ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0178.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: international health regulations; ship sanitation certificates; inspection; ship, travel; maritime health; sanitation
Online: 10 July 2018 (12:23:09 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to report data analysis results from the International Health Regulations (2005) Ship Sanitation Certificates (SSC), recorded in the European Information System (EIS). International sea trade and population movements by ships can contribute to the global spread of diseases. SSC are issued to ensure the implementation of control measures if public health risk exists on board. EIS designed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) “Handbook for Inspection of Ships and Issuance of SSC”. Inspection data were recorded and SSC issued by inspectors working at European ports were analysed. From July 2011-February 2017, 107 inspectors working at 54 ports in 11 countries inspected 5579 ships. Of these, there were 29 types under 85 flags (including 19 EU flags). As per IHR (2005) 10,281 Ship Sanitation Control Exception Certificates (SSCEC) and 296 Ship Sanitation Control Certificates (SSCC) were issued, 74 extensions to existing SSC were given, 7565 inspection findings were recorded, and 47 inspections were recorded without issuing an SSC. The most frequent inspection findings were the lack of potable water quality monitoring reports (23%). Ships aged ≥12 years (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.77, 95%Confidence Intervals, CI = 1.37–2.29) with an absence of cargo at time of inspection (OR = 3.36, 95%CI = 2.51–4.50) had a higher probability of receiving an SSCC, while ships under the EU flag had a lower probability of having inspection findings (OR = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.66–0.79). Risk factors to prioritise the inspections according to IHR were identified by using the EIS. A global information system, or connection of national or regional information systems and data exchange, could help to better implement SSC using common standards and procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0390.v1
Online: 18 August 2020 (12:07:32 CEST)
Background: Ongoing Primary and Secondary Education Development Program (PEDP & SEDP) has led to increase in enrollment of children in schools. This created a high demand for facilities such as classroom, chairs, laboratories, latrines and water supply. Water and latrines did not receive equal attention like others. National strategic plan for School Water Sanitation and Hygiene (SWASH) 2012-2017 was to address such challenges with objectives to improve SWASH by 2017. Hence this study aimed to evaluate the implementation of SWASH program in Ukerewe. Methodology: A cross sectional survey was done among 42 schools in the district with 40 schools being government owned. Systematic random sampling was used and data were collected using a structured interview which was pre-tested and amended prior to conducting fieldwork. UNICEF, WASH in Schools Monitoring Package observational check-list was used to assess sanitation facilities. Results: Findings from this study showed the latrine-hole to student ratio was 1:71 with only 31.3% of the latrines being in good clean condition and about half (59.5%) of the schools have no facilities for washing hands. For the schools with hand washing facilities only 21.4% have an effective hand washing practice (presence of soap and water). The most common source of water used was lake water (35.7%) with (42.9%) having water storage facilities. Conclusion: The study shows that most of the objectives of national strategic plan are yet to be implemented at Ukerewe. There is a need for minor repairs to complete new construction of SWASH facilities in Ukerewe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0743.v1
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:36:11 CET)
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, emerged in the human population in December 2019 and spread worldwide within a few short months. Much of the public health focus for preventing and mitigating the spread of COVID-19 has been on individual and collective behaviors, such as social distancing, mask-wearing, and hygiene. Yet it is equally important to recognize that these behaviors and health outcomes occur within broader social and environmental contexts. Factors within local communities, regional policy, race, history, personal beliefs, and natural- and built environmental characteristics affect underlying population health and the spread of disease. For example, COVID-19 has renewed attention to secure water and sanitation services and their importance in protecting human health. Many remote Alaskan communities are particularly vulnerable because of inadequate water and sanitation systems. In this paper, we describe how inadequate water and sewer services may place the inhabitants of remote Alaskan communities at higher risk of COVID spread. We argue that insufficient water security and inadequate sewer systems, along with household overcrowding, multigenerational residences, limited transportation options, limited medical facilities, and higher prevalence of chronic diseases could lead to a greater potential of COVID-19 transmission and to more severe disease outcomes in these communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0065.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: small towns; mapping; urban sanitation; access; SDG; Tanzania
