ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Selective Laser Melting; residual stress; direct metal deposition; thermomechanical analytical modeling; Ti-6Al-4V
Online: 19 October 2020 (11:03:34 CEST)
Residual stress (RS) is the most challenging problem in metal additive manufacturing (AM) since the build-up of high tensile RS may influence the fatigue life, corrosion resistance, crack initiation, and failure of the additively manufactured components. While tensile RS is inherent in all the AM processes, fast and accurate prediction of stress state within the part is extremely valuable and would result in optimization of the process parameters in achieving a desired RS and control of the build process. This paper proposes a physics-based analytical model to rapidly and accurately predict the RS within the additively manufactured part. In this model, a transient moving point heat source (HS) is utilized to determine the temperature field. Due to the high temperature gradient within the proximity of the melt pool area, material experience high thermal stress. Thermal stress is calculated by combining three sources of stresses known as stresses due to the body forces, normal tension, and hydrostatic stress in a homogeneous semi-infinite medium. The thermal stress determines the RS state within the part. Consequently, by taking the thermal stress history as an input, both the in-plane and out of plane RS distributions are found from incremental plasticity and kinematic hardening behavior of the metal by considering volume conservation in plastic deformation in coupling with the equilibrium and compatibility conditions. In this modeling, material properties are temperature-sensitive since the steep temperature gradient varies the properties significantly. Moreover, the energy needed for the solid-state phase transition is reflected by modifying the specific heat employing the latent heat of fusion. Furthermore, the multi-layer and multi-scan aspects of metal AM are considered by including the temperature history from previous layers and scans. Results from the analytical RS model presented excellent agreement with XRD measurements employed to determine the RS in the Ti-6Al-4V specimens.
Wed, 7 October 2020
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0151.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Steel truss; roof structure; partial collapse; finite element analysis; lightning strike.
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:23:50 CEST)
This study investigates the failure of a roof with steel truss construction of a factory building in Tekirdag in North-western part of Turkey. The failure occurred under hefty weather conditions including thunderbolt, lightning strikes, heavy rain and fierce winds. In order to interpret the reason for the failure, the effects of different combinations of factors on the design and dimensioning of the roof are checked. Therefore, finite element analysis is performed several times under different assumptions and considering different factors aiming to determine the dominant ones that are responsible for the failure. Each loading condition gives out a characteristic form of failure. The scenario with the most similar form of failure to the real collapse is considered as the most likely scenario of failure. Also, the factors included in this scenario are expected to be the responsible factors for the partial collapse of the steel truss structure.
Wed, 23 September 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0556.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: urban flows; coherent structures; experiments; simulations; data-driven methods
Online: 23 September 2020 (17:45:58 CEST)
Understanding the flow in urban environments is an increasingly relevant problem due to its significant impact on air quality and thermal effects in cities worldwide. In this review we provide an overview of efforts based on experiments and simulations to gain insight into this complex physical phenomenon. We highlight the relevance of coherent structures in urban flows, which are responsible for the pollutant-dispersion and thermal fields in the city. We also suggest a more widespread use of data-driven methods to characterize flow structures as a way to further understand the dynamics of urban flows, with the aim of tackling the important sustainability challenges associated to them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0528.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Poly Lactic Acid(PLA); TGA; FTIR; DSC; FESEM; EDX
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:39:47 CEST)
Poly lactic acid (PLA) has made inroads for commercial market segment with lot many unique characteristics such as tenacity, low flame rate, moisture regain percentage, loss of ignition percentage, heat of combustion, UV resistance, Elastic recovery and higher melting point allowed it to be the fastest moving material in today's commercial market. An attempt has been made to test the feasibility and biocompatibility aspect of PLA with cement mix. The basic strength and physical test results were carried out and published in an article, to the continuation of the work, micro-structural study was conducted to evaluate the elemental characteristics. Thermo gravimetric analysis revealed that PLA either in granular form or filament will hold good for the inclusion into construction applications, provided degradation aspects are to be looked out for improvisation. From DSC it was found that PLA in filament form is the best inclusion material for construction application, however the tenacity of fibers has to checked, as currently available filaments in market does not have high tenacity value. From EDX reports, 30% inclusion of PLA as replacement for fine aggregate has constituent members as Calcium carbonate(CaCO3), Silica(SiO2) and Wollastonite (CaK) resulted in best composition among the rest. FESEM images revealed that, proper gradation in size, rough surface of PLA granular form or filament form will definitely enhance the mechanical/physical or even chemical behavior of PLA.
