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ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2132.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: digital village; rural households; subjective well-being; digital transformation; rural digital economy
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:45:40 CEST)
With the advancement of the economy and society, policymakers acknowledge the significance of improving rural households' well-being as a crucial factor in promoting sustainable economic and social development. Based on the matching data of China Household Finance Survey and Digital Rural County Index, this study empirically examines the effect and mechanisms of digital village construction on subjective well-being of rural households. The results revealed that digital village construction has a significant improvement in their subjective well-being. The impact of digital village construction is particularly significant in rural areas located in the western regions of China, as well as among households possessing higher levels of human capital. The process through which digital village construction enhances the subjective well-being of rural households involves the augmentation of household income, the promotion of non-farm employment opportunities, and the enhancement of rural governance. This study provides robust micro-empirical evidence highlighting the positive welfare effects of digital rural construction. This study provides insights into the digital village construction within the happiness economy framework, offering a new perspective. The imperative to strengthen rural digital infrastructure and improve farmers' proficiency in modern information skills is a strategic policy aimed at enhancing well-being of rural households.
Tue, 16 May 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: vacant house; spatial autocorrelation; fact-finding survey
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:02:54 CEST)
After industrialization and the baby boom, many houses have been left vacant in many cities worldwide due to changes in the economy, socie-ty, and urban composition. The increase in vacant houses causes social problems, like the collapse of village communities, damage to urban aes-thetics, risk of crime due to vacant houses, and decrease in the value of real estate. Accordingly, policy attempts and studies to reduce and utilize vacant houses are in progress in various countries. In South Korea, the ratio of vacant houses was 6.4% of all houses as of 2021, and in Jeolla-buk-do, it was 11.6%, which is higher than the national average. Jeollabuk-do conducted a fact-finding survey on countermeasures against va-cant houses; 17,732 vacant houses (2.4%) were surveyed. The urbanization, population, and terrain of Jeollabuk-do, consisting of 14 cities and counties, were considered. The ratios, types, grades, and spatial autocorrelations of vacant houses were analyzed after classification into city (fo-cus, small, and medium) and county (plains and mountains) areas. There were significant differences in the averages of the ratios, grades, and spatial autocorrelations between city and county areas. Therefore, policy establishment for vacant house management and countermeasures re-quires consideration of the areas and types of vacant houses.Keywords: : vacant house; spatial autocorrelation; fact-finding survey
Thu, 27 April 2023
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0363.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: migration; mentoring; unaccompanied minors; refugee; asylum seeker; integration
Online: 27 April 2023 (03:40:58 CEST)
Adolescents often migrate unaccompanied by a caregiver, facing specific risks. Mentoring has been identified as a strategy with positive results for youth at risk. Its application with unaccompanied minors (UM) refugees and asylum seekers has gained momentum within EU countries receiving refugee citizens from the EU relocation program. Portugal hosts the fourth highest number of Middle East and North Africa UM refugees and asylum seekers among EU countries. Thus, it´s relevant to review strategies and intervention programs, focused on mentoring to inform future programs in Portugal supporting UM. This article aims to describe the use of mentoring strategies towards integrating UM refugees, and how this has been taking place in Portugal. This review has the potential to inform professionals, namely social education professionals involved in the Portuguese refugee relocation program and encourage the discussion about creating based mentoring-based programs for this target group.
Sun, 23 April 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0760.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: farmland transfer; income effect; external constraints; transferred-out households; transferred-in households
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:10:39 CEST)
Based on the 2013–2017 Chinese Family Database and China Household Finance Survey, the study examines the impact of farmland transfer on the income structure of agricultural households. We observe a significant rise in the income of transferred-out households, while that of transferred-in households is unchanged. A further empirical decomposition of income shows a significant increase in both the wage and asset generated incomes of transferred-out households. Although the income generated by transferred-in households through agricultural production and management increases significantly, the decrease in wage income is larger. The study’s empirical designs are robustly tested with propensity score matching and instrumental variables. Moreover, we conduct a comparative analysis of the external constraints faced by the two groups to explore the reasons for the divergence of the income effect. The results show that transferred-in households face highly pronounced external constraints in terms of capital, technology, and farmland size, while transferred-out households face relatively fewer impediments to non-agricultural employment. Our empirical results imply that external constraints can limit the social welfare improvements of agricultural land reform, suggesting that other complementary measures would be required for future policy improvements to work better.
