TCO, however, under some circumstances, the technologies are on par. This emphasises the need for detailed analysis of the local bus network in order to make an informed procurement decision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0107.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: Bus; Customer satisfaction; Intercity terminal; SERVQUAL Model
Online: 16 October 2017 (12:58:16 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the nature of relationship between service quality and customers’ satisfaction thorough SERVQUAL model. This study can be considered as an applied research, from purpose point of view and descriptive-survey, with regards to the nature and method. Passengers of Kaveh and Sofeh terminal in Isfahan have been considered as research population. Sample size included 200 passengers witch was determined by Cochran formula. Spss 19 was used to analyze collected data. Results show that there is a significant positive relationship between service quality and customers’ satisfaction. It is also proved that in terms of the importance of satisfactions’ dimensions, assurance is the most important aspect and then reliability, empathy, equipment appearance and responsiveness in sequence are the most important dimensions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0038.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Public bus transportation; Battery-swapping e-bus; Battery charging; Construction costs; Particle swarm optimization (PSO); PSO-genetic algorithm (GA)
Online: 6 June 2017 (17:52:24 CEST)
The greenhouse gases and air pollution generated by extensive energy use have exacerbated climate change. An electric-bus (e-bus) transportation system favors reducing pollution and carbon emissions. This study analyzed the minimization of construction costs for an all battery-swapping public e-bus transportation system. A simulation was conducted according to existing timetables and routes. Daytime charging was incorporated during the hours of operation; the two parameters of the daytime charging scheme were the residual battery capacity and battery-charging energy during various intervals of daytime peak electricity hours. The parameters were optimized using three algorithms: particle swarm optimization (PSO), a genetic algorithm (GA), and a PSO–GA. This study observed the effects of optimization on cost changes (e.g., number of e-buses, on-board battery capacity, number of extra batteries, charging facilities, and energy consumption) and compared the plug-in and battery-swapping e-bus systems. The results revealed that daytime charging can reduce the construction costs of both systems. In contrast to the other two algorithms, the PSO–GA yielded the most favorable optimization results for the charging scheme. Finally, according to the cases investigated and the parameters of this study, the construction cost of the plug-in e-bus system was lower than that of the battery-swapping e-bus system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0215.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Air pollution; Health risk; Driving; Automobile; Bus; Motorcycle
Online: 12 August 2018 (19:35:44 CEST)
Introduction: Ambient air pollution is major global health problem and commercial drivers are particularly exposed to it. No systematic assessment of the health risks associated with occupational exposure to ambient air pollution in this population has been carried out. Methods: We conducted a systematic review using a protocol-driven strategy. Papers published from inception to 20th April 2018 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, African journals online, Cochrane library, ISRCTN and WHO ICTRP databases were screened for inclusion by two independent reviewers. Original articles with at least an available abstract in English or French were included. Results: The initial search retrieved 1454 published articles of which 20 articles were included. 3 Studies reported a significant difference in white blood cells (106/L) among commercial motorcyclists compared to rural inhabitants (5.041±1.209 vs 5.900±1.213,p=0.001), an increased risk of lung cancer (RR=1.6, 95%CI 1.5-1.8) in bus drivers and an increased standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in bus drivers from Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SMR 2.17, 95%CI 1.19-3.87) compared to white collar workers. Other studies also found that drivers had more oxidative DNA damage and chromosome breaks. 4 papers failed to demonstrate that the drivers were more exposed to air pollution than the controls. 3 other studies also reported no significant difference in lung function parameters and respiratory symptoms. The genetic polymorphisms of detoxifying enzymes were not also homogeneously distributed compared to the controls. Conclusion: There is some evidence that occupational exposure to ambient air pollution among commercial drivers is associated with adverse health outcomes but the existing literature is limited with few studies of small sample size, methodological weaknesses and contradictory findings. Further research is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0373.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power loss; total generation cost; emission index; optimal power flow; equilibrium optimizer; solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system; wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system; hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system
Online: 17 September 2020 (05:15:42 CEST)