Tue, 22 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: mechanical seal; non-contacting face seal; heat transfer; thermal analysis
Online: 22 September 2020 (03:45:41 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to develop a mathematical model for non-contacting face seals to analyze how their performance is affected by thermoelastic phenomena. The model was used to solve thermal conductivity and thermoelasticity problems. The primary goal was to calculate the values of thermal deformations of the sealing rings in a non-contacting face seal with a flexibly mounted rotor (FMR) for a turbomachine. The model assumes conversion of mechanical energy into heat in the fluid film. The heat flux generated in the fluid film is transferred first to the sealing rings and then to the fluid surrounding them. An asymmetric distribution of temperature within the sealing rings leads to the occurrence of thermal stresses and, consequently, a change in the rings geometry. The model is solved analytically. The distributions of temperature fields for the sealing rings in the cross-sections are calculated using the Fourier-Bessel series as a superficial function of two variables (r,z). The thermoelasticity problems described by the Navier equations are solved by applying the Boussinesq harmonic functions and Goodier’s thermoelastic displacement potential function. The proposed method involves solving various theoretical and practical problems of thermoelasticity in FMR-type non-contacting face seals. The calculated thermal deformations of the sealing rings are used to determine the most important seal performance parameters such as the leakage rate and power loss.
Sun, 20 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0467.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: helmet; blast overpressure; shock wave; peak overpressure; impulse; shock tube
Online: 20 September 2020 (14:21:02 CEST)
This study demonstrates the orientation and the ‘shape factor’ have pronounced effects on the development of the localized pressure fields inside of the helmet. We used anatomically accurate headform to evaluate four modern combat helmets under blast loading conditions in the shock tube. The Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) is used to capture the effect of the orientation on pressure under the helmet. The three modern combat helmets: ECH, Ops-Core, and Airframe, were tested in frontal orientation to determine the effect of helmet geometry. Using the unhelmeted headform data as a reference, we characterized pressure distribution inside each helmet and identified pressure focal points. The nature of these localized “hot spots” is different than the elevated pressure in the parietal region of the headform under the helmet widely recognized as the under-wash effect also observed in our tests. It is the first experimental study which indicates that the helmet presence increased the pressure experienced by the eyes (as evidenced by the pressure sensors in the H8 and H9 locations), and the forehead (denoted as H1 location). Pressure fingerprinting using an array of sensors combined with the application of principle component analysis (PCA) helped elucidate the subtle differences between helmets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0460.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hybrid modelling; prescriptive analytics; gas engine; machine learning
Online: 20 September 2020 (13:48:48 CEST)
This paper presents a methodology for predictive and prescriptive analytics of complex engineering systems. The methodology is based on a combination of physics-based and data-driven modeling using machine learning techniques. Combining these approaches results in a set of reliable, fast, and continuously updating models for prescriptive analytics. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study of a jet-engine power plant preventive maintenance and diagnostics of its flame tube.
Thu, 17 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0369.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: warm laser shock peening (WLSP); GH4169 nickel-base super-alloy; microstructure; residual stress
Online: 17 September 2020 (04:12:58 CEST)
Laser shock peening as an innovative surface treatment technology can effectively improve the fatigue life, sur-face hardness, corrosion resistance, and residual compressive stress. Compared with the laser shock peening, the warm laser shock peening (WLSP) is a new surface treatment technology to improve materials’ surface performances, which takes advantage of thermal mechanical effects on stress strengthening and micro-structure strengthening, results in more stable distribution of the residual compressive stress under heating and cyclic loading process. In this paper, the microstructure of GH4169 nickel super-alloy processed by WLSP technology with differ-ent laser parameters were investigated. The proliferation and tangling of dislocations in GH4169 were observed and the dislocation density increased after WLSP treatment. The influences of different treatment by LSP and WLSP on the microhardness distribution of the surface and along cross-sectional depth were investi-gated. The microstructure evolution of the GH4169 alloy being shocked with WLSP were studied by TEM. The effect of temperature on the stability of high temperature microstructure and properties of GH4169 alloy WLP was investigated.