Sat, 28 January 2023
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0520.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Energy diplomacy; Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area; ASEAN Power Grid; Regional cooperation
Online: 28 January 2023 (07:51:01 CET)
From the standpoint of Neoliberal Institutionalism, this study explores Malaysia's participation in activities that make energy the topic and/or object of foreign policies, whether through bilateral or multilateral engagements. This research, which aims to evaluate the relevance of energy in Malaysia's economy and diplomacy and to explain Malaysia's reason for its involvement in these cooperations, is necessary because of Malaysia's growing involvement in the global energy market. Information for this study was gathered from a variety of government sources, interviews, published statistical data, and previous studies. The study demonstrates how vital energy is to Malaysia's economy. The Lao PDR-Thailand-Malaysia-Singapore Power Integration Project (LTMS-PIP) initiative, in which Malaysia is participating, is evidence of the viability of multilateral power commerce in the area. The Peninsula Gas Utilisation (PGU) pipeline in Peninsular Malaysia and the Four-Fuel Diversification Policy 1981 (4FDP 1981), which increases natural gas utilisation, are related to Malaysia's participation in the Malaysia-Thailand Joint Development Area (MT-JDA). Malaysia would want to think about streamlining its energy administration.
Tue, 20 December 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0361.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: environment; regions characteristics; alcohol; health geography
Online: 20 December 2022 (08:42:11 CET)
The goal of our article was to systematize studies that investigated the impact of living conditions in large national regions on individual alcohol consumption. We sought publications on the research topic in PubMed, Google Scholar, OpenGrey, Crossref and eLibrary databases from the moment they were created until December 31, 2021. After removal of duplicates and unsuitable publications, and full-text review of remaining published sources, the final sample included 81 publications. The majority of ultimately selected papers were published after 2010, represented the United States of America, and considered samples of children and youths, either the younger population or the general adult population. High quality was characteristic for 19 studies, while satisfactory quality was exhibited by 46 publications. The most consistent associations with individual alcohol consumption were revealed for the legislative environment (especially for integral scales and indices), alcohol pricing policy, the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking in the population, and unemployment rate. Among the shortcomings of the reviewed articles, we should mention the prevailing assessment of the impact of only one type of regional characteristics, as well as the lack of studies analyzing the interaction of environmental influence at the territorial level of different scales. Protocol PROSPERO CRD42021234874.
Tue, 27 September 2022
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0423.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: community governance; conflict management; governance; peace; development; SSA
Online: 27 September 2022 (10:41:08 CEST)
This study provides an insightful overview of community-participatory governance and conflict management as instruments for utilizing resources for development in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). SSA is a region rich in natural resources but prone to conflict. The study is conceptual and critically engages the application of community governance and conflict management strategies that SSA countries need to adopt. The study praises the notion that community governance is characterized by recognizing and accepting intercultural diversity and creating a democratic institution for promoting good governance and conflict management in SSA. The study recommends that good community governance is required to drive local communities' development, growth, and transformation into a sturdy, innovative, and productive society capitalizing on opportunities. The study voice for the amalgamation of appropriate models and theories of governance cogently in the context of SSA due to the heterogeneity of communities. Therefore, to resolve conflict, conflict management, resolution, and transformation strategies are necessarily needed to accomplish a viable peace to maintain and sustain development.
Fri, 19 August 2022
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0363.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: migration; mentoring; unaccompanied minors; refugee; asylum seeker; integration
Online: 19 August 2022 (10:39:38 CEST)
In 2015, an increased migration movement into Europe generated a European Refugee Crisis. Adolescents often migrate unaccompanied by a caregiver and face particular risk during the different phases of migration. Recently, Portugal hosted the fourth highest number of Middle East and North Africa unaccompanied minors (UM) among EU countries. Thus, it is relevant to explore peer reviewed interventions among EU state members to inform the development of future Portuguese-based programs aiming to support the integration of these citizens. This review aimed to analyse mentoring as a relevant integration tool for UM refugees arriving to Portugal. Mentoring was identified as low-cost strategy with low to moderate positive results for youth at risk of developing psychological, social, and behavioural problems. Mentoring is starting to gain momentum within the EU countries receiving more refugee citizens integrated into the EU relocation program. This review can inform social education technicians and the staff involved in the Portuguese refugee relocation program and encourage the discussion on the creation of Portuguese-based mentoring programs for the studied population.
