ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0155.v1
Online: 19 March 2018 (10:45:19 CET)
The effects of buckwheat intake on cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have not been systematically investigated. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively summarise studies in humans and animals evaluating the impact of buckwheat consumption on CVD risk markers and to conduct a meta-analysis of relevant data. Thirteen randomised, controlled human studies, two cross-sectional human studies and twenty-one animal studies were identified. Using random effects models, the weighted mean difference of post-intervention concentrations of blood glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased following buckwheat intervention compared with controls [differences in blood glucose: -0.85 mmol/L (95% CI: -1.31, -0.39), total cholesterol: 0.50 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.80, -0.20) and triglycerides: 0.25 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.49, -0.02)]. Responses of a similar magnitude were seen in two cross-sectional studies. For animal studies, nineteen of twenty-one studies showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol of between 12 and 54%, and fourteen of twenty studies showed a significant reduction in triglycerides of between 2 and 74%. All exhibited high unexplained heterogeneity. There was inconsistency in HDL cholesterol outcomes in both human and animal studies. It remains unclear whether increased buckwheat intake significantly benefits other markers of CVD risk, such as weight, blood pressure, insulin, and LDL-cholesterol, and underlying mechanisms responsible for any effects are unclear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Bayesian; cardiovascular disease; CVD; cross-sectional; logistic regression
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:55:06 CET)
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been one of the leading causes of death and disability-adjusted life years lost worldwide. Blood pressure, lipid, and cholesterol are good predictors of CVD risk and correspond upon age and physical fitness. However, few studies have explored the variation trend of CVD risk factors across different populations upon age and their muscle strength. Objective: to analysis the variation tendency of CVD risk factors in blood according to age and relative grip strength among different populations. Method: 25363 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study and 24709 were included in the analysis. A logistic regression and a Bayesian probabilistic analysis based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Modeling is conducted to build probability prediction models of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypercholesterolemia according to age, relative grip strength, body weight conditions, and physical activity levels. Results: 1) age might be the main influence factor of hypertension, which is regarded as one of the primary CVD risk factors. However, although keeping a high level of physical activity might have positive effect on preventing hypertension because that individuals with normal body weight and higher physical activity shows a lower probability of being diagnosed with hypertension, it might could not prevent individuals from getting hypertension with age. 2) After 60, individuals of normal body weight seem more likely to have hyperlipidemia than those are overweight or obese. 3) Larger relative grip strength might not be able to offset the negative effects of obesity, overweight and physical inactivity on hyperlipidemia. 4) The probability of getting hypercholesterolemia varies less with age and relative grip strength. Conclusion: Body weight management and keeping high levels of physical activity are recommended at any age. It might benefit to increase some bodyweight after 60 years old.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Econometrics & Statistics Keywords: cardiovascular disease (CVD); Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs); cost of admission; risk factors
Online: 16 January 2020 (09:05:32 CET)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered to be one of the leading health issues in Thailand. CVD not only contributes to an increase in the number of hospital admissions year on year but also impacts on the rising health care expenditure for the treatment and long-term care of CVD patients. Therefore, this study is aimed at examining the impacts of risk reduction strategies on the number of CVD hospital admissions, Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) and the costs of hospitalisation. To estimate such impacts a CVD cost-offset model wasapplied using a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. The number of the mid-year population was classified by age, gender and the CVD risk factor profiles from the recent Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV. This survey was chosen as the baseline population. The CVD risk factor profiles included age, gender, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and smoking status. The Asia-Pacific Collaborative Cohort Study (APCCS) equation was applied to predict the probability of developing CVD over the next eight-year period. Estimates on the following were obtained from the model: (1.) the CVD events both fatal and non-fatal; (2.) the difference between the projected number of deaths and the actual number of deaths in that population; (3.) the number of patients who are expected to live with CVD; (4.) the DALYs from the estimated number of fatal and non-fatal events; (5.) the cost of hospital admissions. Four CVD risk strategy scenarios were investigated as follows: (1.) the do nothing scenario; (2.) the optimistic scenario; (3.) achieve the UN millennium development goal; and (4.) the worst-case scenario. The findings showed that over the next eight years there are likely to be 3,297,428 recorded cases of CVD; 5,870,049 cases of DALYs; and, approximately ฿57,000 million, ($1.9 billion), is projected as the total cost of hospital admissions. However, if the current health policy can reduce the levels of risk factors as defined in the optimistic scenario or such policy meets the specifications of the UN millennium development goal,there would be a significant reduction in the number of hospital admissions. These are estimated to be a reduction of 522,179 male and 515,416 female cases. With these results it is expected that health care costs would save approximately ฿9,000 million, ($298.3 million), for CVD and 900,000 million of DALYs over the next eight years. However, if there is an upward trend in the risk factors as predicted in the worst-case scenario, then there will be an increase of 428,220 CVD cases; consequently, DALYs cases may rise by 766,029 while the hospitalisation costs may increase by approximately ฿7,000 million, ($232.1 million). Based on our findings, reducing the levels of CVD risk factors in the population will drastically reduce: (1.) the number of CVD cases; (2.) DALYs cases; and (3.) health care costs. Therefore it is recommended that the health policy should enhance the primary prevention programs which would be targeted at reducing the CVD risk factors in the population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: wearable; photoplethysmography; spectral kurtosis; extreme learning machine (ELM) regression; respiration rate; cardiovascular diseases (CVD)