Over the last decades, the energy market around the world has reshaped due to accommodating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. Although renewable energy sources have brought various benefits, including low operation cost of wind and solar PV power plants, and reducing the environmental risks associated with the conventional power resources, they have imposed a wide range of difficulties in power system planning and operation. Naturally, classical optimal power flow (OPF) is a nonlinear problem. Integrating renewable energy resources with conventional thermal power generators escalates the difficulty of the OPF problem due to the uncertain and intermittent nature of these resources. To address the complexity associated with the process of the integration of renewable energy resources into the classical electric power systems, two probability distribution functions (Weibull and lognormal) are used to forecast the voltaic power output of wind and solar photovoltaic, respectively. Optimal power flow, including renewable energy, is formulated as a single-objective and multi-objective problem in which many objective functions are considered, such as minimizing the fuel cost, emission, real power loss, and voltage deviation. Real power generation, bus voltage, load tap changers ratios, and shunt compensators values are optimized under various power systems’ constraints. This paper aims to solve the OPF problem and examines the effect of renewable energy resources on the above-mentioned objective functions. A combined model of wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system, solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system, and hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system are performed using the equilibrium optimizer technique (EO) and other five heuristic search methods. A comparison of simulation and statistical results of EO with other optimization techniques showed that EO is more effective and superior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0137.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: heavy metal; contamination assessment; X-ray fluorescence; bus station dusts
Online: 13 August 2016 (09:41:18 CEST)
The objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and spatial distribution patterns of six potentially toxic heavy metal elements (Mn, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu and Ni) in bus station dusts in the Xifeng district of Gansu province, NW China. The contents were analyzed for Mn, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu and Ni by using S8 TIGER Brochures wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo ), enrichment factor (EF), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index(IPI) were calculated to evaluate the heavy metal contamination level of bus station dusts. The results indicate that, in comparison with the background values of local soil, bus station dusts in Xifeng have elevated metal concentrations as a whole. The concentrations of heavy metals investigated in this paper are compared with the reported data of other cities. The results show that the arithmetic means of Mn, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu and Ni are 440.8, 137.9, 60.0, 42.8, 33.5 and 19.8mg kg−1 respectively. The mean values of Igeo reveal the order of Ni<Mn<Cr<Cu<Zn<Pb. The high Igeo and EF for Cu, Zn and Pb in bus station dusts indicate that there is a considerable Cu, Zn and Pb pollution, which mainly originate from traffic and industry activities. The Igeo and EF of Ni, Mn and Cr are low and the assessment results indicate an absence of distinct Ni, Mn and Cr pollution in bus station dusts. The assessment results of PI also support Cu, Zn and Pb in bus station dusts presented middle pollution, and IPI indicates heavy metals of bus station dusts polluted seriously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: active power loss; total generation cost; emission index; optimal power flow; equilibrium optimizer; 21 solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system; wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system; hybrid wind and solar PV 22 integrated IEEE 30-bus system
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:50:46 CEST)
Over the last decades, the energy market around the world has reshaped due to accommodating the high penetration of renewable energy resources. Although renewable energy sources have brought various benefits, including low operation cost of wind and solar PV power plants, and reducing the environmental risks associated with the conventional power resources, they have imposed a wide range of difficulties in power system planning and operation. Naturally, classical optimal power flow (OPF) is a nonlinear problem. Integrating renewable energy resources with conventional thermal power generators escalates the difficulty of the OPF problem due to the uncertain and intermittent nature of these resources. To address the complexity associated with the process of the integration of renewable energy resources into the classical electric power systems, two probability distribution functions (Weibull and lognormal) are used to forecast the voltaic power output of wind and solar photovoltaic, respectively. Optimal power flow, including renewable energy, is formulated as a single-objective and multi-objective problem in which many objective functions are considered, such as minimizing the fuel cost, emission, real power loss, and voltage deviation. Real power generation, bus 13 voltage, load tap changers ratios, and shunt compensators values are optimized under various power systems’ 14 constraints. This paper aims to solve the OPF problem and examines the effect of renewable energy resources 15 on the above-mentioned objective functions. A combined model of wind integrated IEEE 30-bus system, solar 16 PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system, and hybrid wind and solar PV integrated IEEE 30-bus system are performed 17 using the equilibrium optimizer technique (EO) and other five heuristic search methods. A comparison of 18 simulation and statistical results of EO with other optimization techniques showed that EO is more effective 19 and superior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: city logistics; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; urban bus transport; IPA; AHP
Online: 24 December 2018 (05:09:11 CET)
