REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0558.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Monkeypox outbreak; Public health; emergency; Peru
Online: 9 May 2023 (04:11:23 CEST)
Monkeypox is a zoonotic illness caused by the Orthopoxvirus monkeypox virus (MPXV). Since 1970, outbreaks of MPXV have occurred in several Sub-Saharan African countries. However, from May 2022 to April 2023, recent outbreaks of MPXV occurred in several countries outside of Africa, and these cases quickly spread to over 100 non-endemic countries on all continents. Because of this, in July 2022, World Health Organization declared monkeypox a Public Health Emergency of International. MPXV disproportionately affects men who have sex with men and members of the HIV-infected population. The current strategy for control and pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis for people at high risk is vaccination. In this context, Peru has the fourth-highest number of MPXV cases in Latin America. Because of this, in this review, we describe public health indicators in Peru and reflect on the COVID-19 pandemic so that health authorities can join forces to identify and control MPXV transmission routes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Amoeba; Meningitis; Meningoencephalitis; free-living amoeba; Peru
Online: 7 March 2023 (03:44:06 CET)
Background: Free-living amoebas (FLA), also amebas, are eukaryotic and mitochondrial microorganisms that are capable of growing in any environment, aquatic or terrestrial. These free-living amoebas are mostly non-pathogenic to humans. However, there exist some highly pathogenic species, such as Acanthamoeba — mainly T-4 genotype —, Naegleria fowleri (known as brain-eating amoeba), and Balamuthia mandrillaris. They can be called "brain-eating amoebas” because of their ability to cause substantial destruction of brain tissue. There is no standard treatment; immunological processes which predispose humans to acquire and infection and, then, a disease are unknown. In addition, there are other species of free-living amoebas such as, Sappinea pedata, Vermamoeba vermiformes, Vanellas sp,Vahlkampfia sp., and, more recently, Paravahlkampfia francinae, which is less virulent and aggressive than the first three mentioned above. Methods: All CSF samples were evaluated in our laboratory under the microscope. Monoxenic and axenic cultures were negative as well as the presence of cysts or exponential growth. PCR was negative using the FLA primers. Results: Under close observation of sterile CSF, we can see mobile forms of non-human cells. None of the observed forms has the morphotype of Acanthamoeba, Naegleria sp. or Balamuthia mandrillaris. Conclusions: Due to these findings, we know these structures can be observed in the CSF and many of them do not form cysts as others do. In addition, these microorganisms are uncultivable in conventional medium culture to FLA and impossible to detect even when using molecular tools such as PCR, using the primers for EUK A/B or 18s RNAr gene as a target.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: helminths; parasitology; Delphinus; common dolphins; Southeast Pacific Ocean; Peru; Ecuador
Online: 8 October 2022 (05:39:56 CEST)
Data on helminth parasites and epizoites is presented for the long-beaked and short-beaked common dolphins from the Southeast Pacific. Sampling in 1985-2000 was conducted mainly at six fishing ports in Peru and Ecuador where cetaceans were landed. From a total of 473 common dolphins sampled, we identified helminths including three species of Trematoda: Nasitrema globicephalae, Pholeter gastrophilus and Braunina cordiformis; three species of Nematoda, which includes Anisakis spp., Crassicauda sp. and Halocercus sp.; and two cestodes Tetrabothrius forsteri and Clistobothrium delphini (formerly Phyllobothrium delphini). No acanthocephalans were observed. No statistically significant sexual and ontogenetic variation in helminth prevalence was detected after which samples were pooled. The highest prevalence in the long-beaked common dolphin (n=440) was observed for N. globicephalae (96.3%) in cranial sinuses, Crassicauda sp. (83.3%) in mammary glands, Crassicauda sp. (78.8%) infesting the cranial sinuses, followed by Cl. delphini (28.6%) in the blubber and P. gastrophilus and B. cordiformis (20.4%) in the digestive tract. Although comparative testing was unfeasible due to minimal samples of short-beaked common dolphin (n=33), several of the same helminth species were found, but not N. globicephalae nor B. cordiformis. No cyamids were encountered while pseudo-stalked barnacles Xenobalanus globicipitis were common. No new (global) helminth host records are revealed for common dolphins, but this study presents a first checklist of parasites separately for the Southeast Pacific long-beaked and short-beaked common dolphins. Future work should include exhaustive laboratory-based necropsies, enhanced sampling of the short-beaked form, focus on intermediate hosts and parasitic pathology, including potential human health impact from consumption of small cetaceans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0620.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Doe Run Peru; socioeconomic policy; public health; systemic freedom; La Oroya