Online: 26 August 2019 (09:08:09 CEST)
Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6.2 sets an ambitious target of leaving no one without adequate sanitation by 2030. The key concern is the lack of local human and financial capital to fund the collection of reliable information to monitor progress towards the goal. As a result, national and local records may be telling a different story of the proportion of safely managed sanitation that counts towards achieving the SDGs. This paper unveils such inconsistency in sanitation data generated by urban authorities and proposes a simple approach for collecting reliable and verifiable information on access to safely managed sanitation. The paper is based on a study conducted in Babati Town Council in Tanzania. Using a smartphone-based survey tool, city health officers were trained to map 17,383 housing units in the town. A housing unit may comprise of two or more households. The findings show that 5% practice open defecation, while 82% of the housing units have some forms of sanitation. Despite the extensive coverage, only 31% of the faecal sludge generated is safely contained, while 64% is not. This study demonstrates the possibility of using simple survey tools to collect reliable data for monitoring progress towards safely managed sanitation in the towns of global south.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: WASH; Hygiene; Sanitation; Under-five children; Nutrition status; Bangladesh
Online: 13 January 2022 (11:04:48 CET)
This study aimed to assess knowledge and practice of caregivers and its relationship to the disease and nutritional status of children under five years of age in rural areas of Sylhet, Bangladesh. A total of 110 households having 6 to 59 months aged children was selected by simple random method from ten rural communities of three Upazila of Sylhet during September 2019 to February 2020. Descriptive statistics were used to assess the WASH knowledge & practice and multivariate chi-square analyses were performed to assess associations among diseases & nutritional status with WASH following a structured questionnaire. The study found a significant association of WASH with childhood disease and nutritional status, and 65% of children were found to be in a diseased state and 35% of children were found to be in a disease-free state within the last six months. The findings sketched that mother with poor wash knowledge and practice was at greater risk for disease outbreaks, disease frequency and duration. The highest incidence of diarrhea was 17% in children aged 12 to 23 months. Significant effect of WASH was also found in children nutrition status, that was reflected in the ratio of stunted, underweight and wasted children. Integrated convergent work focusing on the provision of clean water within the household, stop open defecation, promotion of hand washing, behavior change and poverty alleviation is needed to improve the situation. Health, nutrition and livelihood programs should be uninterrupted, and mothers or caregivers should be encouraged to participate in these programs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0208.v1
Subject: Keywords: Adaptation; Failure; Feedback; Innovation; Learning; Sanitation; Scale-up; Success
Online: 14 October 2021 (08:21:38 CEST)
Background This paper draws learnings and successes based on field implementation experience spanning four years (2016–2019) of implementing CLTS by Prince of Peace Orphans and Widows Vision, a community-based organization located in Kaberamaido district in eastern Uganda. Methods The study aimed to document, disseminate and inform from an evidence-based point of view how adaptation and collaborative engagements triggers learning from mistakes to inform iterative changes from improvements and success.This is a descriptive paper that used project documents review based on field implementation experience. Existing project reports were synthesised, collated and curated for evidence. Data were drawn from project reports and records to inform narratives in writing. Implementation of the project was executed in homogenous rural communities occupied by people of the same dialect, cultural and social settings. Results We note that success in CLTS implementation can hardly be achieved by merely following prescriptions in handbooks and guidelines but rather by devising innovative community engagement and other participatory and community-driven techniques that foster adaptive management, promote ownership, and buy-in.Having learned from our failures, we used data to inform decisions and transformatively deviated from traditional CLTS implementation and introduced high impact and innovative approaches such as the use of CLTS helpdesks and Situation room, the Pamoja approach, learning labs and iterative feedback loops, innovatively tackling slippage and carefully introducing the follow-up mandona approach. These enhanced experiential learning and ultimately resulted in sustained sanitation behaviour. Conclusions The CLTS approach as outlined in the handbook needs to be flexibly adapted to address contextual needs. Reflective and learning sessions reinforced with routine feedback loops from implementers and beneficiaries yields tremendous results, propagates experiential learning, and ultimately results in a transformative deviation from undesirable to desired sanitation behaviours. These innovative approaches once carefully blended have proved to be sustainable, are adaptable and can work in an even larger scale and in a variety of contexts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0369.v1
