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REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1630.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fake News; Marketing; Bibliometric Literature Review; LRSB
Online: 23 May 2023 (08:51:09 CEST)
Fake news was conventionally assumed to mean fabricated information published in newspapers and other mass media. It was mostly done to increase the paper's sales and was unlikely to have long-term impacts on society. Fake news in marketing concerns intentionally delivering false or misleading information regarding a product or service to influence consumer behavior. Despite the severity of these impacts, we noted that there is very little scientific research on fake news in marketing and consumer behavior. This systematic literature review (LRSB) aims to bridge this knowledge gap by searching and analysing relevant publications on "fake news in marketing" and synthesising data from 117 relevant studies, providing a framework for marketers and business leaders to reduce the spread and impact of online misinformation. The main highlights identify that the implementation and use of social media, shaping a presence on the internet, diffusion, and consumption of fake news have become a serious challenge and a dominant problem in the marketing sector, especially with the growth of digital marketing. Strategically, fake news spread can be categorized into various types, and the use of these tactics can produce short-term benefits such as increased engagement and instant sales, but they can also have severe long-term costs such as reputational damage, loss of revenues and market share, and discouraged investors and shareholders.
Thu, 4 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0266.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: misinformation; catholic media; COVID-19 vaccine; fake news; infodemic; health communication; vaccination; news media; digital media
Online: 4 May 2023 (12:57:51 CEST)
During the COVID-19 pandemic, online media were the most widely used source of scientific information. Often, they are also the only ones on science-related topics. Research has shown that much of the information available on the Internet about the health crisis lacked scientific rigor and that misinformation about health issues can pose a threat to public health. In turn, millions of Catholics were found to be demonstrating against vaccination against COVID-19 based on "false" and misleading religious arguments. This research analyses publications about the vaccine in Catholic online media with the aim of understanding the presence of information (and misinformation) in this community. An algorithm designed for each media outlet collected COVID-19 vaccine-related publications from 109 Catholic media outlets in five languages. In total, 970 publications were analysed for journalistic genres, types of headlines and sources of information. The results show that most publications are informative and most of their headlines are neutral. However, opinion articles have mostly negative headlines. Also, a higher percentage of the opinion authors come from the religious sphere and most of the sources cited are religious. Finally, 35% of the publications relate the vaccine to the framing issue of abortion.
Wed, 29 March 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0513.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Ethics, Social Media; Facebook; Instagram; Snapchat; Personal Information
Online: 29 March 2023 (15:39:31 CEST)
Social media has revolutionized the way we communicate and interact with each other. While it has brought many benefits, it has also presented many ethical challenges. Social media platforms have access to an enormous amount of personal data, and there are concerns about how this data is being stored, collected, and used. Users often need to fully understand the risks of sharing sensitive information. Social media platforms have made it easy for fake news to spread rapidly, which can be dangerous and have serious consequences. Misinformation and propaganda can influence people's decisions and beliefs. In this paper, we will analyze the issues and challenges that may arise, and it will be necessary for individuals and society to address these challenges ethically and responsibly.
