COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0256.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: probability density function; cumulative distribution function; deep learning
Online: 12 November 2018 (04:00:20 CET)
To generate a probability density function (PDF) for fitting probability distributions of real data, this study proposes a deep learning method which consists of two stages: (1) a training stage for estimating the cumulative distribution function (CDF) and (2) a performing stage for predicting the corresponding PDF. The CDFs of common probability distributions can be adopted as activation functions in the hidden layers of the proposed deep learning model for learning actual cumulative probabilities, and the differential equation of trained deep learning model can be used to estimate the PDF. To evaluate the proposed method, numerical experiments with single and mixed distributions are performed. The experimental results show that the values of both CDF and PDF can be precisely estimated by the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0322.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: cumulative entropy; cumulative residual entropy; extropy; gini mean difference; tsallis entropy; weighted cumulative residual entropy
Online: 25 February 2022 (04:44:39 CET)
In this work, we introduce a generalized measure of cumulative residual entropy and study its properties. We show that several existing measures of entropy such as cumulative residual entropy, weighted cumulative residual entropy and cumulative residual Tsallis entropy, are all special cases of the generalized cumulative residual entropy. We also propose a measure of generalized cumulative entropy, which includes cumulative entropy, weighted cumulative entropy and cumulative Tsallis entropy as special cases. We discuss generating function approach using which we derive different entropy measures. Finally, using the newly introduced entropy measures, we establish some relationships between entropy and extropy measures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0306.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: measurement error; dose-metric; bayes; cumulative exposure
Online: 28 April 2019 (09:47:53 CEST)
Background: We considered a problem of inference in epidemiology when cumulative exposure is the true dose metric for disease, but investigators are only able to measure its duration on each subject. Methods: We undertook theoretical analysis of the problem in the context of a continuous response caused by cumulative exposure, when duration and intensity of exposure follow log-normal distributions, such that analysis by linear regression is natural. We present a Bayesian method to adjust duration-only analysis to incorporate partial knowledge about the relationship between duration and intensity of exposure and illustrate this method in the context of association of smoking and lung function. Results: We derive equations that (a) describe under what circumstances bias arises when duration of exposure is used as a proxy of cumulative exposure, (b) quantify the degree of such bias and loss of precision, and (c) describe how knowledge about relationship of duration and intensity of exposure can be used to recover an estimate of the effect of cumulative exposure when only duration was observed on every subject. Conclusions: Under our assumptions, when duration and intensity of exposure are either independent or positively correlated, we can be more confident in qualitatively interpreting the direction of effects that arise from use of duration of exposure per se. To make reliable inference about the magnitude of effect of cumulative exposure on the outcome, we can use external information on the relationship between duration and intensity of exposure even if intensity of exposure is not available at the individual level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0330.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Forest nutrition; soil chemistry; geology; cumulative distribution functions
Online: 21 July 2022 (13:26:46 CEST)
Successful fertilization treatments targeted to improve stand productivity while reducing operational complexities and cost depend on a clear understanding of soil nutrient availability under varying environmental conditions. Soil nutrient data collected from 154 forest sites throughout the Inland Northwest, USA were analyzed to examine soil nutrient characteristics on different geologic soil parent materials and to rank soil fertility. Results show that soil parent material explains significant differences in soil nutrient availability. Soils developed from volcanic rocks have the highest CEC and are relatively high in P, K, S, Mg, Cu, Ca, and B, but generally poor in N. Forest soils developed from plutonic rocks exhibit the lowest CEC and are low in N, S, K, Mg, Cu, and Ca, but higher in P. Some soils located on mixed glacial till are low only in K, Cu, Mg, and Ca, but many glacial soils are relatively rich in other nutrients, albeit the second lowest CEC. Soils developed from metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks are among those with lowest soil nutrient availability for P and B. Sulfur was found to have the highest concentrations in metasedimentary influenced soils and the least in sedimentary derived soils. Our results should be useful in designing site-specific fertilizer and nutrient management prescriptions for forest stands growing on soils developed from these major geologies within the Inland Northwest region of the United States.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: cumulative family risk; child maltreatment; early adversity; DNA methylation; SLC6A4
Online: 25 October 2021 (10:26:29 CEST)
Exploring the contribution of proximal family risk factors on SLC6A4 DNA methylation in children with a history of maltreatment
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0067.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: seismic acceleration; Guidonia; earthquake; Benioff cumulative stress; Swarm; pre-earthquake processes
Online: 4 January 2023 (06:08:38 CET)
