REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0229.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: skin regeneration; wound healing; skin stem cells; skin vascularization; 3D printing.
Online: 8 March 2021 (15:26:04 CET)
In the past decades, regenerative medicine applied on skin lesions has been a field of constant improvement for both human and veterinary medicine. The process of healing cutaneous wound injuries implicates a well-organized cascade of molecular and biological processes. However, sometimes the normal process fails and can result in a chronic lesion. In addition, wounds are considered an increasing clinical impairment, due to the progressive ageing of the population, as well as the prevalence of concomitant diseases, such as diabetes and obesity, that represent risk aggravating factors for the development of chronic skin lesions. Stem cells regenerative potential has been recognized worldwide, including towards skin lesion repair, Tissue engineering techniques have long been successfully associated with stem cell therapies, namely the application of 3D bioprinted scaffolds. With this review we intend to explore several stem cell sources with promising aptitude towards skin regeneration, as well as different techniques used to deliver those cells and provide a supporting extracellular matrix environment, with effective outcomes. Furthermore, different studies are discussed, both in vitro and in vivo, towards their relevance in the skin regeneration field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0425.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Goat; Sheep; Small Ruminants; Animal Models; Regenerative Medicine.
Online: 21 January 2021 (15:01:17 CET)
Medical and translational scientific research requires the use of animal models as an initial approach to the study of new therapies and treatments, but when the objective is an exploration of translational potentialities, classical models fail to adequately mimic problems in humans. Among the larger animal models that have been explored more intensely in recent decades, small ruminants, namely sheep and goats, have emerged as excellent options. The main advantages associated to the use of these animals in research works are related to their anatomy and dimensions very similar to those of humans in most physiological systems, in addition to their low maintenance and feeding costs, tendency to be docile, long life expectancies and few ethical complications raised in society. The most obvious disadvantages are the significant differences in some systems such as the gastrointestinal, and the reduced amount of data that limits the comparison between works and the validation of the characterization essays. Despite everything, recently these species have been increasingly used as animal models for diseases in different systems, and the results obtained open doors for their more frequent and advantageous use in the future. The purpose of this review is to summarize the general principles related to the use of small ruminants as animal models, with focus on regenerative medicine, to group the most relevant works and results published recently and to highlight the potentials for the near future in medical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0567.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Peripheral Nerve Injury; Peripheral Nerve Regeneration; Peroneal Common Nerve; Animal Model; Sheep Model; Nerve Anatomy; Neurological Exam; Nerve Stereology
Online: 22 December 2020 (16:07:28 CET)
Thousands of people worldwide suffer from injuries in the peripheral nerve and deal daily with the resulting physiological and functional deficits. Recent advances in this field are still insufficient to guarantee effective outcomes, and the development of new and effective therapeutic options requires the use of valid preclinical models that effectively replicate the characteristics and challenges associated with these injuries in humans. In this study, we established a sheep model for common peroneal nerve injuries that can be applied in preclinical research with the advantages associated with the use of large animal models. In an integrative way, this article includes a detailed description of the anatomy and functionality of the peripheral nerves of sheep’s hind limb, the surgical protocol for accessing the common peroneal nerve, the induction of different types of nerve damage and the application of possible therapeutic options. A neurological exam protocol directed to the common peroneal nerve was also established, allowing to identify the changes and deficits related with the nerve injury and to evaluate the functional progression over time. Finally, a preliminary stereological study was carried out to establish control values for the healthy peroneal common nerves of this model and to identify preliminary differences between therapeutic methods. The ultimate goal is to demonstrate that sheep is a valid model of peripheral nerve injury to be used in pre-clinical and translational works and to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nerve injury therapeutic options before its clinical application in human and veterinary patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0436.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Biomaterials; Bone; Bone regeneration; Critical Bone Defects; Hydroxy-apatite nanoparticles; Polycaprolactone; Polyethylene glycol diacrylate; Scaffolds
Online: 28 October 2022 (02:15:21 CEST)
Notwithstanding the advances achieved in the last decades in the field of synthetic bone substitutes, the development of biodegradable 3D scaffolds with ideal mechanical and biological properties remains an unattained challenge. In this work, a novel approach is explored to produce synthetic bone grafts mimicking the complex bone structure using additive manufacturing. For the first time, scaffolds were produced, using an extrusion technique, composed of a thermoplastic polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL), hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANp), and polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). These scaffolds were further compared with two groups of scaffolds: one composed of PCL and another of PCL and HANp. After production, optimisation and characterisation of these scaffolds, an in vitro evaluation was performed using human dental pulp stem/stromal cells (hDPSCs). Through the findings it was possible to conclude that PEGDA scaffolds were successfully produced presenting networks of interconnected channels, presenting hydrophilic properties (15.15 4.06°), adequate mechanical performance (10.41MPa 0.934), and allowing a cell viability significantly superior to the other groups analysed. To conclude, findings in this study demonstrated that PCL, HANp and PEGDA scaffolds may have promising effects on bone regeneration and might open new insights for 3D tissue substitutes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0274.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Peripheral Nerve Injury; peripheral nerve regeneration; sciatic nerve; Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells; Olfactory Ensheating Cells; secretome; conditioned medium; nerve guidance conduit; tibial cranial muscle; rat
Online: 28 April 2022 (05:49:40 CEST)
Cell secretome has been explored as a cell-free technique with high scientific and medical interest for Regenerative Medicine. In this work, the secretome produced and collected from Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Olfactory Ensheating Cells was analyzed and therapeutically applied to promote peripheral nerve regeneration. The analysis of the conditioned medium revealed the production and secretion of several factors with immunomodulatory functions, capable of intervening beneficially in the phases of nerve regeneration. Subsequently, the conditioned medium was applied to sciatic nerves of rats after neurotmesis, using Reaxon® as tube-guides. Over 20 weeks, the animals were subjected to periodic functional assessments, and after this period, the sciatic nerves and cranial tibial muscles were evaluated stereologically and histomorphometrically, respectively. The results obtained allowed to confirm the beneficial effects resulting from the application of this therapeutic combination. The administration of conditioned medium from Olfactory Mucosal Mesenchymal Stem Cells led to the best results in motor performance, sensory recovery, and gait patterns. Stereological and histomorphometric evaluation also revealed the ability of this therapeutic combination to promote nervous and muscular histologic reorganization during the regenerative process. The therapeutic combination discussed in this work shows promising results and should be further explored to clarify irregularities found in the outcomes and to allow establishing the use of cell secretome as a new therapeutic field applied in the treatment of peripheral nerves after injury.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0221.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Polycaprolactone; Hydroxyapatite; Composites; Solvent casting; Melt blending; 3D printing; Cytocompatibility; Bone tissue engineering
Online: 17 January 2022 (11:29:33 CET)
Bone tissue engineering has been developed in the past decades, with the engineering of bone substitutes on the vanguard of this regenerative approach. PCL based scaffolds are fairly applied for bone regeneration, and several composites have been incorporated, as to improve the devices’ mechanical properties and tissue ingrowth. In this study, HA was incorporated on PCL based scaffolds with two different proportions, 80:20 and 60:40. Devices were produced with two different techniques, SC and MB, and further investigated with regards to their mechanical characteristics and in vitro cytocompatibility. Results show the MB devices to present more promising mechanical properties, along with the incorporation of HA. The latter is also related to an increase in osteogenic activity and promotion. Overall, this study suggest PCL:HA scaffolds to be promising candidates for bone tissue engineering, particularly when produced by the MB method.