Wed, 8 December 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Bioeconomy strategy; regional development; residues; policy; market; technology; commoditization
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:19:07 CET)
The European Bioeconomy Strategy aims to strengthen and boost biobased sectors, unlocking investments and markets while rapidly deploying local bioeconomies across Europe and improving compliance with environmental and social sustainability goals. Current biomass provision structures and infrastructure might not be able to tap the sustainable potential of forestry-, agricultural residues and biogenic waste envisaged forming the biogenic feedstock base of the Circular Bioeconomy of tomorrow. Therefore, for the present paper, we assess mobilization strategies, their current status, opportunities, and barriers for local low value and heterogenous biomass resources. Based on discussions with bioenergy supply chain experts, we cluster mobilization measures into three assessment levels; the legislative framework, market structures and technological innovation. Scientific literature research on the respective keywords is performed, the European policy landscape mapped, and the results are enriched with anecdotal evidence, especially for recent and running projects and market developments that lack in published track records. We can identify research needs on all three assessment levels. Still, technological development and legislative frameworks are providing support for heterogeneous biomass mobilization. Market creation, however, represents a bottleneck. We provide novel perspectives, how physical- and virtual bio-hubs and crediting stake- and shareholder variety could create added-value based on sustainable primary economic activities and their cascading activities.
Fri, 22 October 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0321.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: City of Proximity; Walkability; 15 Minute City; Urban Regeneration; Urban Enclaves; Green Military Barracks
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:04:56 CEST)
The concepts of accessibility and urban walkability are the cornerstones of urban policies for the contemporary city, called upon to adopt sustainable development models in line with the objectives of the 2030 Agenda and the ambitious objectives of the 'European Green Deal'. These concepts are closely linked to the paradigm of a sustainable city (livable, healthy and inclusive), founded on a system of quality public spaces and on a network of services and infrastructures, both tangible and intangible, capable of strengthening or building new relationships: social, economic and environmental. It is therefore necessary to recognize potential opportunities for connection and permeability in consolidated urban environments, very often fragmented and characterized by enclaves. Within this framework, the city of Cagliari represents an interesting case study as it is characterized by the presence of a series of military complexes, real 'enclaves' which condition the proximity connections and, more generally, the walkability. In this sense, building on previous research and analysis of policies and projects aimed at reintroducing, even partially, this military asset into civilian life (Green Barracks Project - GBP - 2019), this study proposes and applies a methodology to improve urban accessibility in a flexible network logic, where 'walkability' can become not only a moment of possible "choice" but the basis for planning oriented to the '15 min city' model or, more generally, to the renewed, inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable “City of proximity”.
Tue, 11 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0249.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Dazhai; local institutions; rural tourism; local development
Online: 11 May 2021 (15:00:54 CEST)
Rural tourism has been proved as an effective approach in many rural areas in China, and during the development processes, local institutions play significant roles in the context of China. This paper is to explore various roles of local institutions in the development of rural tourism in a typical community, Dazhai, in Guilin City. Within its limitations, it examines the roles by identifying the current situations of the community, formal and informal institutions that affect the rural tourism development.Obstacles still exist because of the “top-bottom”political system.
Fri, 8 January 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0136.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Land dispute, customary land tenure, statutory land tenure, tenure security, Ghana, sub-Saharan Africa
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:31:29 CET)
Despite the ongoing land administration reforms being implemented across sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including Ghana as viable pathway to achieve tenure security and greater efficiency in land administration, the subject of land dispute resolution has received relatively less attention. Whereas customary tenure institutions play a central role in land administration (controlling ~80% of all land in Ghana), they remain at the fringes of the formal land dispute adjudicatory process. Recognizing the pivotal role traditional institutions as development agents and potential vehicles for promoting good land governance, recent discourse on land tenure have geared towards mainstreaming traditional land disputes institutions into the architecture of formal judicial process via alternative dispute resolution pathways. Yet little is known at least empirically as to the operations of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the contemporary context. This study therefore explores the importance of traditional dispute resolution institutions in the management of land-related disputes in southcentral and western Ghana. Drawing on data collated from 380 farming households operating 746 plots. The results show that contrary to the conventional thinking that traditional institutions are anachronistic and not fit for purpose, they remain strong and preferred forum for land dispute resolution (proving resilient and adaptable) given the changing socio-economic and tenurial conditions. Yet these forums have differing implications for different actors within the customary spheres accessing them. The results highlight practical ways for incorporating traditional dispute resolution in the overall land governance setup in Ghana and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa. This has implications for redesigning context-specific and appropriate land-use policy interventions that address local land dispute resolution.