Mon, 27 March 2023
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0453.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: COVID-19; MPox; Twitter; Big Data; Data Mining; Data Analysis; Sentiment Analysis; Data Science; Social Media; Monkeypox
Online: 27 March 2023 (08:39:28 CEST)
Mining and analysis of the Big Data of Twitter conversations have been of significant interest to the scientific community in the fields of healthcare, epidemiology, big data, data science, computer science, and their related areas, as can be seen from several works in the last few years that focused on sentiment analysis and other forms of text analysis of Tweets related to Ebola, E-Coli, Dengue, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Measles, Zika virus, H1N1, influenza-like illness, swine flu, flu, Cholera, Listeriosis, cancer, Liver Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, kidney disease, lupus, Parkinson's, Diphtheria, and West Nile virus. The recent outbreaks of COVID-19 and MPox have served as "catalysts" for Twitter usage related to seeking and sharing information, views, opinions, and sentiments involving both these viruses. While there have been a few works published in the last few months that focused on performing sentiment analysis of Tweets related to either COVID-19 or MPox, none of the prior works in this field thus far involved analysis of Tweets focusing on both COVID-19 and MPox at the same time. With an aim to address this research gap, a total of 61,862 Tweets that focused on Mpox and COVID-19 simultaneously, posted between May 7, 2022, to March 3, 2023, were studied to perform sentiment analysis and text analysis. The findings of this study are manifold. First, the results of sentiment analysis show that almost half the Tweets (the actual percentage is 46.88%) had a negative sentiment. It was followed by Tweets that had a positive sentiment (31.97%) and Tweets that had a neutral sentiment (21.14%). Second, this paper presents the top 50 hashtags that were used in these Tweets. Third, it presents the top 100 most frequently used words that are featured in these Tweets. The findings of text analysis show that some of the commonly used words involved directly referring to either or both viruses. In addition to this, the presence of words such as "Polio", "Biden", "Ukraine", "HIV", "climate", and "Ebola" in the list of the top 100 most frequent words indicate that topics of conversations on Twitter in the context of COVID-19 and MPox also included a high level of interest related to other viruses, President Biden, and Ukraine. Finally, a comprehensive comparative study that involves a comparison of this work with 49 prior works in this field is presented to uphold the scientific contributions and relevance of the same.
Wed, 1 March 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0011.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: science communication; informal learning; public engagement; science in the media; entertainment media; data visualization; scientific visualization
Online: 1 March 2023 (06:23:52 CET)
Abstract This essay presents a real-world demonstration of the evidence-based science communication process, showing how it can be used to create scientific data visualizations for public audiences. Visualizing research data can be an important science communication tool. Maximizing its effectiveness has the potential to benefit millions of viewers. As with many forms of science communication, creators of such data visualizations typically rely on their own judgments and the views of the scientists providing the data to inform their science communication decision-making. But that leaves out a critical stakeholder in the communications pipeline: the intended audience. Here, we show the practical steps that our team - the Advanced Visualization Lab at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign - has taken to shift towards more evidence-based practice to enhance our science communication impact. We do this using concrete examples from our work on two scientific documentary films, one on the theme of ‘solar superstorms’ and the other focusing on the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. We used audience research with each of these films to inform our strategies and designs. We describe how such research evidence informed our understanding of ‘what works and why’ with cinematic-style data visualizations for the public. We close the essay with our key ‘take home’ messages from this evidence-based science communication process.
Wed, 22 February 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0364.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Twitter; Social Media; Altmetrics; Citations; Orthopedic Research Society; Publication
Online: 22 February 2023 (01:34:43 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the main themes and insights from the Journal of Orthopedic Research (JOR)/JOR Spine Workshop during the Orthopedic Research Society 2022 Annual Meeting in Tampa Bay, Florida. This workshop, organized by JOR Editor-in-Chief Dr. Linda Sandell, focused on communication strategies (particularly using social media) to broadcast published work in orthopedic research. In this manuscript, we summarize data that support the beneficial impacts of amplifying scholarly works on social media and outline a linearized workflow for constructing a Twitter posts, which can be generalized to other social media platforms, to share academic research. Finally, we identify resources to alleviate barriers to social media use and help promote professionalism and success online in the orthopedic research community. As early career scientists in orthopedics, we see immense value in using social media, particularly Twitter, to communicate our research findings and build our scholarly networks. We hope this information will be persuasive to those in the orthopedic field and be broadly applicable to others in related scientific fields who wish to disseminate findings and engage a public audience on social media. For the orthopedic research society and journal of orthopedic research, social media can assist in accomplishing our mission of creating a world without musculoskeletal limitations via the timely dissemination of orthopedic research findings and news.