Online: 26 May 2021 (08:02:56 CEST)
The La Oroya metallurgical complex reveals a process of structural or power pathology, where economic and environmental social policies lead to a citizenry without systemic freedom, characterized by environmental contamination (PAMA executed on average 67%, some processes with 0%) and sanitary (plumbosis 8.39 to 10.28 μg / dL), the economic dependence of this industry is also observed, which caused the weakening of the communities to maintain autonomy over their own destinies.The Doe Run Peru, operated the metallurgical complex, creating added value to the extractive-export chain of mineral concentrate, but also took advantage of the legal loopholes, the little coordination between the State institutions and the little authority of the supervisory institutions to get the most out of it, complying with the law in some cases, but without moral quality in some others, such as health in the oroinos.Government institutions must have strong links that provide a normative framework with prospects with sustainable development, where the beneficiary is society and not only certain interest groups. The economic benefits of the metallurgical complex operation are multiple, which begin with labor, the purchase and sale of materials and services, the collection of taxes and energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0098.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Paleoclimatic variations in Southern Peru; Early human occupations in Tacna - Peru; Ethnoarchaeological analysis of the Populations in the Western Andes; Development of the Puquina; Culture in the Collisuyu territory
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:11:17 CET)
The Environmental interactions contributed to the processes of settlement and development of the first settlers at southern Peru 15,000 BC. The determination of this process is based on paleoclimatic studies at southern Peru and ethnoarchaeological evidence. The determination of this process is based on paleoclimatic studies of southern Peru and ethnoarchaeological evidence; establishing as a result of this analysis the hypothesis of environmental interaction and territorial occupation of the first hunter-gatherer populations until their consolidation, dominating the geographical space from Tacna. The Disruptive disaster events and their effects on climate during the Peruvian Paleolithic resulted in the origin of local societies that shaped the Tiawanaku societies of the early horizon at Southern Peru and Northern Chile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0351.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: MODIS; EVI; time series; greening; browning; Andes; Peru; climate zones; life zones; trend
Online: 5 May 2023 (10:34:53 CEST)
Accurate detection and quantification of regional vegetation trends is essential for understanding the dynamics of landscape ecology and vegetation distribution. We applied a comprehensive trend analysis to satellite data to describe geo-spatial changes in vegetation along the Pacific slope of Peru and northern Chile, from sea level to the continental divide, a region characterised by biologically unique and highly sensitive arid and semi-arid environments. Our statistical analyses show broad regional patterns of positive trends in EVI, called “greening” alongside patterns of “browning” where trends are negative between 2000 and 2020. The coastal plain and foothills, up 1000m, contain notable greening of the coastal Lomas and newly irrigated agricultural lands occurring alongside browning trends related to changes in land use practices and urban development. Strikingly, the precordilleras show a distinct ’greening strip’ which extends from approximately 6°S to 22°S, with an altitudinal trend; ascending from the tropical lowlands (170-780 m) in northern Peru, to the subtropics (1000-2800 m) in central Peru, and temperate zone (2600-4300 m) in southern Peru and northern Chile. We find that the geographical characteristics of the greening strip do not match climate zones previously established by Köppen and Geiger. Greening and browning trends in the coastal deserts and the high Andes lie within well defined climatic and life zones, producing variable but identifiable trends. However, the distinct Pacific slope greening presents an unexpected distribution with respect to the regional Köppen-Geiger climate and life zones. This work provides insights on understanding the effects of climate change on Peru’s diverse ecosystems in highly sensitive, biologically rich arid and semi-arid environments on the Pacific slope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0244.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: oyonite; lillianite homologous series; sulfosalt; copper; antimony; arsenic; Oyon district; Lima department; Peru