This communication investigates possible anomalies in the lithosphere atmosphere and ionosphere on the occasion of the ML=3.3 earthquake that occurred on 1st January 2023 close to Guidonia Montecelio (Rome, Italy). This earthquake followed another event on 23 December 2022 of magnitude ML=3.1 with a very close epicentre (distance less than 1km). Seismological investigations clearly show an acceleration of seismicity in the last six months in the area. Two solutions of fitting time to failure power law on the Cumulative Benioff strain curve are the more likelihood: the ML3.3 of 1 January is the mainshock of seismic sequence or incoming earthquakes of a magnitude of about 4.1 provides a slightly better fit of the seismic data. Further investigation are necessary to assess if the accumulated stress have been totally released or not. No atmospheric anomalies related to this seismic activity have been identified even if some SO2 emissions could come from tectonic or volcanic sources in the South-Tyrrhenian Sea. Swarm satellites' magnetic data shows an anomalous track on 16 December 2022, which is temporally compatible with the seismic acceleration but other sources for the anomalous signal are also possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0182.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: cumulative logit; penalized models; LASSO; variable inclusion indicators; spike-and-slab
Online: 14 March 2022 (10:04:52 CET)
Stage of cancer is a discrete ordinal response that indicates aggressiveness of disease and is often used by physicians to determine the type and intensity of treatment to be administered. For example, the FIGO stage in cervical cancer is based on the size and depth of the tumor as well as the level of spread. It may be of clinical relevance to identify molecular features from high-throughput genomic assays that are associated with stage of cervical cancer, to elucidate pathways related to tumor aggressiveness, identify improved molecular features that may be useful for staging, and identify therapeutic targets. High-throughput RNA-Seq data and corresponding clinical data (including stage) for cervical cancer patients has been made available through The Cancer Genome Atlas Project (TCGA). We recently described penalized Bayesian ordinal response models that can be used for variable selection for over-parameterized datasets such as the TCGA-CESC dataset. Herein, we describe our ordinalbayes R package, available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN), which is capable of fitting cumulative logit models when the outcome is ordinal and the number of predictors exceeds the sample size, P>N, such as for TCGA data. We demonstrate use of this package through application to TCGA cervical cancer dataset. Our ordinalbayes package can be used to fit models to high-dimensional dataset and effectively performs variable selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0053.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: seasoned equity offerings; sustainable development; cumulative abnormal return; operational structure change
Online: 18 December 2017 (10:51:56 CET)
Sustainability is directly linked to firms’ survival in competitive markets. To survive, firms need extra capital, and seasoned equity offerings (SEOs) are one sustainability strategy. Additional resources from SEOs leads to changes in firms’ operational structure, which brings future sustainability. This study investigates whether there is sustainability in firms’ operational structure and the effects of sustainable development on operational performance and market reaction. We measure the operational structure change of firms as three proxies: 1) the rate of increase in the number of operating segments, 2) the Berry–Herfindahl index using the ratio of sales of each operating segment out of total sales, and 3) the size of net investment in plant and equipment. Our results show that operational structure change has a statistically significant and positive correlation with long-term operating performance. In addition, there is no significant stock price response at first, but the operating performance in the next term is perceived as a favorable factor after 3 years. The results show that there are different responses in the stock market toward operational structure change. The empirical results confirm that firms with SEO have sustainable development in operational structure and that markets recognize firms’ sustainability strategy arising from SEOs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0302.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: unsaturated hydraulic conductivity; water restoration; cumulative transpiration; particle size distribution; grazed grassland
Online: 17 August 2018 (12:01:57 CEST)
The objective of this study was to investigate successional changes in water flow as a result of changes in soil hydraulic properties after crop abandonment under drought and non-drought conditions, and under water uptake by co-occurring perennial plant species to clarify the observation that typical perennial grass species are seldom observed in abandoned fields. Soil hydraulic properties were measured in croplands which had been abandoned for different periods (2, 9, and 18 years from abandonment) and in a grazed grassland site. Hydrological processes in the soil profiles were simulated with soil hydraulic properties under drought and non-drought summer conditions with water uptake from perennial grass species Suction in the surface soils increased with the period of abandonment, with this trend being particularly obvious in a drought year. Available water appears to be restricted in the later successional stage of abandoned fields and in grazed grassland for plants that have drought tolerance. Dry soil and climate conditions are important factors determining the intrusion of the typical perennial grass, S. krylovii, into degraded abandoned fields. This abiotic interaction between soil hydraulic properties and climate conditions may play an important role for plant succession in abandoned cropland.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0547.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Covid-19; Infection Rate; Case Mortality Rate; Extreme Bounds Analysis; Cumulative Density Function
Online: 31 March 2023 (09:42:23 CEST)