Thu, 22 December 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0415.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: stigma; news frame; monkeypox; COVID-19; The Washington Post; online news
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:42:16 CET)
Abstract: Background: Stigma in health can result in a broad range of vulnerabilities and risk for patients and healthcare providers. The media plays a role in people’s understanding of health and stigma is socially constructed through many communication channels including via media framing. Among health issues that were affected by stigma recently were the Monkeypox and Covid-19. Objectives: This research aims to examine how The Washington Post framed stigma around mon-keypox and COVID-19. Guided by the framing theory and stigma theory, online news coverage for monkeypox and COVID-19 were analyzed to understand the construction of social stigma through the media reporting. Methods: This research employed a qualitative content analysis to compare news framing in The Washington Post online news regarding monkeypox and COVID-19. Results: Based on endemic, reassurance, and sexual transmission frames, the The Washington Post predominantly defined Africa as the source of the disease, blames gay communities, and empha-sizes no need to worry about the spread of the monkeypox virus. For the COVID-19 coverage, The Washington Post described China as the source of the coronavirus and constructs the image of panic towards the spread of the virus. Conclusions: The shifts in stigma discourse essentially manifest racism, xenophobia, and sexism in public health. This research affirms that the media reinforces stigma phenomenon in health through framing and offers constructive suggestions for mitigating this issue.
Wed, 23 November 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Twitter; Stakeholder Management; Social Media Communication; Social Media; CSR; Communication Strategy
Online: 23 November 2022 (01:14:53 CET)
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important for companies in recent years. On the one hand, regulatory frameworks require the disclosure of measures for sustainable management. On the other hand, for long-term corporate success, stakeholders must be strategically engaged in the dialog on sustainability aspects. Social media, and Twitter in particular, offer the potential to foster a meaningful stakeholder dialogue on CSR topics. Due to Elon Musk's acquisition in the fall of 2022, this strategic disruption provides an opportunity to systematically capture the platform's past activities and strategies to synthesize practical information that can guide Twitter usage decision making and be used for research to serve as the basis for future comparative longitudinal studies of changes in usage. We conducted a literature review including 42 papers to contribute to the body of evidence on CSR communication strategies on Twitter across industries and countries by deriving interdisciplinary suggestions for strategic CSR-related stakeholder management. Results cover relevant CSR topics, prioritized stakeholder groups for CSR communication on Twitter and successful communication strategies for companies to obtain beneficial results, such as generating social media capital. The results contribute to the strategic planning and implementation of CSR stakeholder management on Twitter and offer starting points for future studies on social media mining and CSR communication strategies.
Thu, 9 June 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0143.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: social networks; disinformation; diplomacy; conceptual model; propagation; citizenship
Online: 9 June 2022 (11:08:32 CEST)
The potential of social networks for the circulation of disinformation as a strategy of diplomacy has been of great interest to the academic community, but the way in which it is propagated and modelled is still in its beginnings. This article aimed to simulate the propagation of disinformation in social networks derived from the diplomacy strategy, based on the elements of the system. For the design of the simulation model, system dynamics was used as the main technique in the research methodology in conjunction with statistical analysis. Five computational simulations were run for the adoption methods of susceptible and uninformed population, misinformation techniques and echo chamber. The developed model found that the diplomacy disinformation agent is able to spread its message efficiently through the bot outreach mechanism and only a part of the susceptible population unsubscribes to the disinformation agent's account. Significant differences were identified in the absence of paid outreach, bots and trolls in the propagation of information, and in the variation in the timing of disinformation propagation. Consequently, the developed model allows the understanding of the problem of disinformation as a strategy of diplomacy from international rather than local dynamics, as well as the effects of the use of each element in the system.
