ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0335.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Amah Mutsun Tribal Band; Indigenous archaeology; Collaborative archaeology; Community-based participatory research; California archaeology; Indigenous stewardship
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:43:15 CET)
This paper summarizes over a decade of collaborative eco-archaeological research along the central coast of California involving researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, tribal citizens from the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band, and California Department of Parks and Recreation archaeologists. Our research employs remote sensing methods to document and assess cultural resources threatened by coastal erosion and geophysical methods to identify archaeological deposits, minimize impacts on sensitive cultural resources, and provide tribal and state collaborators with a suite of data to consider before proceeding with any form of invasive archaeological excavation. Our case study of recent eco-archaeological research developed to define the historical biogeography of threatened and endangered anadromous salmonids demonstrates how remote sensing technologies help identify dense archaeological deposits, remove barriers, and create bridges through equitable and inclusive research practices between archaeologists and the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band. These experiences have resulted in the incorporation of remote sensing techniques as a central approach of the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band when conducting archaeology in their traditional territories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0070.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Remote sensing; direct detection; GIS mapping; Caribbean Archaeology; landscape archaeology
Online: 11 October 2017 (16:23:29 CEST)
Satellite imagery has had limited application in the analysis of pre-colonial settlement archaeology in the Caribbean; visible evidence of wooden structures perishes quickly in tropical climates. Only slight topographic modifications remain, typically associated with middens. Nonetheless, surface scatters, as well as the soil characteristics they produce, can serve as quantifiable indicators of an archaeological site, which can be detected by analysis of remote sensing imagery. A variety of data sets were investigated, with the intention to combine multispectral bands to feed a direct detection algorithm, providing a semi-automatic process to cross-correlate the datasets. Sampling was done using locations of known sites, as well as areas with no archaeological evidence. The pre-processed very diverse remote sensing data sets have gone through a process of image registration. The algorithm was applied in the northwestern Dominican Republic on areas that included different types of environments, chosen for having sufficient imagery coverage, and a representative number of known locations of indigenous sites. The resulting maps present quantifiable statistical results of locations with similar pixel value combinations as the identified sites, indicating higher probability of archaeological evidence. The results show the variable potential of this method in diverse environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0158.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: monster of troy; archaeology; Corinthian vase; fossil; Samotherium
Online: 13 December 2018 (06:47:37 CET)
It has been proposed that the Monster of Troy, depicted in a 6th Century BC Corinthian vase, is the earliest artistic record of a vertebrate fossil, possibly a Miocene giraffe (Samotherium sp.). I analyzed the giraffe hypothesis under four approaches: a double-blind random design in which 78 biologists compared the vase skull with Samotherium and several reptiles; an informed survey of 30 students who critically assessed the hypothesis; a computerized image comparison; and a morphological comparison. All of them rejected the giraffe hypothesis. Eye and teeth types unambiguously discard a fossil or living mammal as the model, which more probably was an extant carnivorous reptile.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0137.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Archaeology; Archaeogenetic Model; Neolithic; Chalcolithic; Bronze Age; Migration
Online: 19 December 2017 (15:49:22 CET)
Migrations are much more important than currently recognised, for explaining important patterns observed in the European archaeology record – according to this archaeology led model. At a high level, they explain the introduction of different farming, monument building, the spread of metalworking and patterns of trade and exchange. This paper presents an archaeogenetic model based on a strategic review of the Neolithic and Chalcolithic archaeology of Europe, alongside a review of recently published ancient DNA data. The model is archaeology led. It takes archaeology themes and proposes migratory events to explain them. Ancient DNA data and further archaeology evidence is then used to test these proposed migrations- to reject or refine them. The model introduces a new and more strategic way of looking at archaeological cultures - that updates early 20th century approaches to studying archaeology cultures, and integrates with the detailed ‘post processual’ studies of the late 20th Century. The model consists of seven maps – each showing multiple migration events – with key evidence to support each migration map. It proposes a new category of a ‘Black Sea’ related population that makes a major genetic contribution to the Middle Neolithic of Europe. The proposed migrations provide an explanation for the observed patterns of archaeology, for example: • multiple Neolithic migrations that introduced, farming and metalworking into Europe; • a major ‘Black Sea’ related ‘Middle Neolithic’ migration that carried advanced knowledge of astronomy that can be recognised in a variety of types of monument from the Neolithic through to Bronze Age Europe; and, • migrations of related cultures (‘supercultures’) that explain patterns of trade and exchange in Bronze Age western Europe. The model also provides ancient DNA and archaeology based support for the key aspects of Childe’s ‘dawn of civilisation’ in Europe and Egypt and Gimbutas’ ‘Old Europe’ and “three waves of migration from the Steppe”.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0463.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: taxonomy; biogeography; evolution; domestication; dispersal; pollen; archaeology; hemp; drugs