Online: 23 May 2020 (10:21:50 CEST)
Governments all over the world are currently grappling with the COVID-19 pandemic. While some countries were very hard hit, others were only mildly hit but all are still taking measures to mitigate the consequences. The virus emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and spread to most continents by the beginning of March 2020, which led to the World Health Organization declaring it as a pandemic on the 11th of March 2020. Since it was a novel disease, there was limited information on the virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to the same family as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Researchers all over the world started working simultaneously to understand the virus to provide the necessary treatment regime or vaccine in order to reduce the impact of the virus on its victims. Africa and other developing countries with limited resources and poor planning and management are expected to be among the worst hit in the long run. The implications of the COVID-19 on food, water, hygiene, sanitation, and the environment in Africa have been reviewed in this paper, as well as possible implications they may pose to the population, based on the existing common practices and their immediate impacts. This information can assist policymakers in Africa to adequately plan the management of the COVID-19 in order to lessen its impact on the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0170.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: finance; governance; water; sanitation; enabling environment; pro-poor; systems thinking
Online: 16 October 2019 (04:06:46 CEST)
Responding to the substantial finance gap for achieving Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 and 6.2, the Water and Sanitation sector has mobilized to launch new blended finance vehicles with increasing frequency. The sustainability and scale-up of financial solutions is intended to support increased access to unserved, marginalized populations. However, without addressing foundational issues in the sector, any finance mechanism, whether public, private or blended, will be a short-term, band-aid solution and the sector will continue the cycle of dependency on external assistance. This paper presents the results of a collaborative effort of Water.org, IRC WASH and the World Bank Water Global Practice. Drawing from the latest research on effective public financial management and based on evidence from the countries where these organizations work, the paper demonstrates that sustainable success in mobilising finance at large scale is dependent on a reasonable level of performance across 10 foundational areas. The paper presents evidence on the 10 foundational areas and discusses why other aspects of finance and governance while necessary are not sufficient. Better coordination amongst all development partners and governments, including a collective commitment to and prioritization of working on these foundational issues, is a necessary first step.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0151.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: One Health; Schistosoma mansoni; Giardia duodenalis; Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH); Uganda
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:32:56 CEST)
Both intestinal schistosomiasis and giardiasis are co-endemic throughout many areas of sub-Saharan Africa, significantly impacting the health of millions of children within endemic areas. While giardiasis is not considered a neglected tropical disease, intestinal schistosomiasis is formally grouped within the NTD umbrella and, as such, receives significant advocacy and financial support for large-scale control, annually. Given the many epidemiological similarities between intestinal schistosomiasis and giardiasis, in this review, we critically discuss why disease surveillance and control activities for giardiasis are largely absent within low- and middle-income countries. With advances in new methods of parasite diagnostics and provision of existing anti-parasitic medications, better management of intestinal schistosomiasis and giardiasis co-infection could, not only be better understood but also, more effectively controlled. In this light, we appraise the suitability of a One Health approach for intestinal schistosomiasis, for if adopted more broadly, could also pave a way forward for more inclusive public health actions against giardiasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0010.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: urban sanitation; sewerage network; sewerage connection; low-income community; slum; DSIP; affordability; feasibility; Dhaka; Bangladesh
Online: 1 September 2020 (11:36:01 CEST)