Logistics in urban areas are currently suffering a radical transformation due to increasingly population concentration and the massive use of cars as the preferred transport mode. These issues have resulted in higher pollution levels in urban environments and traffic congestion impacting the world globally. Facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes is widely regarded as a necessity to cope with these adverse effects on citizens’ life quality. Hence, some regions, as the European Union, are encouraging bus transport firms to make their business models more environmentally and socially sustainable. The aim of this research is thus to explore how practices adopted by urban bus companies can improve cities’ sustainability. With this in mind, a combined Importance Performance Analysis (IPA)-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied. In this way, both environmental and social sustainability effects of developed practices were represented through hierarchical structures separately. Subsequently, importance and performance ratings of practices in each sustainability dimension were estimated, and thus two IPA grids were generated. These grids support managers in the establishment of more effective action plans to improve logistics sustainability in cities. Findings also provide guidance to governments on the practices that should be promoted in future urban mobility plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: public sector; operating environment; electric bus; optimal charging type; charging infrastructure
Online: 22 June 2018 (06:13:55 CEST)
South Korea proposed reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 37% compared to the expected emissions by 2030 as the POST-2020 greenhouse gas reduction target. Electric vehicle distribution in the public sector is essential to achieve the carbon dioxide reduction target for transportation. In particular, when buses with internal combustion engines, which travel long distances and contribute substantially to greenhouse gas emissions, are replaced with electric buses, it is expected that greenhouse gas emissions will be significantly reduced. There are three types of electric buses with different power supply systems: a plug-in type in which power is supplied when a plug is inserted, a battery-swapping type in which a battery mounted on top of the vehicle is swapped at a swapping station, and a wireless type in which the battery is wirelessly charged through self-induction at a charging facility installed on the road. Vehicles of each charging type have different advantages and disadvantages. The performance, charging type, battery capacity, and operating environment of electric buses are mutually related parameters that must be considered when introducing such vehicles. Therefore, the optimal charging type must be selected according to the operating environment to enable the widespread use of electric buses. As such, this report proposes the optimal charging type according to the operating environment of public-sector electric vehicles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: urban transportation; public transportation; bus services; quality of services; systematic literature review
Online: 12 May 2022 (10:13:53 CEST)
Bus services play a significant role as the main public transportation, especially in urban areas throughout the years. Since bus services compete greatly with other types of public transportation, such as e-hailing service and private vehicles, they have recently attracted scholars to conduct many relevant studies. However, most past research studies in the Asian region were not focused on engineering, social science, and Internet of Things (IOT). This present study concentrated on the service quality of bus services in Asia by using systematic literature review of articles. This study conducted a review based on previous studies, specifically on the service quality of performance. Several previous studies were selected by using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRIMSA) approach. SCOPUS and Science Direct were chosen as the main journal database. By using this method, 41 articles were selected for further analysis. This study was merely focused on three primary themes, such as study approach, stakeholder, and service quality attributes. Advanced analysis on these primary themes was used to formulate another 18 sub-themes. All themes and sub-themes which reflected the significant impacts of service quality towards bus services were discussed in detail. This study had addressed several qualities of bus services of bus performance towards improvement of urban transportation polices. Lastly, several recommendations that could provide necessary knowledge and information for future research were presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0542.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Automotive Engineering, Electric Bus, CFD, Numerical Fluid Mechanics, Electromobility, Noise, Eco-Design
Online: 26 January 2021 (15:23:24 CET)
The dynamic development of electromobility poses challenges to designers regarding not only the efficiency of energy transformation but also the battery life, which is influenced by the stability of its operating temperature. Designing cooling systems is connected not only with the optimization of energy management but also with other environmental parameters, such as noise emission. The paper presents the numerical optimization of an innovative radiator for use in electric buses in terms of energy consumption and noise emission. The results of the numerical studies were verified in laboratory and field conditions, showing a very good convergence of the model with the results of the experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0197.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Support Vector Machine; Support Vector Regression; Machine learning; Prediction; Urban Smart Bus
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:33:23 CET)