Online: 2 December 2021 (08:55:17 CET)
Cannabis is among the oldest human domesticates and has been subjected to intensive artificial (human-mediated) selection throughout history to create a wide array of varieties and biotypes for diverse uses, including fibre, food, biofuel, medicine and drugs. This paper briefly reviews the available literature on the taxonomy, evolutionary origin and domestication of this plant, as well as its worldwide dispersal, in both its wild and cultivated forms. Emphasis is placed on Europe and especially on the Iberian Peninsula. Today, it is accepted that Cannabis is a monospecific genus with two subspecies, C. sativa subsp. sativa and C. sativa subsp. indica, originating in Europe and Asia, respectively, by allopatric differentiation after geographic isolation fostered by Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Palynological and phylogeographic evidence situates the Cannabis ancestor on the NE Tibetan Plateau during the mid-Oligocene. The timing and place of domestication is still a matter of debate between contrasting views that defend single or multiple Neolithic domestication centres situated in different parts of the Eurasian supercontinent, notably central/southeastern China and the Caucasus region. Recent meta-analyses have suggested that wild Cannabis may have already been spread across Europe in the Pleistocene, and its domestication could have occurred during the European Copper/Bronze ages. According to the available reviews and meta-analyses, pre-anthropic dispersal of Cannabis into the Iberian Peninsula seems to have occurred only in postglacial times, and the earlier signs of cultivation date to the Early Medieval Ages. However, the palynological and archaeological evidence used to date is insufficient for a sound assessment, and the development of thorough Iberian databases to address further meta-analysis is essential for more robust conclusions. Some clues are provided for these achievements to be fulfilled.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning; orthoimage; heritage; remote sensing; preservation; archaeology
Online: 18 August 2017 (16:49:13 CEST)
This article presents a methodology to process information from a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) from three dimensions (3D) to two dimensions (2D), and to two dimensions with a color value (2.5D), as a tool to document and analyze heritage buildings. Principally focused on the loss of material in stone, this study aims at creating an evaluation method for loss control, taking into account the state of conservation of the building in terms of restoration, from studying the pathologies, to their identification and delimitation. A case study on the Cathedral of the Seu Vella de Lleida was completed, examining the details of the stone surfaces. This cathedral was affected by military use, periods of abandonment, and periodic restorations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0117.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: multi-temporal; seasonal; vegetation; palaeo-river; Indus civilisation; archaeology
Online: 27 June 2017 (04:41:04 CEST)
Remote sensing has considerable potential to contribute to the identification and reconstruction of lost hydrological systems and networks. Remote sensing-based reconstructions of palaeo-river networks have commonly employed single or limited time-span imagery, which limits their capacity to identify features in complex and varied landscape contexts. This paper presents a seasonal multi-temporal approach to the detection of palaeo-rivers over large areas based on long-term vegetation dynamics and spectral decomposition techniques. The use of multi-temporal data has allowed the overcoming of seasonal cultivation patterns and long-term visibility issues related to crop selection, large-scale irrigation and land use patterns. The application of this approach on the Sutlej-Yamuna interfluve (northwest India), a core area for the Bronze Age Indus Civilisation, has enabled the reconstruction of an unsuspectedly complex palaeo-river network comprising more than 8000 kms of palaeo-channels. It has also enabled the definition of the morphology of these relict courses, which provides insights into the environmental conditions in which they operated. These new data will contribute to a better understanding of the settlement distribution and environmental settings in which this, often considered riverine, civilisation operated.
Subject: Keywords: Archaeology; Morphology; ancient DNA; feralisation; hybridization; breed; Salish dogs; Canis; skulls
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:10:40 CEST)
Domestication had a dramatic influence on the cultural evolution of human histories, and on the biological evolution of domesticated species. Domestic dogs occurred earlier in the Americas than other domesticated animals. Older records in the continent come from North America, dated 11,000-8,400 ybp, and in the Andes from 5,600-5,000 ybp. In order to present an overview of human-dog interaction in the Americas, and to identify gaps in knowledge of this subject, we reviewed 178 publications on zooarchaeological record of burials, genetics, morphology, and ethnological information of American dogs, revisiting the history and interactions across the continent. There is no evidence of an in-situ dog initial domestication. Pre-Columbian diversity in North America includes at least three varieties, whereas in South America six varieties were documented. Historical descriptions of phenotypes (e.g. humped dog) may represent an expression associated with mutations. We find that archaeological, historical, and ethnographic records reveal non-traditional uses and hybridizations with other canids. For example, the Coast Salish people exploited woolly dogs for manufacturing blankets. Dog acquisition by some Amazonian cultures began towards the end of the nineteenth century. Overall more than 41 dog breeds originated in the Americas and are currently recognized by kennel clubs. The main gap in knowledge points to the relationships between American breeds, local hybridizations, migratory routes of dogs following Indigenous peoples’ social networks, historical-cultural contexts, and quantification of morphological diversity. North and Central American dogs have been more intensively studied than those from the Amazon regions or Patagonia. We find that the history of domestication in the Americas is far from simple and integrative studies are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0027.v1