Globally, 2.2 billion urban residents are living without safely-managed sanitation, the majority of whom are slum residents. To improve the situation, Dhaka Water Supply and Sewerage Authority (DWASA) is implementing the Dhaka Sanitation Improvement Project (DSIP), mostly funded by the World Bank. This study assessed the feasibility of connecting low-income communities (LICs) within the proposed sewerage network by 2025. We conducted nine key-informant interviews from DWASA and City Corporation, and 23 focus-group discussions with landlords, tenants and Community Based Organisations (CBOs) from 16 LICs near the proposed catchment area. To achieve connections, LICs would require improved toilet infrastructures and have to be connected to main roads. Construction of large communal septic tanks is also required where individual toilet connections are difficult. To encourage connection in LICs, income-based or area-based subsidies were recommended. For financing maintenance, respondents suggested monthly fee collection for management of the infrastructure by dividing bill equally among sharing households, or by users per household. Participants also suggested the government's cooperation with development-partners/NGOs to ensure sewerage connection construction, operation and maintenance and prerequisite policy changes such as assuring land tenure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0338.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pharmacy practice; infection control; sanitation; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; pharmacists; public health; workplace safety
Online: 21 May 2020 (08:37:52 CEST)
Background: Australia received its first case of coronavirus on 25 January 2020. Since then the demands of COVID-19 has presented unparalleled levels of strain on the public healthcare systems in the country. In this time of crisis, pharmacists and community pharmacy staff have modified work strategies according to the rapidly changing environment. With a delayed dissemination of resources and guidelines, pharmacist and pharmacies are practicing innovative infection control methods across Australia to protect their staff, patients and the community. This article seeks to explore the current activities undertaken by pharmacists in various community pharmacy settings across Australia in relation to the safety of the workplace environments for staff and patients. Information collected can help inform future decisions in pandemic preparation for pharmacies in response to similar health crisis now and in the future. Methods: An online cross-sectional survey study was conducted in Australia during the COVID-19 outbreak from 1st to 30th April 2020. The questionnaire addressed community pharmacist’s awareness and response to infection and sanitation control. Results: A total of 137 pharmacists took part in the survey, with almost half (45.26%) belonging to the age group of 25 to 34 years. Community pharmacy formed the bulk (89.05%) of the respondent’s primary place of practice. There was a good uptake of safety measures by pharmacists and their pharmacies to protect staff and patients. However the task of reassigning high health risk staff was not heavily practiced (34.31%). Regular cleaning took place in the pharmacy, but the use of gloves while cleaning was not practiced in 48.18% of respondents. In addition, only 46.72% of respondents reported observing script baskets being cleaned and disinfected. About one-third (37.96%) of pharmacists were aware of the two-step cleaning and disinfecting process, but only 18.98% of pharmacists reported observing or performing this sanitation procedure. More than half of surveyed pharmacists reported having difficulty keeping up with infection control changes and pharmacy practice guidelines during the pandemic. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that the majority of pharmacists are not fully aware of the infection control measures needed in a community pharmacy setting. The influx of coronavirus updates has made it difficult for pharmacists to implement accurate procedures on some aspects of workplace hygiene, which may have led to some gaps in infection control measures. Pharmacists must aim to uphold their public health ambassador role and aim to keep up-to-date with professional guidance to provide the necessary infection control measures to ensure staff, patient and public health safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0093.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: consumer behavior; cooking fuel; environmental consciousness; health consciousness; semi-parametric estimation; trivariate probit; water and sanitation; wealth
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:53:03 CET)