By using the Sala-i-Martin version of extreme bounds analysis, which is based on the cumulative density function, cross-sectional evidence is presented on the robust determinants of the infection and case mortality rates of Covid-19. The results show that, for most part, different factors determine the infection and mortality rates in developed and developing countries. However, common factors are also apparent, including the risk environment, the number of tests per million and the percentage of population over 65. Notwithstanding the possibility that the official data represent a partial reflection of the truth, it is concluded that the results presented in this study provide useful information that may aid decision-making in the fight against the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0411.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Ostrowski's inequality; Čebyšev inequality; Lupaş inequality; weighted integrals; probability density functions; cumulative probability function
Online: 26 June 2018 (11:35:58 CEST)
In this paper we establish some weighted integral inequalities of Ostrowski, Čebyšev and Lupaş type. Applications for continuous probability density functions supported on infinite intervals with two examples are also given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: nonparametric change point detection; singular spectrum analysis; cumulative sums; ecg; ppg; arrhythmias; cardiac monitoring
Online: 11 December 2017 (06:54:53 CET)
While the importance of continuous monitoring of electrocardiographic (ECG) or photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals to detect cardiac anomalies is generally accepted in preventative medicine, there remain major barriers to its actual widespread adoption. Most notably, current approaches tend to lack real-time capability, exhibit high computational cost, and be based on restrictive modeling assumptions or require large amounts of training data. We propose a lightweight and model-free approach for the online detection of cardiac anomalies such as ectopic beats in ECG or PPG signals based on the change detection capabilities of Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) and nonparametric rank-based cumulative sum (CUSUM) control charts. The procedure is able to quickly detect anomalies without requiring the identification of fiducial points such as R-peaks and is computationally significantly less demanding than previously proposed SSA-based approaches. Therefore, the proposed procedure is equally well suited for standalone use and as an add-on to complement existing (e.g. heart rate (HR) estimation) procedures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0997.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; temporary disability; cumulative incidence; healthcare workers; National Network of Epidemiological Surveillance; Spain
Online: 15 May 2023 (07:49:18 CEST)
Healthcare workers (HCW) have been the professional category most exposed to SARS-CoV-2. The pandemic’s impact on HCW was analyzed in terms of COVID-19-related temporary disability (TD) between February 15 2020 and May 1 2021. TDs in HCW for COVID-19 infection or quarantine were described. TD quarantine/infection ratios and TDs per 100,000 affiliated HCW were compared with the cumulative incidence (CI) of COVID-19 cases notified to the National Network of Epidemiological Surveillance. TDs rates by economic activity and occupation were computed. A total of 429,127 TDs were recorded, 36,6% for infection. Three-quarters (76%) were women. The median TD quarantine/infection ratio was 2.5 (Interquartile range [IQR] 1.5-3.9). TDs rates in HCW were always above the CI except for the last two months of the fourth wave. Hospital activities accounted for 84% of TDs and showed the highest TD rate for infection (8,279/100,000). The highest TDs rates were registered among Nursing assistants, Nursing professionals and Physicians: 7,426, 6,925 and 5,508/100,000, respectively. The results demonstrate the high impact of COVID-19 on HCW in Spain and it’s inequalities. They also confirm that TDs represent a complementary source of information for epidemiological and public health surveillance and could provide an early warning of new emerging infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: animal welfare; pain; farm animals; Pain-Track; Cumulative Pain; pain assessment; welfare foot-print; time; interspecific comparisons
Online: 15 August 2022 (03:57:59 CEST)
We describe a recently developed approach to quantify welfare loss in animals, the Cumulative Pain metric. It combines the two most relevant dimensions of negative affective experiences: intensity and duration. The metric enables estimating the time individuals spend in negative affective states of a physical or psychological nature (operationally referred to simply as ‘pain’) of different intensities as the result of one or more challenges (e.g., diseases, injuries, deprivations). A new notation protocol (the Pain-Track) is used in which the duration of the experience is represented along the horizontal axis and intensity is represented by four categories in the vertical axis. Pain experiences are partitioned into temporal segments, where hypotheses for the experienced duration and intensity are proposed based on existing welfare indicators (e.g., neurophysiological, behavioral, anatomical, evolutionary). This structure forces transparency about assumptions and uncertainties, highlights knowledge gaps, and enables estimates to be continuously adjusted. Because the Cumulative Pain metric is based on parameters with a broadly common biological meaning, it provides the much needed interoperability among assessments of animal welfare. It enables comparing the impact of practices and living conditions, policies and interventions, and the calculation of welfare footprints of animal-sourced products using a universal measurement unit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0126.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Cumulative effects; fine sediment; particulate phosphorus; sediment geochemistry; gravel-bed rivers; forest disturbance; wildfire; eutrophication; climate change
Online: 8 October 2021 (08:07:28 CEST)