Subject: Keywords: Population genetics; Statistical modelling; Demographic modelling; Ancient DNA; Population history; Archaeology
Online: 2 March 2020 (15:17:14 CET)
Demographic processes directly affect patterns of genetic variation within contemporary populations as well as future generations, allowing for demographic inference from patterns of both present day and past genetic variation. Advances in laboratory procedures and sequencing and genotyping technologies in the last decades have resulted in massive increases in high quality genome-wide genetic data from present day populations and allowed retrieving genetic data from archaeological material, also known as ancient DNA. This has resulted in an explosion of work exploring past changes in population size, structure, continuity and movement. However, as genetic processes are highly stochastic, patterns of genetic variation only indirectly reflect demographic histories. As a result, past demographic processes need to be reconstructed using an inferential approach. This usually involves comparing observed patterns of variation with model expectations from theoretical population genetics. A large number of approaches have been developed based on different population genetic models that each come with assumptions about the data and underlying demography. In this article I review some of the key models and assumptions underlying the most commonly used approaches for past demographic inference and their consequences for our ability to link the inferred demographic processes to the archaeological and climate records.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0349.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Sea level changes; Luminescence dating; coastal archaeology; landscape reconstruction; Bronze age; Crete
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:42:17 CEST)
Understanding the processes that govern the transformation of the landscape through time is essential for exploring the evolution of a coastal area. Coastal landscapes are dynamic sites, with their evolution strongly linked with waves and sea-level variations. Geomorphological features in the coastal area, such as beachrock formations and dune fields, can function as indicators of the coastal landscape evolution through time. However, our knowledge of the chronological framework of coastal deposits on the Aegean coasts is limited. Optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques are deemed to be very promising indirect dating of the coastal sediments, especially when they are linked with archaeological evidence. The dating of the sediments from different sediment core depths, as they are determined by the method of luminosity, allows us to calculate the rate of sediment deposition over time. Additionally, the coastal evolution and stability were studied from 1945 until today, with the use of aerial photographs and satellite images. This paper presents the 6000 ka years evolution of a coastal landscape based on geomorphological, archaeological, and radio-chronological data. Based on the results, the early stages of the Ammoudara beach dune field appear to be formed ~9.0 – 9.6 ka BP, while the OSL ages from 6 m depth represented the timing of its stabilization (OSL ages ~5–6 ka). This indicates that the dune field appears to already have been formed long before the Bronze Age (5-10 ka BP) and became stabilized with only localized episodes of dune reactivation occurring, while high coastal erosion rates are found in modern times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0057.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: auto-extraction; remote sensing archaeology; tuntian; LATTICs; GF-1; Silk Road; Miran
Online: 4 April 2018 (11:56:47 CEST)
This paper describes the use of the Chinese Gaofen-1 (GF-1) satellite imagery to automatically extract tertiary Linear Archaeological Traces of Tuntian Irrigation Canals (LATTICs) located in the Miran site. The site is adjacent to the ancient Loulan Kingdom at the eastern margin of the Taklimakan Desert in western China. GF-1 data was processed following atmospheric and geometric correction, and spectral analyses were carried out for multispectral data. The low values produced by SSI indicate that it is difficult to distinguish buried tertiary LATTICs from similar backgrounds using spectral signatures. Thus, based on the textual characteristics of high-resolutionGF-1 panchromatic data, this paper proposes an automatic approach that combines joint morphological bottom and hat transformation with a Canny edge operator. The operator was improved by adding stages of geometric filtering and gradient vector direction analysis. Finally, the detected edges of tertiary LATTICs were extracted using the GIS-based draw tool and converted into shapefiles for archaeological mapping within a GIS environment. The proposed automatic approach was verified with an average accuracy of 95.76% for 754 tertiary LATTICs in the entire Miran site and compared with previous manual interpretation results. The results indicate that GF-1 VHR PAN imagery can successfully uncover the ancient tuntian agricultural landscape. Moreover, the proposed method can be generalized and applied to extract linear archaeological traces such as soil and crop marks in other geographic locations.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0011.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method; polymer; carbomer; ground-electrode electrical contact enhancement; archaeology
Online: 2 August 2020 (10:58:15 CEST)
This communication reports an improvement of the quality of the electrical data obtained from the application of electrical resistivity tomography method on archaeological studies. The electrical contact between ground and electrode enhances significantly by using carbomer-based gel during the electrical resistivity tomography measurements. Not only does the gel promote the conservation of the building surface under investigation, but it also virtually eliminates the necessity of conventional spike electrodes, which in many archaeological studies are inadequate or not permitted. Results evidenced an enhancement in the quality of the electrical data obtained in the order of thousands of units compared with those without using the carbomer-based gel. The potential and capabilities of this affordable gel make it appropriate to be applied to other geoelectrical studies beyond archaeological investigations. Moreover, it might solve corrosion issues on conventional spike electrodes, and electrical multicore cables usually provoked for added saltwater attempting to improve the electrical contact.