Relying on Random Utility Theory (RUT) as the guiding mechanism for the Data Generating Process (DGP), this paper uses households consumption choices on cooking fuel, drinking water, and sanitation from the 2014 United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data on Burkina Faso, to characterize and investigate the inter-linkages between health consciousness and environmental consciousness, and their relationship with wealth in a low income country context. We achieve this by specifying sequentially three econometric modeling frameworks: the first one being independent binary probit (IBP) models to describe each choice process, followed by a fully parametric trivariate probit (FPTP) model to account for choice dependency, and finally by a semi-parametric trivariate probit (SPTP) model to further relax the linearity assumption. Based on the Akaike Information criteria (AIC) and the estimated Trivariate model correlation coefficients, the SPTP framework is found to be the best specification for describing the observed consumption behaviors. The results show that increased wealth level raises households health and environmental consciousness, while leaving the relative preference ordering over the elements in the household consumption basket unchanged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0019.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: community-owned water supply organization (COWSO); domestic water management strategy; water quality; water supply and sanitation authority (WSSA)
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:07:50 CEST)
Water supply is a mandatory service for Tanzanians from respective legal public water utilities, and their sustainability reflects implementations of best management strategies at a local level. The objective of this study was to assess current approaches used in water quality and quantity management in Tanzania. This was achieved through secondary water data tends, on-site water quality assessments, visits of respective water supply and sanitation authorities, and assessment of their performances. It was observed that water supplied in rural-based authorities was quite different from that supplied in an urban setting as far as quality and quantity is concerned, urban-based supplies being of assistance to users over rural ones. A new strategy on water management is presented for sustainable water supply in Tanzania; it is based on controlling groundwater abstractions and preference of surface water in public water supplies. Rural water supply management must learn several practices realized at urban supplies for the betterment of respective majority water users.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0109.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: child; diarrhea; water sanitation and hygiene; rehydration solution; zinc; case management; antibacterial agents; drug utilization; community participation; India
Online: 14 May 2019 (11:46:53 CEST)
Childhood diarrhea continues to be a major cause of under-five (U-5) mortality globally and in India. In this study, 1571 U-5 children residing in nine rural villages and four urban slums in Ujjain, India were included with the objective to use community participation and drug utilization research to improve diarrheal case management. The mean age was 2.08 years, with 297 (19%), children living in high diarrheal index households. Most mothers (70%) considered stale food, teething (62%), and hot weather (55%) as causes of diarrhea. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related characteristics revealed that most (93%) households had toilets, but only 23% of the children used them. The study identified ineffective household water treatment by filtration through cloth by most (93%) households and dumping of household waste on the streets (89%). The results revealed low community awareness of correct causes of diarrhea (poor hand hygiene, 21%; littering around the household, 15%) and of correct diarrhea treatment (oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc use, 29% and 11%, respectively) and a high antibiotic prescription rate by healthcare providers (83%). Based on the results of the present study, context-specific house-to-house interventions will be designed and implemented.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: sustainable development strategies; community development plans; small island developing states; governance; sanitation; water supply; hygiene; WASH; census results; top-down versus bottom-up; gender and age; SDG6
Online: 23 October 2020 (12:13:02 CEST)
Sanitation, water supply and their governance remain major challenges in many Pacific Island Countries. National sustainable development strategies (NSDSs) are promoted throughout the Pacific as overarching improved governance instruments to identify priorities, plan solutions and fulfill commitments to sustainable development. Their relevance to local village-level development priorities is uncertain. The Kingdom of Tonga provides opportunities to compare both. Tonga’s Strategic Development Frameworks (TSDFI 2011-2014 and TSDFII 2015-2025) were developed to focus government and its agencies on national outcomes. From 2007 to 2016, 136 villages throughout Tonga’s five Island Divisions (IDs) formulated Community Development Plans (CDPs) involving separately 80% of women, youth and men in each village. Censuses in 2006 and 2016 show linked improvements in water supply and sanitation systems but reveal IDs with continuing challenges. Sanitation and water are prominent in TSDFI but absent from the current TSDFII. In contrast, CDPs show in one ID, 53% of villages ranked sanitation as a priority with marked differences between IDs and between women, youth and men. CDPs’ sanitation priorities in IDs mostly correspond to sanitation and water metrics in the Censuses, but some reflect impacts of natural disasters. Explanations for differences in sanitation priorities between national and local development plans, as well as suggestions for improving NSDS processes in island countries, are advanced.