ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0526.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: familial hypercholesterolemia; LDLR; patient-specific iPSCs; directed differentiation; endothelial cells
Online: 8 November 2023 (16:14:59 CET)
Defects in low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) are associated with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), manifested by atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Defective LDLR in hepatocytes leads to increased blood cholesterol level that damage vascular cells, especially endothelial cells, through oxidative stress and inflammation. However, the distinctions between endothelial cells from individuals with normal and defective LDLR are not yet fully comprehended. In this study, we obtained and examined endothelial derivatives of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) generated previously from conditionally healthy donors and compound heterozygous FH patients carrying pathogenic LDLR alleles. In normal iPSC-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-EC), we detected the LDLR protein predominantly in its mature form, while iPSC-EC from patients with FH display reduced level of mature LDLR and show abolished low-density lipoprotein uptake. RNA-seq of iPSC-EC with mutant LDLR revealed a unique transcriptome profile comprising downregulated genes related to monocarboxylic acid transport, exocytosis and cell adhesion, as well as upregulated signaling pathways of cell secretion and leukocyte activation. Overall, these findings suggest that LDLR defects increases susceptibility of endothelial cells to inflammation and oxidative stress. This, combined with elevated extrinsic cholesterol levels, may result in accelerated endothelial dysfunction, contributing to early progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular pathologies related to FH.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: diet; plant sterols; stanols; omega-3 fatty acids; familial hypercholesterolemia
Online: 7 August 2020 (06:13:47 CEST)
Background: Although a cholesterol-lowering diet and the addition of plant sterols and stanols are suggested for the lipid management of children and adults with familial hypercholesterolemia, there is limited evidence evaluating such interventions in this population. Objectives: To investigate the impact of cholesterol-lowering diet and other dietary interventions on the incidence or mortality of cardiovascular disease and lipid profile of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Search methods: Relevant trials were identified by searching US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Metabolism Trials Register and clinicaltrials.gov.gr using the following terms: diet, dietary, plant sterols, stanols, omega-3 fatty acids, fiber and familial hypercholesterolemia. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of cholesterol-lowering diet or other dietary interventions in children and adults with familial hypercholesterolemia were included. Data collection and analysis: Two authors independently assessed the trial eligibility and bias risk and one extracted the data, with independent verification of data extraction by a colleague. Results: A total of 17 trials were finally included, with a total of 376 participants across 8 comparison groups. The included trials had either a low or unclear bias risk for most of the parameters used for risk assessment. Cardiovascular incidence or mortality were not evaluated in any of the included trials. Among the planned comparisons regarding patients’ lipidemic profile, a significant difference was noticed for the following comparisons and outcomes: omega-3 fatty acids reduced triglycerides (mean difference [MD]: -0.27 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.47 to -0.07, p<0.01) when compared with placebo. A non-significant trend towards a reduction in subjects’ total cholesterol (MD: -0.34, 95% CI: -0.68 to 0, mmol/L, p=0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: -0.31, 95% CI: -0.61 to 0, mmol/L, p=0.05) was noticed. In comparison with cholesterol-lowering diet, the additional consumption of plant stanols decreased total cholesterol (MD: -0.62 mmol/l, 95% CI: -1.13 to -0.11, p=0.02) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (MD: -0.58 mmol/l, 95% CI: -1.08 to -0.09, p=0.02). The same was by plant sterols (MD: -0.46 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.76 to -0.17, p<0.01 for cholesterol, and MD: -0.45 mmol/l, 95% CI: -0.74 to -0.16, p<0.01 for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol). No heterogeneity was noticed among the studies included in these analyses. Conclusions: Available trials confirm that the addition of plant sterols or stanols has a cholesterol-lowering effect on such individuals. On the other hand, supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids effectively reduces triglycerides and might have a role in lowering the cholesterol of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Additional studies are needed to investigate the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering diet or the addition of soya protein and dietary fibers to a cholesterol-lowering diet in familial hypercholesterolemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; identification; implementation outcomes; cascade screening; cascade testing; chatbots; direct contact
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:49:21 CEST)
