ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0429.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Fusarium graminearum; mycotoxins; wheat; natural infection; epidemic year
Online: 16 June 2021 (09:34:11 CEST)
Fusarium graminearum is a dangerous pathogen of the cereals producing mycotoxins (trichothecene and zearalenone) harmful for human and animal health. There were evaluated sixteen winter wheat varieties for their response in conditions of natural infection with F. graminearum in the epidemic year 2019, being well known that accumulation of mycotoxins (DON, ZON and T-2) is induced by different biotic and abiotic factors. Field plot was organized in Latin rectangle randomized with three replicates. For all evaluated wheat varieties were collected field data (incidence, severity and infection degree of the fungus F. graminearum) and laboratory data (mycotoxins concentration in grains) that have been processed using the software JASP (Version 0.14) for descriptive statistics, and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Microsoft Excel 2019 was used to calculate Pearson’s correlation coefficients. The results showed negative corelation between plants’ density and F. graminearum attack frequency. Positive correlations were found between DON and T-2 and between DON and fungus attack intensity. This work highlights that during a F. graminearum epidemic year some of the most influential factors in the contamination with harmful mycotoxins (DON, ZON and T-2) are: plants density, frequency of the attack on ear, diseased ears and attack intensity on ears.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: winter wheat; mycotoxins; Fusarium; resistance; ergosterol; trichothecenes; zearalenone
Online: 17 May 2021 (09:56:21 CEST)
Fusarium head blight (FHB) can cause contamination of cereal grain with mycotoxins. Winter wheat is also infected with FHB. It is more resistant than durum wheat to head infection and less than other small grain cereals. The aim of this study was to identify winter wheat lines that combine low head infection and kernel damage with low toxin contamination. Resistance to FHB of 27 winter wheat lines and cultivars was evaluated over a three-year experiment established in two locations. At the anthesis stage, heads were inoculated with Fusarium culmorum isolates. The FHB index was scored and the percentage of Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDKs) assessed. The grain was analysed for type B trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol and derivatives, nivalenol) and zearalenone content. The average FHB index was 12.9%. The proportion of FDK was 6.9% (weight) and 8.5% (number). An average content of deoxynivalenol amounted to 3.543 mg/kg and nivalenol to 2.115 mg/kg. In total, it was 5.804 m/kg of type B trichothecenes. The zearalenone content in the grain was 0.214 mg/kg. Relationships between FHB index, FDK and mycotoxin contents were highly significant for wheat lines; however, they were stronger for FDK versus mycotoxins. Breeding lines combing all types of FHB resistance were found, and five of them had resistance similar to that of wheat lines with the Fhb1 gene.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: coffee; grape juice; immunosensing; mycotoxins; nanobiosensors; wine; microcantilever
Online: 13 October 2017 (03:42:50 CEST)
Mycotoxins food contamination represents a serious risk for consumers health. They are secondary metabolites of fungi that can be present in a wide range of foodstuffs. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most toxic compound and it is classified as a possible carcinogenic molecule. The harmful effects of OTA on human and animal health lead to a big boost to develop and optimize highly sensitive and accurate methods for OTA detection. An innovative and rapid detection method based on microcantilever resonators for ochratoxin A identification in food matrix has been developed. This work demonstrates the possibility to apply microcantilever technology in food safety field, showing for the first time in literature the successful detection of one of the most dangerous mycotoxin in different food matrixes both solids and liquids, such as green coffee, grape juice and wine. Sensing performances are discussed in terms of calibration plot and limit of detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2020026
Online: 10 April 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Aflatoxin contaminated maize is of public health concern in Kenya. Training farmers on good agricultural practice (GAP) has been touted as a mitigative measure. Little is known of the effect of such training on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in Kenya. This study evaluated what effect training farmers on GAP has on aflatoxin levels in maize grown in in maize grown in Kaptumo, Kilibwoni, and Kipkaren divisions in Nandi County. Ninety farmers were recruited for the study and interviewed on GAP. Maize samples were additionally collected from the participating farmers and analyzed for aflatoxins using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA). All farmers prepared the land before planting, did correct spacing between the planted crops, carried out weeding, cleaned their stores before use, checked the condition of the maize after harvesting, sorted maize after shelling, and knew aflatoxins. A majority of the farmers (90%) used fertilizers, dried maize after harvesting, knew that aflatoxins were harmful to humans, and used clean transport in transporting the harvested maize. About 98% of farmers did stooking after harvesting and 97% used wooden pallets in the maize stores. The percentage of farmers who practiced early planting, top dressing, crop rotation, raising stores above the ground, applying insecticide after shelling and feeding damaged/rotten seeds to their animals was 84–96%, 62–80%, 67–85%, 86–98%, 63–81%, and 7–21% respectively. About 18/90 (20%) of all farmers reported that they had a relative who had died from liver cancer and the mean aflatoxin levels in season 1 were significantly different from season 2 (1.92 ± 1.07 ppb; 1.30 ± 1.50 ppb). Our findings suggest that although training farmers to adopt good agricultural practices was observed to be efficient in mitigating the problem of aflatoxins, the receptiveness of farmers to different aspects of the training may have differed. Therefore, in designing an optimized regional aflatoxin contamination strategy, local applicability should be considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0023.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: UPLC-MS/MS; mycotoxins; feedstuffs; flow-through; multiple analysis
Online: 5 December 2016 (09:40:24 CET)