Sat, 12 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fatigue; thickness effect; offshore wind turbine; corrosion fatigue
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:54:28 CEST)
This paper reassesses the detrimental effect on fatigue performance due to thicker sections based on extensive fatigue strength test database, taken from research program worldwide over the past half of a century in offshore oil & gas and renewable industry. The data entries in the database have been evaluated to ensure its data integrity. Statistical analyses on these S-N data are performed with or without the thickness correction at different exposure level to corrosive environment, in order to re-evaluate the suitability of current standards in regard to the thickness effect. The study has concentrated on T-joint, transverse butt welded joint and tubular joint as these are the most commonly used joint types in the offshore wind industry. The analysis indicates general agreement of fatigue strength with the thickness effects in current standard for in air conditions but great conservatism for corrosive environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: mechanical characterization; foams; ultrafiltration membrane; finite element method; non-linear deformations
Online: 12 September 2020 (09:27:39 CEST)
In recent years, usage of membranes is quite common in water and wastewater treatment. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is a polymeric material used in membrane production. To investigate the effect of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) addition and consequently porosity, two different sets of membranes are manufactured, since PVP is a widely used poring agent which has an impact on the mechanical properties of the membrane material. The first set (PAN 1) includes PAN and the necessary solvent while the second set (PAN 2) is made of PAN and PVP. These membranes are put through several characterisation processes including tensile testing. The obtained data are used to model the static behaviour of the membranes with different geometries, but similar loading and boundary conditions that represent their operating conditions. This modelling process is undertaken by using finite element method. The main idea is to investigate how geometry affects the load-carrying capacity of the membranes. Alongside membrane modelling, their materials are modelled with representative elements (RE) to understand the impact of porosity on the mechanical properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Metal 3D printing; Computer simulation; Liquid phase sintering; Microstructure; Oswald-Ripening effect
Online: 12 September 2020 (03:46:46 CEST)
The growth of solid particles during liquid phase sintering was modeled by the Cellular Automata method. The binary phase diagram and Fickian approach for the diffusion process were applied to simulate the chemical composition variation in liquid and solid phases during sintering. The Oswald-Ripening effect was considered during the dissolution of the solid phase in the liquid phase. It is used to define the probability of solid-phase dissolution by the liquid phase and develop the model to simulate the alloy with solid solubility. So, the microstructure could be modeled in the liquid phase sintering process.
Fri, 4 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0095.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fatigue; design fatigue factor; offshore wind turbine foundation; corrosion fatigue; target reliability
Online: 4 September 2020 (11:00:22 CEST)
The concept of Design Fatigue Factors (DFFs) was introduced for providing desired level of safety in structural fatigue design, often associated with damage calculated from S-N curves. Calculation of fatigue damage from S-N curves can be affected by multiple factors, e.g. types of weld class, corrosion condition, loading conditions, stress concentration on different geometries etc. Each of them can be subject to different level of uncertainties. This study intends to recalibrate the DFFs from a detailed reliability analysis by investigating the probabilistic models derived from the database of S-N curves that has been most frequently used in offshore wind industry. The results of such study indicate that the DFFs can be reduced substantially for the corrosive environmental fatigue models from current standards to the same level of target reliability.