Mon, 10 January 2022
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0124.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: epistemic community; social media; active inference; opinion dynamics
Online: 10 January 2022 (15:14:16 CET)
The spread of ideas is a fundamental concern of today’s news ecology. Understanding the dynamics of the spread of information and its co-option by interested parties is of critical importance. Research on this topic has shown that individuals tend to cluster in echo-chambers and are driven by confirmation bias. In this paper, we leverage the active inference framework to provide an in silico model of confirmation bias and its effect on echo-chamber formation. We build a model based on active inference, where agents tend to sample information in order to justify their own view of reality, which eventually leads to them to have a high degree of certainty about their own beliefs. We show that, once agents have reached a certain level of certainty about their beliefs, it becomes very difficult to get them to change their views. This system of self-confirming beliefs is upheld and reinforced by the evolving relationship between agent's beliefs and its observations, which over time will continue to provide evidence for their ingrained ideas about the world. The epistemic communities that are consolidated by these shared beliefs, in turn, tend to produce perceptions of reality that reinforce those shared beliefs. We provide an active inference account of this community formation mechanism. We postulate that agents are driven by the epistemic value that they obtain from sampling or observing the behaviors of other agents. Inspired by digital social networks like Twitter, we build a generative model in which agents generate observable social claims or posts (e.g. `tweets') while reading the socially-observable claims of other agents, that lend support towards one of two mutually-exclusive abstract topics. Agents can choose which other agent they pay attention to at each timestep, and crucially who they attend to and what they choose to read influences their beliefs about the world. Agents also assess their local network’s perspective, influencing which kinds of posts they expect to see other agents making. The model was built and simulated simulated using the freely-available Python package pymdp. The proposed active inference model can reproduce the formation of echo-chambers over social networks, and gives us insight into the cognitive processes that lead to this phenomenon.
Wed, 10 November 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Social media; Professional journalism; Journalists; Citizen Journalism.
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:38:38 CET)
The aim of this study is to understand how Jordanian journalists view social media networks as being related to the news industry and the extent of their dependence on these networks in producing news. It also explores the opinions of journalists on the pros and cons of these networks through the lens of relationship between these networks and professional journalism. The study uses the qualitative approach by conducting interviews with a number of professional Jordanian journalists. The most prominent results that the study revealed are that journalists view social networks as an important and beneficial development. There is optimism among journalists about the relationship between professional journalism and social media. Also, social networks have brought several benefits to the professional journalism. The results also show that there is a firm belief among journalists that social networks cannot be considered a substitute for traditional media.
Wed, 7 July 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fear of missing out (FOMO), Parental control, Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU), Social Media Addiction, Social Media Intrusion
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:23:46 CEST)
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). The perception of the possible role of parental supervision on online activities is also investigated. Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media. The results additionally demonstrate that students aged 30 and older believe more in the requirement of parental control than those aged 17-22.
Wed, 9 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Tolerance; Social Media; Causes of Intolerance
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:48:10 CEST)
Indonesia is an archipelago with diverse ethnicities, races, languages, cultures, beliefs, and customs. As Indonesians, with these differences, they should respect each other, or what is commonly known as tolerance. However, in the 21st century, tolerance between people in Indonesia is starting to fade. This is due to the development of the times accompanied by technology development, which causes globalization to enter quickly. The culture of tolerance typical of Indonesian society is starting to fade due to the influence of globalization. Based on these problems, this study aims to determine what causes the decline intolerance of Indonesian society in the 21st century and answer what solutions can be given to prevent the decline intolerance of Indonesian society in the 21st century. The research method used is descriptive-qualitative through literature review by analyzing data following the topic to be discussed. The data used are from 20 journal articles with a span of 2019-2021. The results of this study are in the form of a decline in intolerance that the Indonesian people own due to technological advances in the form of adverse use of social media. However, with the existence of moral education and the role of teachers and the government to overcome the decline intolerance, it is hoped that the Indonesian people will understand the meaning and importance of tolerance. This study also has limitations, namely only on the causes of the fading of tolerance in Indonesian society.
Thu, 3 June 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: COVID-19; Clubhouse; Social Media; Auditory Learning; Technology
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:35:30 CEST)
Clubhouse is an auditory app that allows users to host various rooms surrounding a diverse range of topics from Artificial Intelligence to Philosophy. Along with its educational and serene approach, it is known for its popularity amongst celebrities, including Elon Musk, Mark Zuckerburg, CEO of Shopify, and its elusive invite and ios-only pass into gaining access into Clubhouse. Waiting lists are available in the case of not achieving an invite, but to further speed the process, various sellers on eBay, Reddit, Twitter, etc., charging invites from $10-$200. This research paper covers the phenomenon of Clubhouse and the emergence of audio-only rooms, along with a hypothesis of why Clubhouse and other apps of a similar kind are experiencing a harsh downfall despite its seemingly successful business model.