Guided by the Conceptual Model of Implementation Research, we explored the acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of: 1) automated screening approaches utilizing existing health data to identify those who require subsequent diagnostic evaluation for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 2) family communication methods including chatbots and direct contact to communicate information about inherited risk for FH. Focus groups were conducted with 22 individuals with FH (2 groups) and 20 clinicians (3 groups). These were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using deductive (coded to implementation outcomes) and inductive (themes based on focus group discussions) methods. All stakeholders described these initiatives as: 1) acceptable and appropriate to identify individuals with FH and communicate risk with at-risk relatives; and 2) feasible to implement in current practice. Stakeholders cited current initiatives, outside of FH (e.g., pneumonia protocols, colon cancer and breast cancer screenings), that gave them confidence for successful implementation. Stakeholders described perceived obstacles, such as nonfamiliarity with FH, that could hinder implementation and potential solutions to improve systematic uptake of these initiatives. Automated health data screening, chatbots, and direct contact approaches may be useful for patients and clinicians to improve FH diagnosis and cascade screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0397.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health literacy; Quality of Life; Affective ranges; HADS; WHO-QOL BREF; Oman; Famiilial hypercholesterolemia; Neuropsychological outcomes; Cognition; Health Literacy; Affective ranges; HADS; Oman
Online: 26 July 2022 (08:16:04 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest to view the diagnosis of Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) through the lens of the biopsychosocial model. However, other than a few epidemiological surveys, there is a dearth of studies from emerging economies that have examined FH using the biological, psychological and socio-environmental facets of the aforementioned model. AIM. The three aims of the current study were as follows: (i) to examine the psychosocial status among patients with genetically confirmed FH, (ii) to compare the intellectual capacity and cognitive outcomes with a reference group, and (iii) to examine the relationship between health literacy and cognitive functioning. METHOD: Consecutive FH patients referred to the lipid clinic at a tertiary care center for an expert opinion were recruited into this study, conducted from September 2019 to March 2020. Information regarding psychosocial functioning, health literacy, quality of life, and affective ranges were surveyed. Indices of current reasoning ability (attention and concentration, memory, and executive functioning) were compared with an age-matched reference group. The current hypothesis also explored the impact of FH on health literacy and cognition. RESULT: A total of 70 participants out of 106 (response rate: 66.0%) initially agreed to participate. However, 18 out of 70 dropped out of the study, yielding a final total of 52 FH patients. With 27 (51.9%) males and 25 (48.1%) females, the mean participant age stood at 37.2 years (SD=9.2), ranging from 21 to 52 years of age. In the psychosocial data, thirty-two percent (n=17) of them had anxiety (HADS≥ 8), and twenty-five percent (n=13) had depressive symptoms (HADS≥ 8). The performance of the FH patients was significantly impaired compared to the control group on the indices of current reasoning ability and all domains of cognitive functioning. In univariate analysis conducted to compare cognitive functioning with health literacy status, only indices of attention and concentration emerged as being significant. CONCLUSION: To date, there are only a few studies employing the biopsychosocial paradigm to investigate the FH population. The current study indicates that the FH population is marked by an impediment in almost all of the core features that are characteristically assessed by the biopsychosocial approach.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0460.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Osteopetrosis; Pyloric stenosis; Familial
Online: 7 July 2023 (05:10:19 CEST)
Osteopetrosis incidence is less than 1:200,000 birth in most populations (Worth, 1963) . It's more common in consanguineous people as it's unusual in two members of the same family. The defined treatment for Osteopetrosis is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). With a 73% five years disease-free survival in donors. The incidence of Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is 1 in 300–900 newborns. Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is due to hypertrophy of the smooth muscle of the pyloric sphincter. The classic age of occurrence is the first few months of life, and the classic presentation is non-bilious projectile vomiting after feeding. We reported a four family members with Osteopetrosis and Pyloric stenosis and their three cousins with Osteopetrosis, which is a very rare presentation and association.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0257.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: SLC15A4; germline variant; familial colorectal cancer; whole exome sequencing
Online: 9 March 2021 (10:24:33 CET)