Mon, 26 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Sharing Economy; Category Formation; Emergence; Social Movement; Similarity Clustering; Truce; Radial Category; Identity Legitimation; Stakeholders; Business Models.
Online: 26 October 2020 (08:50:38 CET)
The Sharing Economy (SE) has dawn great attention from several stakeholders in society in the last five years. While business actors are interested in financial opportunities to meet consumer needs, new business models, the academia and governmental organizations are concerned with potential unintended effects on the society and environment. In the process of making a clearer comprehension of the SE phenomenon, researchers have identified that, despite its notable global growth, there still persists a lack of a more solid ground in understanding its origins and respective mechanisms under which it has been evolving over time as a category. In this research, we address the problematics of the origins and ascendency of the SE by examining the process by which the SE is arising as a new category, searching for conceptual clarification and pinpointing the legitimacy granted by key stakeholders. Our guiding research questions are: (1) how the SE was formed and evolved as a market category; and (2), as a market category, is the SE legitimate? Additionally, we attempt to identify the nature of the SE as a category. To answer these questions, we conducted an historical analysis of the expression SE and its equivalents. This paper deepens the discussion about the nature of the SE by providing evidence that (i) the SE has predominantly been formed by emergence processes, comprising social movement, similarity clustering and truce components. It is the combination of all these aforementioned processes that renders the SE a special case of market category formation, which, in turn, has been allowing communication, entrepreneurship, regulation and research about what really is the SE, and despite the evident lack of agreements regarding both the label and its content; (ii) there is a generalized legitimacy granted to the SE by a vast number of stakeholders, even though still lacking on the consolidation of socio-political legitimation, and (iii) the nature of the SE seems to fall in a metaphorical approach, particularly, the notion of radial categories.
Sun, 20 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: urban form; landscape metrics; factor analysis; multi-dimensional scaling; Seoul metropolitan region (SMR)
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:43:06 CEST)
Urban form is associated with both socio-economic and urban physical properties. This study explores the differences among urban forms in the Seoul Metropolitan Region with a comparison between census-based socioeconomic variables and landscape metrics computed from remotely sensed data. To accomplish this, factor analysis and multi-dimensional scaling were used with the selected variables and metrics. When all of the measures are considered together, four types of cities and towns emerged: 1) exurban-fragmented high growth, 2) exurban-fragmented low growth, 3) compact-extensive urban core and 4) sub-urban compact-high growth. The results indicate that the fusion of knowledge of the physical urban layout and that of socio-economic characteristics is beneficial for a better understanding of urban spatial patterns. However, there remain challenges in delineating each urbanized area and with indicator selection for comparing urban form across cities and towns.
Mon, 3 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: COVID-19; knowledge; perception; attitude; Northern Region; Ghana
Online: 3 August 2020 (00:53:37 CEST)
Africa is gradually becoming an epicentre for the COVID-19 pandemic. From the current trends of the disease, Africa might be the last hardest hit continent. While scientific investigations are ongoing to develop effective management through medications and vaccines, existing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes could be harnessed to develop an effective strategy to curb community transmission of the COVID-19. The present study assessed the awareness level, perceptions and attitudes of people living in rural, peri-urban and urban communities in Northern Ghana and their preparedness for the prevention and containment of COVID-19. We conducted a face-to-face interview and administered 553 semi-structured questionnaires in eighteen (18) rural and peri-urban/urban communities under Tolon District, Kumbungu Districts, Sagnarigu Municipality, Savelugu Municipality and Tamale Metropolis from 23rd of April to 8th of June 2020. The percentage of male to female among the respondents was 56.8% and 43.2%, respectively. Nearly half (41%) of the respondents had no formal education and 91.3% of them were Muslims. Most of the respondents (85%) held the view that COVID-19 is a punishment from God. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between the time rural and peri-urban/urban communities first heard of COVID-19. Majority (63%) of the rural respondents depended on radio, while the peri-urban/urban respondents (51%) relied on television for information on COVID-19. All respondents were aware of COVID-19 and 91.7% could mention at least two symptoms of the disease but 18% believed there was no COVID-19 in Ghana. Most of the respondents (69.6%) believed they will not contract the virus. Our findings may provide useful data to government and other stakeholders in the COVID-19 fight.