Wed, 26 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0573.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 3D printing; stainless steel; microstructure; mechanical properties; simulation
Online: 26 August 2020 (09:18:37 CEST)
Metal 3D printing technology is a promising manufacturing method, especially in the case of complex shapes. The quality of the printed product is still a challenging issue for mechanical applications. The anisotropy of the microstructure, imperfections, and residual stress are some of the issues that diminish the mechanical properties of the printed sample. The simulation could be used to investigate some technical details, and this research has tried to computationally study the metal 3D printing of austenitic stainless steel to address austenite microstructure and local yield strength. Two computational codes were developed in Visual basics 2015 to simulate the local heating/cooling curve and subsequent austenite microstructure. A stochastic computational code was developed to simulate austenite grain morphology based on calculated thermal history. Then Hall-Pitch equation was used to estimate the yield strength of the printed sample. These codes were used to simulate the effect of temperature of the printer’s chamber on microstructure and subsequent yield strength. The austenite grain topology is more columnar at a lower temperature. The percentage of the equiaxed zone will be increased at a higher chamber’s temperature. Almost a fully equiaxed austenite microstructure will be achieved at 800 C chamber’s temperature, but the last printed layer, which is columnar and can be removed by cutting then. The estimated local austenite grain size and the local yield strength in the equiaxed regions are in the range of 15 to 30 μm and 270 to 330 MPa at 800 C temperature of printer’s chamber, respectively.
Mon, 24 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0505.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Quasi-brittle material; cracking elements method; Uni-axial compression tests
Online: 24 August 2020 (05:59:51 CEST)
In this work, the recently proposed cracking elements method (CEM) is used for simulating the damaging processes of structures with initial imperfections. CEM is built in the framework of conventional FEM which is formally like a special type of finite element. The disconnected piecewise cracks are used for representing crack paths. Taking the advantages of CEM that both the initiations and propagations of cracks can be naturally captured, we numerically study the uni-axial compression tests of specimens with multiple joints and fissures, where the cracks may propagate from the tips, or from some other unexpected positions. Though uni-axial compression tests are considered, mainly tensile damage criteria are used in the numerical model. On one hand, the results demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the CEM while on the other hand, some drawbacks of the present model are demonstrated, showing the future work.
Thu, 20 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0430.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Nimonic C-263 alloy; surface roughness; Taguchi based Grey relational analysis
Online: 20 August 2020 (05:44:27 CEST)
Nickel based superalloys finds extensive usage in manufacturing of intricate part shapes in gas turbine, aircraft, submarine, and chemical industries owing their excellent mechanical property and heat resistant abilities. However, machining of such difficult-to-machine alloys up to the desired accuracy and preciseness is a complex task owing to a rapid tool wear and failure. In view of this, present work proposes an experimental investigation and optimization of process parameters of the cryogenic assisted turning process during machining of Nimonic C-263 super alloy with a multilayer CVD insert. Taguchi’s L-27 orthogonal array is used plan the experiments. Effect of input parameters viz. cutting speed (N), cutting feed (f), depth of cut (d) are studied on responses viz. surface roughness (SR), nose wear (NW) and cutting forces (F) under hybrid cryogenic (direct+indirect) machining environment. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis is carried out to explore the post-machining outcomes on the performance measures. The multiple responses are converted in to single response and ranked according to Taguchi based gray relational grade (TGRG). Feed rate (f) is found to be the most influential parameter from the analysis of variance of GRG. The means of GRG for each level of process parameters are used to improve the optimal process parameters further. Finally, the confirmative experiment is performed with these optimal set of process parameters which showed an improvement of 9.34% in the value of GRG. The proposed work can be beneficial to choose ideal process conditions to enhance the performance of turning operation.
Tue, 18 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0383.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: NiTi shape memory alloy; cutting tool life; surface roughness; face milling
Online: 18 August 2020 (11:05:22 CEST)
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are increasingly used in the fields of aviation, automotive and biomedicine due to their unique properties. Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) alloy materials, which are one of the shape memory alloys, are among the most frequently used alloy materials. The shape memory and super elastic effects of NiTi alloys, high ductility and deformation hardening make it difficult to shape burr. An additional problem is the formation of a white layer during machining. In this study, surface milling operations were performed in dry cutting conditions with uncoated cutting tools with different nose radii. The processing parameters were determined based on the experience gained as a result of the preliminary tests. Tungsten carbide cutting tools with different nose radii (0.4mm and 0.8mm) were used for the milling operations. Milling was carried out at three different cutting speeds (20, 35, 50 m/min), feed rates (0.03, 0.07, 0.14 mm/tooth), and a constant axial cutting depth (0.7 mm). As a result of our experimental studies, the best tool life was found to be in 0.8 mm nose radius cutting tools at 20 m/min cutting speed and 0.03 mm/tooth feed rate (0.264 mm). The minimum average surface roughness was found after milling with 0.8 mm nose radius cutting tool at 20 m/min cutting speed and 0.03 mm/tooth feed rate (0.346 μm). It has been determined that increasing the cutting tool nose radius reduces both the flank wear over the cutting tool and the average surface roughness.