Online: 16 June 2017 (10:45:32 CEST)
In this paper, we present the design of a wearable photoplethysmography (PPG) system, R-band for acquiring the PPG signals. PPG signals are influenced by the respiration or breathing process and hence can be used for estimation of respiration rate. R-Band detects the PPG signal that is routed to a Bluetooth low energy device such as a nearbyplaced smartphone via microprocessor. Further, we developed an algorithm based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) regression for the estimation of respiration rate. We proposed spectral kurtosis features that are fused with the state-ofthe-art respiratory-induced amplitude, intensity and frequency variations-based features for the estimation of respiration rate (in units of breaths per minute). In contrast to the neural network (NN), ELM does not require tuning of hidden layer parameter and thus drastically reduces the computational cost as compared to NN trained by the standard backpropagation algorithm. We evaluated the proposed algorithm on Capnobase data available in the public domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0368.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: thermoelectric conversion efficiency; CVD graphene; grain sizes; FET 4-point measurements; electrical conductivity; seebeck coefficient
Online: 24 June 2018 (11:32:58 CEST)
The grain size of CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) graphene was controlled by changing the precursor gas flow rates, operation temperature, and chamber pressure. Graphene of average grain sizes of 4.1 µm, 2.2 µm, and 0.5 µm were synthesized in high quality and full coverage. The possibility to tailor the thermoelectric conversion characteristics of graphene has been exhibited by examining the grain size effect on the three elementary thermal and electrical properties of σ, S, and k. Electrical conductivity (σ) and Seebeck coefficients (S) were measured in a vacuum for supported graphene on SiO2/Si FET (Field Effect Transistor) substrates so that the charge carrier density could be changed by applying a gate voltage (VG). Mobility (µ) values of 529~1042, 459~745, and 314~490 cm2/V·s for the three grain sizes of 4.1 µm, 2.2 µm, and 0.5 µm, respectively, were obtained from the slopes of the measured σ vs. VG graphs. The power factor (PF), the electrical portion of the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT), decreased by about one half as the grain size was decreased, while the thermal conductivity (k) decreased by one quarter for the same grain decrease. Finally, the resulting ZT increased more than two times when the grain size was reduced from 4.1 µm to 0.5 µm.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: dietary substitution; CVD; saturated fatty acids; protein; monounsaturated fatty acids; polyunsaturated fatty acids; dairy fat; refined carbohydrates; whole grains
Online: 18 May 2017 (04:01:53 CEST)
Dietary recommendations to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) have focused on reducing intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA) for more than 50 years. While the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans advise substituting both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids for SFA, evidence supports other nutrient substitutions that will also reduce CVD risk. For example, replacing SFA with whole grains, but not refined carbohydrates, reduces CVD risk. Replacing SFA with protein, especially plant protein may also reduce CVD risk. While dairy fat (milk, cheese) is associated with a slightly lower CVD risk compared to meat, dairy fat results in a significantly greater CVD risk relative to unsaturated fatty acids. As research continues, we will refine our understanding of dietary patterns associated with lower CVD risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0634.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: CVD rehabilitation; Local muscular endurance exercises; Exercise-based rehabilitation; Deep Learning; AlexNet; CNN; SVM; kNN; RF; MLP; PCA; multi-class classification; INSIGHT-LME dataset
Online: 26 July 2020 (15:21:08 CEST)
Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation requires patients to perform a set of certain prescribed exercises a specific number of times. Local muscular endurance (LME) exercises are an important part of the rehabilitation program. Automatic exercise recognition and repetition counting, from wearable sensor data is an important technology to enable patients to perform exercises independently in remote settings, e.g. their own home. In this paper we first report on a comparison of traditional approaches to exercise recognition and repetition counting, corresponding to supervised machine learning and peak detection from inertial sensing signals respectively, with more recent machine learning approaches, specifically Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). We investigated two different types of CNN: one using the AlexNet architecture, the other using time-series array. We found that the performance of CNN based approaches were better than the traditional approaches. For exercise recognition task, we found that the AlexNet based single CNN model outperformed other methods with an overall 97.18% F1-score measure. For exercise repetition counting , again the AlexNet architecture based single CNN model outperformed other methods by correctly counting repetitions in 90% of the performed exercise sets within an error of ±1. To the best of our knowledge, our approach of using a single CNN method for both recognition and repetition counting is novel. In addition to reporting our findings, we also make the dataset we created, the INSIGHT-LME dataset, publicly available to encourage further research.