Online: 18 April 2018 (16:09:50 CEST)
The new mineral species oyonite, ideally Ag3Mn2Pb4Sb7As4S24, has been discovered in the Uchucchacua polymetallic deposit, Oyon district, Catajambo, Lima Department, Peru, as very rare black metallic subhedral to anhedral crystals, up to 100 μm in length, associated with orpiment, tennantite/tetrahedrite, menchettiite, and other unnamed minerals of the system Pb-Ag-Sb-Mn-As-S, in calcite matrix. Its Vickers hardness (VHN100) is 137 kg/mm2 (range 132–147). In reflected light, oyonite is weakly to moderately bireflectant and weakly pleochroic from dark grey to a dark green. Internal reflections are absent. Reflectance values for the four COM wavelengths (Rmin, Rmax (%) (λ in nm)) are: 33.9, 40.2 (471.1); 32.5, 38.9 (548.3), 31.6, 38.0 (586.6); and 29.8, 36.5 (652.3). Electron microprobe analysis gave (in wt %, average of 5 spot analyses): Cu 0.76 (2), Ag 8.39 (10), Mn 3.02 (7), Pb 24.70 (25), As 9.54 (12), Sb 28.87 (21), S 24.30 (18), total 99.58 (23). On the basis of 20 cations per formula unit, the chemical formula of oyonite is Cu0.38Ag2.48Mn1.75Pb3.79Sb7.55As4.05S24.12. The main diffraction lines are (d in Å, hkl and relative intensity): 3.34 (-312; 40), 3.29 (-520; 100), 2.920 (-132; 40), 2.821 (-232; 70), 2.045 (004; 50). The crystal structure study revealed oyonite to be monoclinic, space group P21/n, with unit-cell parameters a = 19.1806 (18), b = 12.7755 (14), c = 8.1789 (10) Å, β = 90.471 (11)°, V = 2004.1 (4) Å3, Z = 2. The crystal structure was refined to a final R1 = 0.032 for 6272 independent reflections. Oyonite belongs to the Sb-rich members of the andorite homeotypic sub-series within the lillianite homologous series. The name oyonite is after the Oyon district, Lima Department, Peru, the district where the type locality (Uchucchacua mine) is located.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0087.v8
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: stone block; polygonal masonry; clay model; pantograph; translator; parallelogram mechanism; replica; chisel; hammer; megalith; star fortress; Inca; Cusco; Ollantaytambo; Machu Picchu; Sacsayhuaman; Peru; polygonal bas-relief; polygonal Face Towers; Angkor; Cambodia; symmetrical statue; pharaoh statue; Ramses; Egypt
Online: 14 March 2023 (14:19:00 CET)
The article suggests methods that allow creating the most complicated type of polygonal masonry found in Peru. This masonry type consists of large stone blocks weighing from several hundred kilograms to several tons fitted close to each other almost without a gap between complicated curved surfaces over a large area. The work provides a description of techniques, which apparently were used by builders who arrived from Europe. The techniques under discussion are based on the use of a reduced clay model, 3D-pantograph, topography translator and replicas. The use of the topography translator, reduced clay model and pantograph provides not only the unique appearance and high quality of masonry of large blocks, but also allows to increase the productivity of the builders significantly. As machines coping-scaling three-dimensional objects are known since the beginning of the 18th century, the stone structures under consideration should be approximately dated by this time. The remaining simpler types of polygonal masonry, when the stones are small or the fitted surfaces are almost flat, or the stones contact each other over a small area, or there are significant gaps between the stones, are quite consistent with the well-known methods of stone processing at that time or earlier, and, therefore, they do not require any additional explanations. The Fortress Sacsayhuaman is considered as an example of early star fortresses that has survived to our time. The polygonal structures in Peru, the polygonal Face Towers and polygonal bas-reliefs in Cambodia, symmetrical statues of pharaohs in Egypt are based on the same construction technologies, working methods, tools and technical contrivances. Therefore, with a high probability one can state that all these monuments were created by the same group of architects, sculptors, builders, and could not have appeared before the 17th century.