Fri, 14 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hip endoprosthesis; calculation method; contact mechanics; contact pressure; diameter of the endoprosthesis head; radial clearance
Online: 14 August 2020 (11:38:00 CEST)
Total hip arthroplasty is a complex procedure. The achievements of implantology enabled the development of a faithful representation of hip joint physiology as well as the production of materials that can successfully replace damaged natural tissues. A very important issue is the correct selection of the geometry of the endoprosthesis adequate to the load of the joint. Materials used for endoprosthesis are a metal head and a polymer cup (e.g. PE-UHMW). The main interactions in the endoprosthesis are friction and surface pressure, which must be limited, exceeding them causes the destruction of the biomechanical system - plastic deformation of the polymer and the formation of too large and unacceptable radial clearances. Based on the author's developed calculation method of hip joint endoprosthesis contact parameters, the impact on maximum contact pressure and the angle of contact of the joint load was estimated depending on the diameter of the endoprosthesis and radial clearance. The correctness of changing the values of maximum contact pressure from the mentioned parameters was determined. Correspondingly: an increase in joint load causes a linear increase in the maximum contact pressure; increasing the diameter of the endoprosthesis head - their non-linear decrease, and increasing radial clearance - their increase
Thu, 6 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0164.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: intelligent fault diagnosis; bearing; anti-noise; one-dimensional convolution neural network
Online: 6 August 2020 (11:42:44 CEST)
In recent years, intelligent fault diagnosis algorithms using deep learning method have achieved much success. However, the signals collected by sensors contain a lot of noise, which will have a great impact on the accuracy of the diagnostic model. To address this problem, we propose a one-dimensional convolutional neural network with multi-scale kernels (MSK-1DCNN) and apply this method to bearing fault diagnosis. We use a multi-scale convolution structure to extract different fault features in the original signal, and use the ELU activation function instead of the ReLU function in the multi-scale convolution structure to improve the anti-noise ability of MSK-1DCNN; then we use the training set with pepper noise to train the network to suppress overfitting. We use the Western Reserve University bearing data to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm and compare it with other fault diagnosis algorithms. Experimental results show that the improvements we proposed have effectively improved the diagnosis performers of MSK-1DCNN under strong noise and the diagnosis accuracy is higher than other comparison algorithms.
Fri, 31 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0728.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: parametric design; rake; picking; static analysis; CATIA; ANSYS; von Mises stress
Online: 31 July 2020 (03:34:11 CEST)
Olive picking is one of the most common social agricultural activities in many regions of Andalusia where the predominant crop is the traditional olive grove. The machinery used includes shakers, blowers and an essential low-cost type: hand-rake sweepers. The latter are generally used by the women of the squads to sweep the olives that fall from the trees. This article is focused on the design and optimisation of a hand-rake sweeper, in terms of durability and cost, for the picking of olives and other fruits, such as almonds, which are currently the main alternative to non-perennial crops in Andalusia. A parametric design of a hand-rake sweeper was created for this application using the design software CATIA, and its most vulnerable points were analysed in terms of effectiveness with varying design parameters, conducting usage simulations with ANSYS for a light material such as polypropylene. The maximum von Mises stress of the whole structure was 155.81 MPa. Using ANSYS, the dimension parameters of the hand-rake sweeper structure were optimised. The modified design was analysed again, showing a reduction of maximum tensions of 10.06%, as well as a decrease in its maximum elongations (0.0181 mm).