Tue, 18 May 2021
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: COVID-19; Twitter; Geo-Tagged; Metropolitan; Computational Social Science
Online: 18 May 2021 (10:24:58 CEST)
One of the unfortunate findings from the ongoing COVID-19 crisis is the disproportionate impact the crisis has had on people and communities who were already socioeconomically disadvantaged. It has, however, been difficult to study this issue at scale and in greater detail using social media platforms like Twitter. Several COVID-19 Twitter datasets have been released, but they have very broad scope, both topically and geographically. In this paper, we present a more controlled and compact dataset that can be used to answer a range of potential research questions (especially pertaining to computational social science) without requiring extensive preprocessing or tweet-hydration from the earlier datasets. The proposed dataset comprises tens of thousands of geotagged (and in many cases, reverse-geocoded) tweets originally collected over a 255-day period in 2020 over 10 metropolitan areas in North America. Since there are socioeconomic disparities within these cities (sometimes to an extreme extent, as witnessed in `inner city neighborhoods’ in some of these cities), the dataset can be used to assess such socioeconomic disparities from a social media lens, in addition to comparing and contrasting behavior across cities.
Fri, 12 March 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0331.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Social media ethics; Social media; data misuse; data integrity
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:05:09 CET)
The present high-tech landscape has allowed institutes to undergo digital transformation in addition to the storing of exceptional bulks of information from several resources, such as mobile phones, debit cards, GPS, transactions, online logs, and e-records. With the growth of technology, big data has grown to be a huge resource for several corporations that helped in encouraging enhanced strategies and innovative enterprise prospects. This advancement has also offered the expansion of linkable data resources. One of the famous data sources is social media platforms. Ideas and different types of content are being posted by thousands of people via social networking sites. These sites have provided a modern method for operating companies efficiently. However, some studies showed that social media platforms can be a source for misinformation at which some users tend to misuse social media data. In this work, the ethical concerns and conduct in online communities has been reviewed in order to see how social media data from different platforms has been misused, and to highlight some of the ways to avoid the misuse of social media data.
Wed, 17 February 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Online Fake News; Interpersonal influence; Self-evaluation; Motivation for Change; Food Consumption.
Online: 17 February 2021 (07:39:34 CET)
In the Italian context, the diffusion of online fake news about food is becoming increasingly fast-paced and widespread, making it more difficult for the public to recognize reliable information. Moreover, this phenomenon is deteriorating the relation with public institutions and industries. The purpose of this article is to provide a more advanced understanding of the individual psychological factors and the social influence contribute to the belief in food-related online fake news and the aspects that can increase or mitigate this risk. Data were collected with a self-report questionnaire between February and March 2019. We obtained 1004 valid questionnaires filled out by a representative sample of Italian population, extracted by stratified sampling. We used structural equation modelling (SEM) and the multi-group analyses to test our hypothesis. The results show that self-evaluation negatively affects the social-influence, which in turn positively affects the belief in online fake news. Moreover, this latter relationship is moderated by the readiness to change. Our results suggest that individual psychological characteristics and social influence are important to explain the belief in online fake news in the food sector; however, a pivotal role is played by the motivation of change lifestyle. This should be considered to engage people in clear and effective communication.
Fri, 15 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Sarcasm Detection; Self-Attention; Interpretability, Social Media Analysis
Online: 15 January 2021 (16:01:11 CET)
Sarcasm is a linguistic expression often used to communicate the opposite of what is said, usually something that is very unpleasant with an intention to insult or ridicule. Inherent ambiguity in sarcastic expressions, make sarcasm detection very difficult. In this work, we focus on detecting sarcasm in textual conversations from various social networking platforms and online media. To this end, we develop an interpretable deep learning model using multi-head self-attention and gated recurrent units. Multi-head self-attention module aids in identifying crucial sarcastic cue-words from the input, and the recurrent units learn long-range dependencies between these cue-words to better classify the input text. We show the effectiveness of our approach by achieving state-of-the-art results on multiple datasets from social networking platforms and online media. Models trained using our proposed approach are easily interpretable and enable identifying sarcastic cues in the input text which contribute to the final classification score. We visualize the learned attention weights on few sample input texts to showcase the effectiveness and interpretability of our model.