Sun, 21 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: IMR( Infant Mortality rate), MMR( Maternal Mortality rate), Equity, Social Empowerment, Marginalized , Social exclusion
Online: 21 June 2020 (16:39:41 CEST)
Introduction and Background: Bangladesh as a country could prove its development potential over the past several years with its thriving economic growth and also with a significant level of positive changes made possible in its significantly important health and social indicators including MMR, IMR, Child nutrition, fertility regulation, child survival and Infectious disease prevalence. 1,2,3 The country could make a commendable contribution in achieving Global development goal (MDG) at a significant level and also aiming to continue its effort to sustain that status quo and also making progressive changes consistently to be contributory to SDG goals and indicators towards positive development.2,3 Purpose: This lyrical critic is an attempt to uphold the facts and evidences embedded in social development reality where the implementations are in constant challenge with urgency, need and continuity. Methodology: A quick and intensive desk review and web search made to capture the insights from secondary data facts, stories, evidences, news features and the findings blended with personal insights and experiences. Finally, compilation of insights and views through a laid over narrative analytics and described in a descriptive lyrical format. Purposefully ignored the figure and quantity data reflection in the write up as this write up is considered more as a social development lyric rather than a scientific write up. Conclusion: Our diversified marginalized community people are of vital importance from a social inclusion and exclusion point of view, to look into this more deeply whether they are socially, epidemiologically, statistically, economic indicator wise fall into the embracing practice of our democracy and inclusion culture of addressing the marginalized. This posed our country in a very challenging situation, a dilemma in between morality vs reality, emotion vs equity, social response vs political standpoint and so on. With a long end history of community responsive and socially sensitive works within /among our generalized poor, poverty stricken and marginalized people group, where the sustainable and ethically driven, gender sensitive social empowerment is still a far cry! The diversity in nature always claims to add on beauty, tranquility and completeness towards the sense of Equity management, but it’s very true that this diversity word has a very opposite and different connotation while it is relevant to diversity in marginalization and appears in a more critical and complex dynamics to seek solution. Therefore, the ultimate empowerment of community specially the marginalized people remain entrapped into the social development process of enduring response in embracing urgency in community care where the right response may not get right weightage into the community development priority response and also the development actors priority agenda.
Sat, 15 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0201.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Developing country; Awareness towards SDGs; Literacy Rate
Online: 15 February 2020 (14:56:38 CET)
Aim of this study is to gather information regarding the sustainability development goals from the public as well as the organizations of Pakistan. A sample of 500 respondents each from five main cities including employs and general public is selected for their opinion regarding sustainability development goal. The level of awareness as well as level of commitment towards the fulfilment of Sustainable Development Goals varies across the cities of Pakistan due to difference in literacy level. The commitment to achieve Sustainable Development Goals of the organizations across the selected cities varies according to the nature of the business, volume and the membership with the United Nations. This study provides the policy makers with the ground level data regarding the awareness and commitment of Pakistan based organizations and public towards SDGs fulfilment. A glance towards the attitudes of the people towards the subject matter could also be seen through this study. This a comprehensive study conducted at federal and provincial level of Pakistan which has yielded ground realities towards the implementation of SDGs. The results could be used for policy making and planning at national level and also serve as bench mark for other countries.