Tue, 21 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0492.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 316L steel; fatigue cracking; selective laser melting
Online: 21 July 2020 (13:34:49 CEST)
The effects of build orientation and heat treatment on the crack growth behavior of 316L stainless steel (SS) fabricated via a selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing process were investigated. Significant growth of available research results of additively manufactured metallic parts still needs to be improved. The most important issue connected with properties after additive manufacturing is properties high anisotropy, especially from the fatigue point of view. The research included crack growth behavior of additively manufactured 316L in comparison to conventionally made reference material. Both groups of samples were obtained using precipitation heat treatment. Different build orientation in additively manufactured samples and rolling direction in reference samples were taken into account as well. Precipitation heat treatment of additively manufactured parts allowed to reach similar microstructure and tensile properties to elements conventionally made. The heat treatment positively affected fatigue properties. Additionally, precipitation heat treatment of additively manufactured elements significantly affected the reduction of fatigue cracking velocity and changed the fatigue cracking mechanism.
Mon, 20 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0458.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: expansion tube; mechanical properties; energy absorption; parent material comparison; plastic deformation
Online: 20 July 2020 (08:10:40 CEST)
Expansion tube is ideal energy absorber which dissipates kinetic energy through plastic deformation and friction. There is an urgent need to understand the influence of key parameter, e.g. semi angle, tube material, and friction coefficient, on the mechanical response and energy absorption characteristics of expansion tube. In the present work, the material properties of the tubes were tested under quasi-static loading condition, and the numerical simulations were carried out by using commercial software ABAQUS. Based on the validated finite element simulation, all the semi angle, tube material, and friction have significant effects on the energy absorption capacity of expansion tube. The expansion tube with high tensile stress of parent material have high energy absorption capacity, while the specific energy absorption is linear with the tensile stress/density of tube material. This work would give a guidance to the structural design and parent materials selection for expansion tubes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0217.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Bio inspired robot; legged Robot; locomotion; position control; walk gait; wooden robot
Online: 20 July 2020 (04:13:18 CEST)
We present the design and overall development of an eight degrees of freedom (DOF) based Bioinspired Quadruped Robot (BiQR). The robot is designed with a skeleton made of cedar wood. The wooden skeleton is based on exploring the potential of cedar wood to be a choice for legged robots’ design. With a total weight of 1.19 kg, the robot uses eight servo motors that run the position control. Relying on the inverse kinematics, the control design enables the robot to perform the walk gait-based locomotion in a controlled environment. The robot has two main aspects: 1) the initial wooden skeleton development of the robot showing it to be an acceptable choice for robot design, 2) the robot’s applicability as a low-cost legged platform to test the locomotion in a laboratory or a classroom setting.
Sun, 19 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0412.v1
Online: 19 July 2020 (14:54:19 CEST)
Hydrothermal /super critical processes are important process to synthesize materials which are otherwise difficult to form under normal conditions. A mathematical model is developed using standard transport equations to calculate the time for heating of hydrothermal reactor and computer simulation of the model was carried out in SOLIDWORKS® to validate it. The materials used to form reactor vessel were stainless steel (outer body) and TEFLON (PFA) (inner vessel). It was shown that composite wall, its geometry, construction & properties greatly affect the time and pattern of heat transfer. The time calculated and pattern generated were found to be in good agreement with experimental values.
Fri, 17 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0385.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: CFD Simulation; Transient state; Rayleigh Taylor Instability; Multiphase Flow
Online: 17 July 2020 (14:20:55 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to simulate a two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability problem using the classical method of Finite Element analysis of a multiphase model using ANSYS FLUENT 19.2. The governing equations consist of a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for conservation of mass, momentum and phase transport equations. The study focuses on the transient state simulation of Rayleigh Taylor waves and subsequent turbulent mixing in the two phases incorporated in the model. The Rayleigh Taylor instability is an instability of an interface between two fluids of different densities which occurs when the lighter fluid is pushing the heavier fluid in a gravitational field. The problem was governed by the Navier-Stokes and Cahn-Hilliard equations in a primitive variable formulation. The Cahn- Hilliard equations were used to capture the interface between two fluids systems. The objective of this article is to perform grid dependency test on Rayleigh Taylor Instability for 2 different mesh size and compare the results for the variation in Atwood Number. The results were validated with the observations from previous published literatures.