Mon, 14 December 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0332.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: contact tracing; ego networks; experimental design; social networks; field theory
Online: 14 December 2020 (13:06:29 CET)
Contact tracing is one of the oldest social network health interventions used to reduce the diffusion of various infectious diseases. However, some infectious diseases like COVID-19 amass at such a great scope that traditional methods of conducting contact tracing (e.g., face-to-face interviews) remain difficult to implement, pointing the need to develop reliable and valid survey approaches. The purpose of this research is to test the effectiveness of three different egocentric survey methods for extracting contact tracing data: (1) a baseline approach, (2) a retrieval cue approach, and (3) a context-based approach. A sample of 397 college students were randomized into one of each condition and were prompted to anonymously provide contacts and populated places visited from the past four days. After controlling for various demographic, social identity, psychological, and physiological variables, participants in the context-based condition were significantly more likely recall more contacts (medium effect size) and places (large effect size) than the other two conditions. Theoretically, the research supports suggestions by field theory that assume network recall can be significantly improved by activating relevant activity foci. Practically, the research contributes to developing innovative social network data collection methods for contract tracing survey instruments.
Fri, 27 November 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0369.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: usable security; fake news; emotions; sentiment analysis; machine learning
Online: 27 November 2020 (16:43:48 CET)
Social media giants like Facebook are struggling to keep up with fake news, in the light of the fact that disinformation diffuses at lightning speed. For example, the COVID-19 (i.e. Coronavirus) pandemic is testing the citizens' ability to distinguish real news from falsifying facts (i.e. disinformation). Cyber-criminals take advantage of the inability to cope with fake news diffusion on social media platforms. Fake news, created as a means to manipulate readers to perform various malicious IT activities such as clicking on fraudulent links associated with the fake news/posts. However, no previous study has investigated the strategies used to create fake news on social media. Therefore, we have analysed five data-sets using Machine Learning (ML) that contain online news articles (i.e. both fake and legitimate news) to investigate strategies of creating fake news on social media platforms. Our study findings revealed a threat model understanding strategies of crafting fake news which may highly likely diffuse on social media platforms.
Fri, 13 November 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: usable security; emotion; sentiment analysis; machine learning; fake news
Online: 13 November 2020 (10:05:52 CET)
Social media giants like Facebook are struggling to keep up with fake news, in the light of the fact that disinformation diffuses at lightning speed. For example, the COVID-19 (i.e. Coronavirus) pandemic is testing the citizens' ability to distinguish real news from falsifying facts (i.e. disinformation). Cyber-criminals take advantage of the inability to cope with fake news diffusion on social media platforms. Fake news, crafted as a means to manipulate readers to perform various malicious IT activities. However, no previous study has investigated the strategies used to create fake news on social media. Therefore, we have analysed five data-sets that contain online news articles (i.e. both fake and legitimate news) to investigate strategies of crafting fake news on social media platforms. Our study findings revealed a threat model understanding strategies of crafting fake news which may highly likely diffuse on social media platforms.