About 15% of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients have first-degree relatives affected by the same malignancy. However, for most families the cause of familial aggregation of CRC is unknown. In order to identify novel high-to-moderate penetrant germline variants underlying CRC susceptibility, we performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on four CRC cases and two unaffected family members of a Polish family without any mutation in known CRC predisposition genes. After WES, we used our in-house developed Familial Cancer Variant Prioritization Pipeline and identified two novel variants in the solute carrier family 15 member 4 (SLC15A4) gene. The heterozygous missense variant, p. Y444C, was predicted to affect the phylogenetically conserved PTR2/POT domain and to have a deleterious effect on the function of the encoded peptide/histidine transporter. The other variant was located in the upstream region of the same gene (GRCh37.p13, 12_129308531_C_T; 43bp upstream of transcription start site, ENST00000266771.5) and it was annotated to affect the promoter region of SLC15A4 as well as binding sites of 17 different transcription factors. Our findings of two distinct variants in the same gene may indicate a synergistic up-regulation of SLC15A4 as the underlying genetic cause and implicate this gene for the first time in genetic inheritance of familial CRC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0121.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Familial colorectal cancer; SRC; germline variant; whole genome sequencing
Online: 3 March 2021 (09:52:06 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) shows one of the largest proportions of familial cases among different malignancies, but only 5-10% of all CRC cases are linked to mutations in established predisposition genes. Thus, familial CRC constitutes a promising target for the identification of novel, high- to moderate-penetrance germline variants underlying cancer susceptibility by next generation sequencing. In this study, we performed whole genome sequencing on 3 members of a family with CRC aggregation. Subsequent integrative in silico analysis using our in-house developed variant prioritization pipeline resulted in the identification of a novel germline missense variant in SRC gene (V177M), a proto-oncogene highly upregulated in CRC. Functional validation experiments in HT-29 cells showed that introduction of SRCV177M resulted in increased cell proliferation and enhanced protein expression of phospho-SRC (Y419), a potential marker for SRC activity. Upregulation of paxillin, β-Catenin and STAT3 mRNA levels, increased levels of phospho-ERK, CREB and CCND1 proteins and downregulation of the tumor suppressor p53 further proposed the activation of several pathways due to the SRCV177M variant. The findings of our pedigree-based study contribute to the exploration of the genetic background of familial CRC and bring insights into the molecular basis of upregulated SRC activity and downstream pathways in colorectal carcinogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; APC; Splicing; Exon Skipping; FAP Pathogenesis
Online: 4 January 2021 (11:59:26 CET)
Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is caused by germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene APC. To date, nearly 2000 APC mutations have been described in FAP, most of which are predicted to result in truncated protein products. Mutations leading to aberrant APC splicing have rarely been reported. Here, we characterized a novel germline heterozygous splice donor site mutation in APC exon 12 (NM_000038.5: c.1621_1626+7del) leading to exon 12 skipping in an Italian family with the attenuated FAP (AFAP) phenotype. Moreover, we performed a literature me-ta-analysis of APC splicing mutations. We found that 123 unique APC splice site mutations, in-cluding the one described here, have been reported in FAP patients, 69 of which have been char-acterized at the mRNA level. Among these, only a small proportion (9/69) results in an in-frame protein, with 4 mutations causing skipping of exon 12 and/or 13 with loss of armadillo repeat 2 (ARM2) and 3 (ARM3), and 5 mutations leading to skipping of exon 5, 7, 8, and (partially) 9 with loss of regions not encompassing known functional domains. The APC splicing mutations considered in this study cluster with the AFAP phenotype and delineate a novel molecular mechanism of pathogenesis in FAP disease.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0476.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer's Disease; Familial Alzheimer Disease (FAD); presenilins; Amyloid beta Precursor Protein; mutation
Online: 23 April 2023 (02:50:35 CEST)
Probabilistic and parsimony-based arguments regarding available genetics data are used to propose that Hardy and Higgin’s amyloid cascade hypothesis is valid but is commonly interpreted too narrowly to support, incorrectly, the primacy of the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) in driving Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. Instead, increased activity of the βCTF (C99) fragment of APP is likely the critical pathogenic determinant altered by mutations in the APP gene. This model is consistent with the regulation of APP mRNA translation via its 5’ iron responsive element (IRE). Similar arguments support that the pathological effects of familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations in the genes PSEN1 and PSEN2 are not exerted directly via changes in APP cleavage to produce different ratios of Aβ length. Rather, these mutations likely affect the stability of presenilin holoprotein and/or γ-secretase multimers with consequences for γ-secretase activity and other important cellular functions. All fAD mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 likely find unity of pathological mechanism in their actions on endolysosomal acidification and mitochondrial function, with detrimental effects on iron homeostasis and promotion of “pseudo-hypoxia” being of central importance. Aβ production is enhanced and distorted by oxidative stress and accumulates due to decreased lysosomal function. It may act as a disease-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) enhancing oxidative stress-driven neuroinflammation during the cognitive phase of the disease. We also discuss fascinating, but largely ignored, data on presenilin biology that may be important in understanding presenilins’ central role in familial Alzheimer’s disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: APCDD1; HDAC5; germline variants; familial colorectal cancer; whole exome sequencing; promoter activity