Sat, 11 July 2020
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: PCM-based heat sink; Operation time; Optimal; Horizontal Fin; Aspect ratio
Online: 11 July 2020 (15:56:19 CEST)
In this study, the thermal behavior of a PCM-based heat sink in the presence of horizontal fins was numerically investigated. These types of heat sink can be effective in electronic cooling applications. Independent variables included aspect ratio (AR), number of horizontal fins (n) and their length (LR), while the objective function was defined to maximize the safe operation time (tmax). The incorporation of horizontal fins has a positive effect (thermal conductivity enhancement) as well as a negative effect (latent heat reduction). Based on the results, the optimal number of horizontal fins was five. As the number of fins rises up to five, the incremental effect of thermal conductivity improvement (positive effect) was superior to the decremental effect of the latent heat reduction (negative effect), hence the objective function (tmax) improved. However, with a further increase in the number of fins upon five, the negative effect prevailed over the positive effect and therefore the safe operation time diminished.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0217.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Bio inspired robot; legged Robot; locomotion; position control; walk gait; wooden robot
Online: 11 July 2020 (01:56:38 CEST)
We present the design and overall development of an eight degrees of freedom (DOF) based Bioinspired Quadruped Robot (BiQR). The robot is designed with a skeleton made of cedar wood. The wooden skeleton is based on exploring the potential of cedar wood to be a choice for legged robots’ design. With a total weight of 1.19 kg, the robot uses eight servo motors that run the position control. Relying on the inverse kinematics, the control design enables the robot to perform the walk gait-based locomotion in a controlled environment. The robot has two main aspects: 1) the initial wooden skeleton development of the robot showing it to be an acceptable choice for robot design, 2) the robot’s applicability as a low-cost legged platform to test the locomotion in a laboratory or a classroom setting.
Fri, 10 July 2020
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: EEDI; EEDIINLAND; EEDIIMO; Inland Oil Tanker; CO2 emission; Energy Efficiency; MEPC
Online: 10 July 2020 (16:26:30 CEST)
Though inland ships share a small portion of the total global CO2 emission from shipping, from the individual country’s economic and environmental perspective, this is very important. In order to reduce CO2 emission from the sea going ships by increasing energy efficiency, International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted a generalized Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) in 2011. However, due to the variation in the environmental, geographic and economic conditions, a generalized EEDI cannot be established in a similar fashion as established by IMO. Shallow and restricted water effects, different fuel qualities (to reduce operational cost), increase in engine power requirement, reduction in carrying capacity, cargo availability, etc. forbid the use of existing EEDI formulation for inland waterways. So, an EEDI formulation based on revised parameters has been proposed for the inland ships of Bangladesh. This paper focuses on the implementation of the revised EEDI formulation by performing a sensitivity analysis of different ship design parameters. Based on the analysis, suggestions were made on how to design inland oil tankers of Bangladesh using the revised EEDI formulation for reducing CO2 from the current level. Keeping the same speed and capacity, those vessels were redesigned based on those suggestions. The CFD analysis of those redesigned vessels using ‘Shipflow’ has shown a total resistance reduction of 10-13%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0208.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: turbine generator; stator ventilation duct; transient heat transfer; pressure loss
Online: 10 July 2020 (08:34:07 CEST)
Turbine generator operates with complex cooling system due to the challenge in controlling the peak temperature of the stator bar caused by ohm loss, which is unavoidable. Therefore, it is important to characterise and quantifies the thermal performance of the cooling system. The focus of the present research is to investigate the heat transfer and pressure loss characteristics of typical cooling system, so-called stator ventilation duct. A real scale model was built at its operating conditions for the present study. The direction of cooling air is varied to consider its operation condition, so that there are (1) outward flow and (2) inward flow cases. In addition, the effect of (3) cross flow (inward with cross flow case) is also studied. The transient heat transfer method using thermochromic liquid crystals is implemented to measure full surface heat transfer distribution. A series of Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis is also conducted to support the observation from the experiment. For the inward flow case, the results suggest that the average Nusselt number of the 2nd duct is about 30% higher than the 3rd duct. The trend is similar with the effect of cross flow. The CFD results are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Thu, 9 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Shape memory polymer; LCD; Transparency; High shape recovery rate; Fast responsive
Online: 9 July 2020 (01:58:31 CEST)
In this study, we report a new epoxy acrylate based shape memory polymer(SMP) fabricated by Liquid crystal display (LCD) Stereolithographic 3D printing. The printed 3D object has a high resolution and high transparency in visible light region. The uniaxial tensile tests showed enhanced tensile toughness and tunable mechanical properties. The fix-recovery and cycle tests indicated high shape recovery properties including high shape recovery rate and excellent cycling stability. In addition, a smart electrical valve actuator was fabricated that can be used in fast heat or electricity responsive electrical circuits. LCD 3D printing provides a low-cost and high efficient way to fabricate fast responsive SMP, which can be used in wide applications in various fields on aerospace engineering, biomedical devices, soft robots and electronic devices.