Mon, 10 August 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0235.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Twitter; Disaster; Risk Reduction; Preparedness; Response; Recovery
Online: 10 August 2020 (04:45:36 CEST)
Background: Twitter is a major tool for communication in emergencies such as natural disasters. This online social network allows the user to produce content, and it is not designed exclusively for news releases, as opposed to other service providers. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate Twitter uses in natural disasters and pandemics. Methods: The included studies reported the role of Twitter in natural disasters. The studies that report in settings other than the natural disasters (such as man-made disasters) and other social media were excluded. Electronic databases for a comprehensive literature search including MEDLINE, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and EMBASE were used to identify the records that match the mentioned inclusion criteria published till May 2020. The study characteristics were extracted from the qualified studies including year of publication, findings, and geographical location of the study conduct. A narrative synthesis for this literature review was used. Results: The search identified 822 articles of which 780 articles were removed, 256 were not available, 311 papers were not relevant, 16 were duplicated articles, and 197 were non-related to the emergencies. 45 articles met the selection criteria and were included in the review. eleven themes were found in the narrative synthesis including early warning, disseminating information and misinformation, advocacy, personal gains, assessment, various roles of organizations, public mood, geographical analysis, charity, using influencers, and trust. Conclusions: It is recommended that influential individuals be identified in each country and community before disasters occur so that the necessary information can be disseminated in response to disasters. Preventing the spread of misinformation is one of the most important issues in times of disaster, especially pandemics. Disseminating accurate, transparent, and prompt information from relief organizations and governments can help. Also, analyzing Twitter data can be a good source for understanding the mental state of the community, estimating the number of injured people, estimating the points affected by natural disasters, and modeling the prevalence of epidemics. Therefore, various groups such as politicians, the government, non-governmental organizations, aid workers, and the health system can use this information to plan and implement interventions.
Sun, 26 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0648.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Twitter; Social Media; NLP; Tweet; User Categorizations and Mathematical Frame Work
Online: 26 July 2020 (17:23:33 CEST)
Social networking applications such as Twitter have increasingly gained significance in terms of socio-economic, political, and religious as well as entertainment sectors. This in turn, has witnessed a wide gamut of information explosion in the social networking realm that can tend to be both useful as well as misleading at the same point of time. Spam detection is one such solution that caters to this problem through identification of irrelevant users and their data. However, existing research has so far laid primary focus on user profile information through activity detection and relevant techniques that may underperform when these profiles exhibit characteristics of temporal dependency, poor reflection of generated content from the user profile, etc. This is the primary motivation for this paper that addresses the aforementioned problem of user profiles by focusing on both profile information and content-based spam detection. To this end, this work delivers three significant contributions. Firstly, exhaustive use of Natural language processing (NLP) techniques has been rendered towards creation of a new comprehensive dataset with a wide range of content-based features. Secondly, this dataset has been fed into a customized state-of-art hybrid machine learning model that has been exclusively built using a combination of both machine learning and deep learning techniques. Extensive simulation based analysis not only records over 98% accuracy but also establishes the practical applicability of this proposal by proving that modeling based on the mixed profile and content-generated data is more capable of spam detection in contrast to each of these standalone approaches. Finally, a novel methodology based on logistic regression is proposed and supported by analytical formulations. This paves the way for the custom-built dataset to be analyzed and corresponding probabilities to be obtained that differentiate legitimate users from spammers. The obtained mathematical outcome can henceforth be used for future prediction of user categories through appropriate parameter tuning for any given dataset. This makes our method a truly generic one capable of identifying and classifying different user categories.
Tue, 10 March 2020
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: live-streaming; video-conference; broadcast; scientific conferences; diversity; inclusion
Online: 10 March 2020 (02:29:22 CET)
Live streaming conferences increase the participation of a diverse audience, help defray travel costs and overcome problems related to travel restrictions. In this article, we lay out tips for implementing live-streaming in scientific meetings. We also cover legal, ethical, and technical aspects implicated with live-streaming scientific talks. To write this article, we leveraged knowledge from our experience in organizing the symposium “Deciphering the Denisovans,” presented at the 88th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropology (AAPA) in Cleveland, OH, in 2019, as well as literature on the topic.