A novel determination method using flow-through cartridge purification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the identification and quantification of 30 mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, sterigmatocysin, T-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, roquefortine C, methylergonovine, ergocornine, lysergol, enniatin A, enniatin A1, enniatin B, enniatin B1, beauvericin, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetylDeoxynivalenol, 15-acetylDeoxynivalenol, patulin, verruculogen, neosolaniol, gliotoxin, HT-2 toxin, wortmannin, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, α-zearalanol, and β-zearalanol) in feedstuffs. Mycotoxins were extracted from sample by 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution/acetonitrile (16/84 v/v), then purified by a Cleanert® MC clean-up column. As a result, the pigments and other matrices were efficient removed from the sample extract solution. The purified eluate was collected, then evaporated and redissolved by 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution/acetonitrile (70:30 v/v) for UPLC-MS/MS detection. A BEH Shield RP18 chromatographic column was employed for separation of 30 mycotoxins in a total of 14 min. Multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis, and matrix calibration curves obtained with the external-standard method was used for quantitation of target analytes. Under optimized conditions, the linearity range was from 2 to 1000 ng/g, and the limit of quantification of the developed method was from 2 to 50 ng/g. The recoveries of 30 mycotoxins spiked in urine samples were from 72.0% to 118.5%, and the relative standard deviation was below 20%. The method was also well approved by certified reference sample, and applied on the real feedstuff samples testing successfully.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0040.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: seeds; ELISA; Fusarium; morphological data analysis; mycotoxins; phylogenetic analysis S
Online: 4 August 2016 (10:12:54 CEST)
Adlay seed samples were collected from 3 adlay growing regions (Yeoncheon, Jeonnam and Eumseong regions) in Korea during 2012. Among all the samples collected, 400 seeds were tested for fungal occurrence by standard blotter and test tube agar methods and different taxonomic groups of fungal genera were detected. The most predominant fungal genera encountered were Fusarium, Phoma, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Cochliobolus and Leptosphaerulina. The occurrence of Fusarium species were 45.6% and based on the combined sequences of two protein coding genes, EF-1a, Beta-tubulin and phylogenetic analysis, 10 species were characterized as F. incarnatum (11.67%), F. kyushense (10.33%), F. fujikuroi (8.67%), F. concentricum (6.00%), F. asiaticum (5.67%), F. graminearum (1.67%), F. miscanthi (0.67%), F. polyphialidiom (0.33%), F. armeniacum (0.33%) and F. thapsinum (0.33%). The ability of these isolates to produce mycotoxins fumonisin (FUM) and zeralenone (ZEN) were tested by ELISA quantitative analysis method. The result revealed that fumonisin (FUM) was produced only by F. fujikuroi and zeralenone (ZEN) by F. asiaticum & F. graminearum. Mycotoxigenic species were then examined for their morphological characteristics to confirm their identity. Morphological observations of the species correlated well with their molecular identification and confirmed as F. asiaticum, F. fujikuroi and F. graminearum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0266.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Mycotoxins; Agricultural Practices; Mycotoxigenic Fungi; Fusarium; Oats; Cereals; Statistical Analysis; Agronomic
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:18:56 CEST)
Seven agronomic factors (crop season, farming system, harvest date, moisture, county, oat variety, and previous crop) were recorded for 202 oat crops grown across Ireland, and samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS for four major Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin. Type A trichothecenes were present in 62% of crops, with 7.4% exceeding European regulatory limits. DON (6.4%) and ZEN (9.9%) occurrences were rela-tively infrequent, though one and three samples were measured over their set limits respectively. Overall, the type of farming system and the previous crop were the main factors identified to significantly influence mycotoxin prevalence or concentration. Particularly, adherence to an organic farming system and growing oats after a previous crop of grass were found to decrease contamination by type A trichothecenes. These are important findings and may provide valuable insights for many other types of cereals crops as Europe moves towards a much greater organic based food system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0090.v2
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fusarium head blight; Fusarium species; soil minerals; ergosterol; mycotoxins; organic farming; sowing value; winter wheat
Online: 9 October 2019 (05:38:12 CEST)
Growing acreage and changing consumer preferences cause increasing interest in the cereal products originating from organic farming. Lack of results of objective test, however, does not allow drawing conclusions about the effects of cultivation in the organic system and comparison to currently preferred conventional system. Field experiment was conducted in organic and conventional fields. Thirty modern cultivars of winter wheat were sown. They were characterized for disease infection including Fusarium head blight, seed sowing value, the amount of DNA of the six species of Fusarium fungi as well as concentration of ergosterol and trichothecenes in grain. The intensity Fusarium head blight was at a similar level in both systems. However, Fusarium colonization of kernels expressed as ergosterol level or DNA concentration was higher for the organic system. It did not reflect in an increased accumulation of trichothecenes in grain, which was similar in both systems, but sowing value of organically produced seeds was lower. Significant differences between analyzed cropping systems and experimental variants were found. The selection of the individual cultivars for organic growing in terms of resistance to diseases and contamination of grain with Fusarium toxins was possible. Effects of organic growing differ significantly from the conventional and grain obtained such way can be recommended to consumers. There are indications for use of particular cultivars bred for conventional agriculture in the case of organic farming, and the growing organic decreases plant stress resulting from intense fertilization and chemical plant protection.