Sat, 30 November 2019
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0386.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: multi-stakeholder processes; sustainability transformations; sense-making; strategy; theory of change
Online: 30 November 2019 (09:52:47 CET)
The commonly used words ‘transformation’ and ‘transition’ tend to lose their edge when used for any significant change process as is rather often the case. Partners and wider stakeholders in initiatives related to ‘sustainability transitions’ therefore often entertain different perspectives on what the strategic orientation of an initiative is or is meant to be. Common planning and design processes such as situation analysis and theories of change, however, often do not sufficiently cater to this dynamic. As a result, different actors may be pulling the initiative in different directions, undermining the overall partnership efforts. In this short contribution a strategic scoping canvas and an associated facilitation process are presented as a way of addressing such situations. Illustrations are provided of initial application in three cases related to food system transitions in Peru, Ethiopia, and Bangladesh, exploring the connectivity with approaches commonly used in the context of system transformations, including the Multi-Level Perspective on sustainability transitions, the Leverage Points approach, Capability Approach, and the theory of Large System Change. We conclude that the canvas and associated facilitation approach has proved useful in different contexts, offering opportunities for complementing existing methodologies, and potentially enhancing their efficacy in facilitated multi-stakeholder processes.
Thu, 28 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0251.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Addis Ababa; living place; market place; packaged water; perception
Online: 28 February 2019 (12:21:38 CET)
Descriptive research design was used to select 200 respondents (i.e., 100 from each study places) following purposive sampling technique on two study areas (Market; Living). Personal observation and interview with retailers were done to triangulate the collected data from the formal survey. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 software program. Descriptive statistical measurements, Index and multinomial regression model was calculated to assess the relationship between customers point of emphasis during packaged water buying and respondents demographic variables. Majority of the respondent who frequently purchase packaged water generated a monthly income between 5000 and 10000 Birr. Television and radio was ranked first compare to other Media. Living place customers were more health concerned as compared to market place customers. Market place customer’s primarily give emphasis to price of packaged water. Almost all (97%) customers did not have the awareness towards packaged water standards. Only 86(43%) of the total respondents checked the chemical composition, of which 74(85%) of the respondents did not understand it. Customers sex, educational level and health status showed significant relationship with choice of packaged water quality -1.42(p<0.05), price -2.45(P<0.01) and health status -1.80(P<0.05) in market place and living places, respectively.
Wed, 20 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Fukushima-gata lagoon; attachment; changes in lifestyle; actual condition of use
Online: 20 February 2019 (12:09:01 CET)
The growing shortage of human resources to manage landscape in the water environment has led to problems concerning preservation of the landscape in Japan. To cultivate people with awareness about preserving the landscape, it is important to understand the process of how a region’s residents develop an attachment toward the water environment in their area. This paper identified factors influencing the attachment of residents toward the Fukushima-gata lagoon, Niigata prefecture, Japan, as a case study while focusing on changes in the lifestyle of the regional residents. The findings are as follows: (1) The target households frequently used Fukushima-gata lagoon for “fishing and for picking edible wild plants” and “gathering reeds to make thatched roofs” before “the reclamation project was carried out by the government in Fukushima-gata lagoon.” They also frequented Fukushima-gata lagoon for “walking and cherry blossom viewing” after “the reclamation project” was implemented. (2) Even the fact that distance from the lagoon to their place of residence increased after the project did not lose their attachment to the lagoon. (3) It was suggested that the project contributed to increase the attachment of regional residents towards Fukushima-gata lagoon because of multiple factors such as “playing in the water,” “livelihood opportunity,” “recreational use,” and so on. (4) Changes in the attachment of regional residents toward Fukushima-gata lagoon before and after the reclamation project was carried out by the government corresponded to “changes in the lifestyle of the local residents” before and after the project.
Fri, 31 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0546.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa; Transition Management; WASH; informal settlements; sustainability transitions
Online: 31 August 2018 (11:22:13 CEST)
The unsustainability of the services related to water, sanitation and hygiene in informal settlements in Sub-Saharan Africa services is deeply embedded in current societal and governance structures, cultures and practices; it is context-dependent and involves numerous actors with different interests. The field of sustainability transitions research addresses such persistent and large scale societal challenges, with transition management being one of its widely applied governance approach. By drawing on an analysis of the root causes of unsustainability and unreliability of WASH services in three case studies in Sub-Saharan Africa (Arusha-Tanzania, Dodowa-Ghana, Kampala-Uganda), we explore how a transition management approach can be designed to support a transition towards sustainable Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in Sub-Saharan Africa. We distinguish the following contextual dimensions related to the unsustainability of WASH services: a) Multiplicity of WASH practices, structures and arrangements, b) Governance capacities for WASH services and maintenance, c) Landownership for sustainable access to WASH, d) Public participation in decision-making related to WASH, e) socio-economic structures governing access to WASH. These dimensions prompt the identification of conceptual and application challenges for transition management. Based on these challenges, recommendations were formulated for the design of a prescriptive transition management process that is not only functional but also emancipatory of character.