The impact of the accurate estimated time of arrival (ETA) is often overlooked by bus operators. By providing accurate ETA to riders, it gives them the impression of bus services is efficient and reliable and this promotes higher ridership in the long run. This research project aims to predict bus arrival time by using the Support Vector Regression (SVR) model which is based on the same theory as the Support Vector Machine (SVM). Urban City Bus data covering part of the Petaling Jaya area (route name PJ03) is used in this research work. Features related to traffic such as travel duration, a distance of the road, weather and operation at peak or non-peak hour have been used as input in the training of the SVR model. By using kernel trick and specifying optimum parameters, all the features in higher dimensions are efficiently calculated and the SVR model achieves convergence. The model is evaluated with the test set of data split from the original dataset. The experimental result indicates the SVR model displays good prediction ability with its low average error on the prediction result. However, weather data has not been influential to the prediction model as the results of the model trained with and without weather data show a negligible difference.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0337.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: vehicle to grid; grid to vehicle; electric vehicles; batteries; harmonic distortion; IEEE bus standards
Online: 21 June 2018 (10:34:06 CEST)
The increase in the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) is one of the most important world problems. Decreasing of GHG emission is a big challenge in the future. Transportation sector uses a significant part of petroleum production in the world and it leads to an increase in the emission of GHG. The result of this issue is that population of the world befoul environment of transportation system automatically. Electric Vehicles (EV) have a potentiality to solve a big part of the GHG emission and energy efficiency issues such as stability and reality of energy. The energy actors and their research team determine some targets for 2050; hence, they hope to decrease the world temperature to 6 °C in the best and 2 °C in the normal condition. Fulfillment of these scenarios needs suitable grid infrastructure but in most of the countries, the grid does not have a suitable background to apply those scenarios. In this paper, some problems about energy scenarios, energy storage systems, grid infrastructure and communication systems in supply and demand side of the grid and its solutions have been investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0510.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart Energy Grids; Smart Substation Automation; Process Bus; Interoperability Standards; Industrial Communication Networks; TCP/IP
Online: 21 June 2021 (12:27:47 CEST)
The upgrade of energy infrastructure to those of smart grids, necessarily goes through the provision of integrated technological solutions that ensure the interoperability of their business capabilities and reduce the risk of devaluation of the systems used. The heterogeneity of the infrastructures and the dynamics of their operating environment, requires the continuous reduction of the complexity, the faster execution of the processes and the easy addition of innovative counterparts. Also, the integrated management of the overall ecosystem demands the provision of end-to-end interconnection, quality assurance, the definition of strict security policies, collaborative integration and correlation of events. In this respect, every design detail can be critical to the success or failure of a costly and ambitious project, such as that of smart energy networks. This work presents communication operating standards specific to the smart electricity networks applications, which should be taken into account in the process of planning and implementation of new infrastructures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0198.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: eco-driving; GLOSA; signalized intersection; diesel bus; eco-cooperative adaptive cruise control; fuel consumption model; field test
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:34:52 CET)
This paper develops a Green Light Optimal Speed Advisory (GLOSA) system for buses (B-GLOSA). The proposed B-GLOSA system is implemented on diesel buses, and field tested to validate and quantify the potential real-world benefits. The developed system includes a simple and easy to calibrate fuel consumption model that computes instantaneous diesel bus fuel consumption rates. The bus fuel consumption model, a vehicle dynamics model, the traffic signal timings, and the re-lationship between vehicle speed and distance to the intersection are used to construct an optimi-zation problem. A moving-horizon dynamic programming problem solved using the A-star algo-rithm is used to compute the energy-optimized vehicle trajectory through signalized intersections. The Virginia Smart Road test facility was used to conduct the field test on 30 participants. Each participant drove three scenarios including a base case uninformed drive, an informed drive with signal timing information communicated to the driver, and an informed drive with the recom-mended speed computed by the B-GLOSA system. The field test investigated the performance of using the developed B-GLOSA system considering different impact factors, including road grades and red indication offsets, using a split-split-plot experimental design. The test results demonstrated that the proposed B-GLOSA system can produce smoother bus trajectories through signalized in-tersections producing fuel consumption and travel time savings. Specifically, compared to the uninformed drive, the B-GLOSA system produces fuel and travel time savings of 22.1% and 6.1% on average, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: (Efficient) E-STATCOM, Doubly Fed Induction Generator; Rotor Side Converter; Diode Rectifier and140- bus power grid test power system.