Online: 1 February 2021 (14:04:24 CET)
Germline mutations in predisposition genes account for only 20% of all familial colorectal cancer (CRC) and the remaining genetic burden may be due to rare high-to-moderate-penetrance germline variants that are not explored. With the aim of identifying such potential cancer predisposing variants, we performed whole exome sequencing on three CRC cases and three unaffected members of a Polish family and identified two novel heterozygous variants; a coding variant in APC down-regulated 1 gene (APCDD1, p.R299H) and a non-coding variant in the 5’ untranslated region (UTR) of histone deacetylase 5 gene (HDAC5). Sanger sequencing confirmed the variants segregating with the disease and Taqman assays revealed 8 additional APCDD1 variants in a cohort of 1705 familial CRC patients and no further HDAC5 variants. Proliferation assays indicated an insignificant proliferative impact for the APCDD1 variant. Luciferase reporter assays using the HDAC5 variant resulted in an enhanced promoter activity. Targeting of transcription factor binding sites of SNAI-2 and TCF4 interrupted by HDAC5 variant showed a significant impact of TCF4 on promoter activity of mutated HDAC5. Our findings contribute not only to the identification of unrecognized genetic causes of familial CRC but also underline the importance of 5´UTR variants affecting transcriptional regulation and the pathogenesis of complex disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: dysbiosis; familial adenomatous polyposis,; ulcerative colitis; 16S rRNA; gut microbiota; geo-graphic populations
Online: 16 December 2020 (18:05:43 CET)
Inflammatory bowel diseases, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and colorectal cancer (CRC) are associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. However, few data are available on the perpetuation of FAP and ulcerative colitis (UC) in relation to microbial dysbiosis. This study evaluated the UC and genetically confirmed FAP patients’ gut microbial balance in concordance to clinical outcome. Fecal materials (average mass of 0.54 g) were collected from three FAP and five UC patients to compare with healthy individuals as control group. Genomic materials of micro-biota were isolated for next generation sequencing of 16S rRNA that was performed by using QIAseq 16S/ITS panel in Illumina Miseq Platform. Data processing and bioinformatics analysis were performed via CLC Genomic Workbench bioinformatics tool. The comparison between FAP, UC and control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition. More in details, relative abundance of class levels showed statistical significance differences among FAP, UC and control groups. Our preliminary data focused on the explanation of how dysbiosis can lead to inflammation and drive processes together with host genetic profile that leads to colorectal carcinogenesis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0854.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Proteome; Alzheimer's Disease; Familial Alzheimer's disease; PSEN1; A431E; Mesenchymal Stem Cells; Proteostasis; Olfactory; Neurodegeneration; FAD
Online: 12 July 2023 (13:37:00 CEST)
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common neurodegenerative disease and the first cause of dementia worldwide, has no effective treatment yet, and AD's pathological mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We conducted this study to explore the proteomic differences associated with Familial Alzheimer's Disease (FAD) in olfactory ecto-mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from PSEN1 (A431E) mutation carriers compared with healthy donors paired by age and gender through two label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approaches. The first analysis compared carrier 1 (patient with symptoms, P1) and its control (healthy donor, C1), and the second the Carrier 2 (patient with pre-symptoms, P2) with its respective control cells (C2) to evaluate whether the protein alterations presented in the symptomatic carrier were also present in pre-symptoms stages. Finally, we analyzed the differential expressed proteins (DEPs) for biological and functional enrichment. These proteins showed an impaired expression in a stage-dependent manner and are involved in energy metabolism, vesicle transport, actin cytoskeleton, cell proliferation, and proteostasis pathways resembling previous AD reports. Our study is the first proteomic analysis in MSCs from FAD patients in two stages of the disease (symptomatic and presymptomatic), showing these cells as a new and excellent in vitro model for future AD studies.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2038.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; Next Generation Sequencing; LDL-cholesterol; LDLR gene; Copy number variations (CNVs); Alu sequences
Online: 30 May 2023 (04:25:02 CEST)
Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), now widely used in the clinical setting, offers an efficient and comprehensive molecular approach for patients with Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Although the dominant form of disease is mostly due to low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) small-scale pathogenic variants, approximately 10% of molecularly defined FH cases are due to Copy Number Variations (CNVs). Here, we report a novel large deletion of the LDLR gene involving exons 4–18, identified by bioinformatic analysis of NGS data in an Italian family. A long PCR strategy was employed for breakpoint region analysis where an insertion of 6 nucleotides (TTCACT) was found. Two Alu sequences, identified within intron 3 and exon 18, could underlie the identified rearrangement by a Nonallelic Homologous Recombination (NAHR) mechanism. NGS proves to be a powerful tool used to precisely identify CNVs, in addition to small-scale variants in FH-related genes. At this purpose, the use and implementation of this cost-effective, efficient molecular approach meets the clinical need for personalized diagnosis in FH cases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: familial dysbetalipoproteinemia; hyperlipoproteinemia type III; APOE; apolipoprotein E; apolipoprotein B; autosomal dominant; remnant lipoproteins; hyperlipidemia; population; genetic
Online: 2 June 2023 (08:53:37 CEST)
Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia (FD) is a highly atherogenic genetically-based lipid disorder with the underestimated actual prevalence. In the recent years, several biochemical algorithms have been developed to diagnose FD using available laboratory tests. However, there is not enough data on their use in real-world clinical implementation. We studied the applicability of the most accessible biochemical algorithms to diagnose FD in clinical practice. We also investi-gated the prevalence of FD in one of the European regions of Russia based on a population sample. In this study there was detected a high prevalence of FD: 1 in 151. We demonstrated that the diagnostic algorithms of FD including a diagnostic apoB levels require correction, taking into account the characteristics of the distribution of apoB levels in the population. At the same time a triglycerides cutoff ≥1.5 mmol/L may be a useful tool in identifying subjects with FD. We also analyzed the presence and pathogenicity of APOE variants associated with the autosomal dominant FD in a large research sample.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: autoinflammatory diseases; SARS-CoV-2; vaccination; familial Mediterranean fever Adult-onset Still's disease; cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome; systemic autoinflammatory diseases
Online: 17 October 2023 (11:54:44 CEST)
Patients with sAID are a population at high risk of severe COVID outcomes but evidence on the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in this group of patients is scarce. To investigate the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with systemic autoinflammatory diseases (sAID) receiving interleukin-1 inhibition is important. Vaccination responses from 100 sAID patients most of whom were treated with IL-1inhibitors (N=96) and 100 healthy controls (HC) were ana-lyzed. After 2nd SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, sAID patients showed similar anti-SARS-CoV-2 anti-body responses (mean (SD): 6.7 (2.7)) compared to HC (5.7 (2.4)) as well as similar neutralizing antibodies (85.1 ±22.9% vs. 82.5 ±19.7%). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses and neutralizing antibodies were similar in sAID patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection and double vaccination. Furthermore, while antibodies increased after 1st and 2nd vaccination in sAID patients they did not further increase after 3rd and 4th vaccination. No difference was found in antibody responses between anakinra and anti-IL-1 antibody treatments and also the additional use of colchicine or other drugs did not impair vaccination responses. Primary and booster SARS-CoV-2 vaccination lead to protective antibody responses in sAID patients, which are at the same level of vaccination responses in HC and in sAID patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunomodulatory treatments used in sAID do not seem to affect antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0079.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD); amyloid precursor protein (APP); familial AD (FAD); sporadic AD (SAD); BACE1 inhibitors; APP-independent generation of beta amyloid
Online: 6 April 2018 (15:16:08 CEST)
The present article analyzes the results of recent clinical trials of beta secretase inhibition in sporadic Alzheimer’ disease (SAD), considers the striking dichotomy between successes in tests of BACE1 inhibitors in healthy subjects and familial AD (FAD) models versus persistent failures of clinical trials and interprets it as a confirmation of key predictions for a mechanism of APP-independent, beta secretase inhibition-resistant production of beta amyloid in SAD, previously proposed by us. In the light of this concept, FAD and SAD should be regarded as distinctly different diseases as far as beta-amyloid generation mechanisms are concerned, and whereas beta secretase inhibition would be neither applicable nor effective in treatment of SAD, the BACE1 inhibitor(s) deemed failed in SAD trials could be perfectly suitable for treatment of FAD. Moreover, targeting the aspects of AD other than cleavages of the APP by beta and alpha secretases should have analogous impacts in both FAD and SAD.