Wed, 25 December 2019
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: digital space-time; fashion Instagram; media ecology; nonboundary of style; social media
Online: 25 December 2019 (03:21:29 CET)
This study investigated how fashion is expressed on social media platforms from a media ecology perspective of sustainable digital space-time, as society evolves into a digital ecosystem. Media ecology concerns how the media environment transforms human experience and impacts society and culture. A theoretical review of media ecology was conducted, and the Instagram account of global fashion influencer Susanna Lau (@susiebubble) was analyzed as a case study. In total, 300 fashion-related images were collected out of 5,817 uploaded to Lau’s Instagram between May 2012 and June 2019. These were analyzed—alongside their titles, content, hashtags, and commentaries—for visual phenomena conveying everyday divisions between spatiality and temporality, public and private, real and virtual, and geography and culture, which demonstrate ambiguous boundaries. The analysis revealed that the images reflect nuances of digital time and space as they emerge in social media, and represent a nonboundary of style across the binaries of work and leisure, public and private, real and virtual, and geography and culture—signifying a sustainable digital lifestyle. These findings illustrate how our changing daily lives are visualized through fashion on a sustainable digital platform, and suggest ongoing research into the practical impact of technological advances on fashion.
Wed, 4 December 2019
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Social Media; PMBOK knowledge areas; Delphi Study; Structured Case Study; Team effectiveness
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:37:54 CET)
Social media has become part and parcel of the world of today. These days, it’s still the most talked about thing. It cannot be overlooked because it plays a key role in our business functions such as marketing and advertising. Social Media is all about collaboration on files, ideas and projects that help users and stakeholders to successfully complete the project. It influences how people communicate, develop relationship, build trust, increase transparency and provide cultural context. The fundamental aim of this research is to investigate the capacity for project management in social media. This paper explains how social media is used for project management knowledge areas and process groups. Also this research aims to identify SM tools that can be suitable for project management processes. Two studies Delphi Study of three rounds and structured case study interview are used to investigate the impact on the performance of the project team and process robustness. These studies support social media use by accessing the contribution to relationship building, trusts, coordination and cohesion.
Wed, 2 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: care; neglected childhood; charity; philanthropy; newspaper publications; monarchy; First Republic; Faial; Portugal
Online: 2 October 2019 (09:29:10 CEST)
The aim of this article is to understand the symbolic representations of the assistance strategies aimed at disabled children, expressed in two newspapers published on the island of Faial, in the Azores, in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries (covering the time horizon between the end of the monarchic period and the implementation of the First Republic). The technique of documentary analysis and a subsequent qualitative thematic content analysis of childcare news collected in two local newspapers was used. The discursive records produced by the press on the assistance strategies value, on the one hand, an axiological dimension and forms of charitable intervention and, on the other hand, aggregate and reconcile the discourses and techniques inherent to charitable and philanthropic models. This mutual assimilation underlies the achievement of the same objective: the moralisation and integration of invalid childhood and, above all, the protection of the existing social order. We conclude that, perhaps contrary to what would be expected, the charitable logic articulated in a concomitant way with the philanthropic logic survived even with the stabilization of the republican period (result of a revolution that deposed the regime of the constitutional monarchy and implemented the republican regime in 1910 in Portugal whose political elites mobilized an official discourse that advocated the separation between the State and Religion, assigning the State the function of social assistance for children and youth). This demonstrates a certain dissociation, as well as a relative autonomy of conceptions about child and youth care between republican political ideology and current social practices at least in this specific context.
Thu, 29 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0251.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: self-disclosure; social networking sites; flow; privacy concerns; structural equation modeling; Ghana
Online: 29 March 2018 (14:35:35 CEST)
Social media and other web 2.0 tools have provided users the platform to interact and also disclose personal information not only with their friends and acquaintances, but also with relative strangers with unprecedented ease. This has enhanced the ability of people to share more about themselves, their families, and their friends through a variety of media including text, photo, and video, thus developing and sustaining social and business relationships. The purpose of the paper is to identify the factors that predict self-disclosure on social networking sites within the Ghanaian context. Data was collected from 452 students in three leading universities in Ghana and analyzed with Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling. Results from the study revealed that all variables in the proposed model with the exception of interaction and perceived control were significant predictors of self-disclosure with privacy risk being the most significant predictor. In all, the model accounted for 54.6 percent of the variance in self disclosure. The implications and limitations of the current study are discussed and directions for future research proposed.