Online: 6 August 2018 (13:19:14 CEST)
The arrival of new developments in the field of power electronics circuit’s applications in power systems builds new control strategy to improve voltage quality for power grid by overcome interruptions. Wind energy resources are unconventional resources and get advanced problems to power grid when it is connected. Uncertainty of load sharing, peak energy management, climatic conditions, wind velocity and wind energy injected into power grid leads many of power quality problems on power grid based on the existing guidelines specified in IEC-61400 standard. This system plans efficient operation of DFIG to eliminate the voltage collapse and mismatch frequency to power grid. The DFIG connected diode rectifier and rotor side converter wind generator works as an Efficient Static Synchronous Compensator (E-SATCOM) for supplying the demand of reactive power for power grid to mitigate PQ problems. The benefit of using a combined controller was verified by simulink/Matlab and its simulated results used Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), wind Turbine. This simulation results gives good quality transient and stable state response to manage and support reactive power for both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults in connection of grid codes to provide continuous quality of power supply, multiple wind generators are required for 140 bus power grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy universal service bus system; energy Internet; distributed energy and equipment; building; energy management; coordinated control; plug-and-play
Online: 4 May 2018 (13:01:31 CEST)
This paper develops a novel energy universal service bus system (EUSBS) based on emerging energy Internet (E-net) technologies. This EUSBS is a unified identification and plug-and-play interface platform to which high penetration distributed energy and equipment (DEE), including photovoltaic (PV), fans, electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs), energy storage equipment (ESE), and commercial and residential users (CRUs), can access in a coordinated control and optimized utilization mode. First, the functions design, overall framework and topology architecture design of the EUSBS are expounded, among which the EUSBS is mainly composed of a hardware system and a software platform. Moreover, several future application scenarios are presented. Then, the hardware part of EUSBS is designed and developed, including the framework design of this hardware subsystem, and development of the hardware equipment for PV access, fans access, EVCS access, ESE access, and CRU access. The hardware subsystem consists of smart socket, and household/floor/building concentrators. Based on this, the prototypes development of EUSBS hardware equipment is completely demonstrated. Third, the software part of the EUSBS is developed as a cloud service platform for electricity use data analysis of DEE. This software subsystem contains the power quality & energy efficiency analysis module, optimization control module, information and service module, and data monitoring and electricity behavior analysis module. Based on this design, the software interfaces are developed. Finally, an application study on energy management and optimization of a smart commercial building is conducted to evaluate the functions and practicality of this EUSBS. The EUSBS developed in this paper is able to overcome difficulties in big data collection and utilization on sides of distribution network and electricity utilization, and eventually implement a deep information-energy fusion and a friendly supply-demand interaction between the grid and users. This contribution presents a detailed and systematic development scheme of the EUSBS, and moreover, the laboratory prototypes of the hardware and software subsystems have been developed based on E-net technologies. This paper can provide some thoughts and suggestions for the research of active distribution network and comprehensive energy management and optimization in power systems, as well as references and guidance for researchers to carry out research regarding energy management, optimization and coordinated control of the smart buildings.