Tue, 14 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0245.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Pan-Africanism; history; colonialism; globalization; education
Online: 14 August 2018 (05:57:51 CEST)
Our paper examines the place of Pan-Africanism as an educational, political, and cultural movement which had a lasting impact on the on the relationship between liberation and people of African descent, in the continent of Africa and the Diaspora. We also show its evolution, beginning with formerly enslaved Africans in the Americas, to the colonial borders of the 1884 Berlin Conference, and conclude with the independence movements in Africa. For formerly enslaved Africans, Pan-Africanism was an idea that helped them see their commonalities as victims of racism. That is, they realized that they were enslaved because they came from the same continent and shared the same racial heritage. They associated the continent of Africa with freedom. The partitioning of Africa at the Berlin Conference (colonialism) created pseudo-nation states out of what was initially seen as an undivided continent. Pan-Africanism provided an ideology for rallying Africans at home and abroad against colonialism, and the creation of colonial nation-states did not erase the idea of a united Africa. As different African nations gained political independence, they took it upon themselves to support those countries fighting for their independence. The belief, then, was that as long as one African nation was not free, the continent could not be viewed as free. The existence of nation-states did not imply the negation of Pan-Africanism. The political ideas we examine include those of Marcus Garvey, W.E.B. Du Bois, Kwame Nkrumah, and Thabo Mbeki.
Mon, 10 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0055.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Brazil, agrarian reform policy, land less movement, rural social movements.
Online: 10 April 2017 (07:49:04 CEST)
In Brazil, during the four last administrations of Worker’s Party (PT) 2003-2015, the support to the agrarian reform seems to have stagnated, even with the influence of landless workers' movements. Thus in 2016, the impeachment President Dilma Roussef have marked a brutal stop in the agrarian reform process. How to explain that which seems at first to be a contradiction and has become a decadence of an important federal public policy?. Furthermore, how can we evaluate the debates within Brazilian society and the federal government on this theme? The article analyzes the tensions, debates, advances and impasses of the past fifteen years of agrarian reform policy in Brazil looking at the interaction between social movements and public policies. The method associates bibliography, official statistic synthesis and research results in Northeast, Amazônia and Cerrado regions among several projects. The first part results put on evidence the crescent reduction of agrarian reform settlements and beneficiary families since 2006. The second part presents the main reasons offering an analysis of government and society debates in Brazil about land reform. The analysis conclude to the less of power and representation in the society of the pro agrarian reform large and popular coalition.
Fri, 17 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0066.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Afghanistan; health; hope; resilience; young people
Online: 17 February 2017 (07:28:14 CET)
Insecurity, corruption, and rising unemployment have resulted in a mass exodus of young adult Afghans seeking asylum in western nations. This has depleted Afghanistan of generations of young people which are critical to rebuild the country. This study aimed to examine the characteristics of young adult Afghans with no immediate intentions of seeking international asylum; that is, individuals who intend to stay in Afghanistan. In a cross-sectional study conducted in Kabul, we surveyed 232 young adults between 18 and 35 years of age. Surveys included measures assessing standard socio-demographic and -economic factors, as well as health and psychological factors. Univariate logistic regression analyses suggest that participants with an intent to stay in Afghanistan are more likely to be financially stable, possess higher health-related quality of life, lower psychological distress, and higher levels of hope and optimism, as well as higher resilience. When controlling for all other variables in the model, only hope, optimism, and higher resilience remained as significant correlates of intending to stay. Our findings suggest that young people who intend to stay in their country look forward to a better future, which provides strong evidence for the need to strengthen the social contract by fostering resilience, hope and optimism in war-affected communities, in order to prevent a generation of talented young people from seeking asylum in western nations.