Cumulative effects of landscape disturbance in forested source water regions can alter the storage of fine sediment and associated phosphorus in riverbeds, shift nutrient dynamics and degrade water quality. Here, we examine longitudinal changes in major element chemistry and particulate phosphorus (PP) fractions of river-bed sediment in an oligotrophic river during environmentally sensitive low flow conditions. Study sites along 50 km of the Crowsnest River were located below tributary inflows from sub-watersheds and represent a gradient of increasing cumulative sedi-ment pressures across a range of land disturbance types (harvesting, wildfire, and municipal wastewater discharges). Major elements (Si2O, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, Ti2O, V2O5, P2O5), loss on ignition (LOI), PP fractions (NH4CI-RP, BD-RP, NaOH-RP, HCI-RP and NaOH(85)-RP) and absolute particle size were evaluated for sediments collected in 2016 and 2017. While total PP concentrations were similar across all sites, bioavailable PP fractions (BD-RP, NaOH-RP) increased downstream with increased concentrations of Al2O3 and MnO and levels of landscape disturbance. This study highlights the longitudinal water quality impacts of increasing landscape disturbance on bioavailable PP in fine riverbed sediments and shows how the convergence of climate (wildfire) and anthropogenic (sewage effluent, harvesting, agriculture) drivers can produce legacy effects on nutrients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0199.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: combinational circuits; fault detection; test vector generation; error occurrence probability estimation; probability mass function; and cumulative distribution function
Online: 10 October 2018 (04:16:29 CEST)
This paper introduces an approach that chooses the fault detection by calculating probabilities using probability mass function (pmf) and cumulative distribution function (CDF). This work used a method for multiple stuck-at faults by producing a new test pattern in combinational circuits. We assumed that existence of all multiple faults is only because of one single component that is faulty. A complete test set can be created by all possible single stuck-at faults in a combinational circuit using some combination of gates. The test set generation fault detection method is applied on two different 3-bit input variable and 4-bit input variable circuits. The probability of error occurrence is calculated at both 3-bit and 4-bit input variable circuits. The resulting feature is used to obtain maximum error occurrence probability to detect faults by the logic used that the complexity of the circuit is inversely proportional to the fault occurrence probability. Then again, undetectability is directly proportional to the complexity of the circuit. Therefore, finest feasible circuit should have large input variable components with less complexity to reduce the fault occurrence probability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0064.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced concrete moment-resisting frame; steel damper column; peak response; cumulative response; passive control structure; momentary energy input; pushover analysis
Online: 9 January 2023 (06:08:38 CET)
A steel damper column is an energy-dissipating member that is suitable for reinforced concrete (RC) buildings and multistory housing. To assess the seismic performance of buildings with steel damper columns, the peak displacement of the whole building and the energy dissipation demand of the dampers must be evaluated. This article proposes an energy-based prediction procedure for the peak and cumulative response of an RC frame building with steel damper columns. The proposed procedure considers two energy-related seismic intensity parameters, namely the maximum momentary input energy and the total input energy. The peak displacement is predicted considering the energy balance during a half cycle of the structural response, using the maximum momentary input energy. The energy dissipation demand of the dampers is then predicted considering the energy balance during a whole response cycle using the total input energy. The local responses (e.g., peak drift, maximum plastic rotation of beams, maximum shear strain, and energy dissipation demand of dampers) are predicted using pushover analysis. Numerical analysis results for 8- and 16-story RC buildings show that the proposed prediction method achieves satisfactory accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0343.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced-concrete moment-resisting frame; steel damper column; seismic sequence; peak response; cumulative response; cyclic degradation; passive control structure; momentary energy input
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:33:07 CET)
The steel damper column is an energy-dissipating member that is suitable for reinforced concrete (RC) buildings, and those used for multistory housing in particular. However, the effectiveness of steel damper columns may be affected by the behavior of surrounding members, and this effect can be severe in the case of seismic sequences. This article investigates the nonlinear response of building models having an RC moment-resisting frame (MRF) with and without steel damper columns under seismic sequences. The applicability of the concept of the momentary energy input to the prediction of the peak response of RC MRFs with damper columns under seismic sequences is also investigated. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows. (1) The peak response of RC MRFs with damper columns subjected to sequential accelerations is similar to the peak response obtained considering only the mainshock, whereas the cumulative strain energy of RC MRFs accumulates more for sequential accelerations. (2) The steel damper column is effective in reducing the peak and cumulative responses of RC MRFs in the case of sequential seismic input. (3) The relation of the hysteretic dissipated energy during a half cycle of the structural response and the peak displacement of the first modal response can be properly evaluated using the simple model proposed in this study.