Tue, 7 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0126.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Coarse Grain Models; Water Models; Nanoscale Evaporation; Nano Channels; Molecular Dynamics
Online: 7 July 2020 (11:03:25 CEST)
Evaporation studies of water using classical molecular dynamics simulations are largely limited due to its high computational expense. We aim at addressing the computational issues by developing a coarse grain model for evaporation of water on solid surfaces by combining four water molecules into a single bead. Most commonly used mono atomic pair potentials like Lennard Jones, Morse, Mie and three body potential like Stillinger-Weber are optimized using a combination of Genetic algorithm and Nelder-Mead algorithm. Among them, Stillinger-Weber based model shows excellent agreement of density and Enthalpy of vaporization with experimental results for a wide range of temperatures. Further, the new water model is used to simulate contact angle of water and thin film evaporation from surfaces with different wettabilities.
Fri, 3 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0017.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Natural convection; CFD; conjugate heat transfer; containment vessel; thermal-hydraulics; CIGMA
Online: 3 July 2020 (07:44:25 CEST)
In the case of a severe accident, natural convection plays an important role in the atmosphere mixing of nuclear reactor containments. In the previous study, to simulate the natural convection in the accident scenario within a nuclear reactor containment, the steady thermal boundary conditions (BCs) were prescribed on either cooled or heated wall. The present study, therefore, aims at the transient 3D numerical simulations of natural convection of air around a cylindrical containment with unsteady thermal BCs at the vessel wall. For that purpose, the experiment series was done in the CIGMA facility at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The upper vessel or both the upper vessel and the middle jacket was cooled by subcooled water, while the lower vessel was thermally insulated. A 3D model was simulated with OpenFOAM®, applying the Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations (URANS) model. Different turbulence models were studied, such as the standard k-ε, standard k-ω, k-ω Shear Stress Transport (SST) and, low-Reynolds-k-ε Launder-Sharma. The results of the four turbulence models were compared versus the results of experimental data. The k-ω SST showed a better prediction compare to other turbulence models. Also, the accuracy of the predicted temperature and pressure were improved when the heat conduction on the internal structure, i.e., flat bar, was considered in the simulation. Otherwise, the predictions on both temperature and pressure were underestimated compared with the experimental results. Hence, the conjugate heat transfer in the internal structure inside the containment vessel must be modeled accurately.
Tue, 30 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0364.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: RSM; LES; DNS; Simulation/Numerical investigation; Air-core; Vortex; Grade efficiency
Online: 30 June 2020 (10:12:33 CEST)
Due to the accuracy of numerical calculation of fluid flow inside a hydrocyclone can be obtained using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), highly modified super computers are used to simulate the fluid flow and track particle motion inside a hydrocyclone. This paper deals with the numerical study using three multiphase models viz. Volume of fluid, Mixture and Eulerian model. The dimensions of the hydrocyclone taken into consideration for numerical analysis is same as considered by Rajamani. Validation of axial and tangential velocities at different strategically decided axial stations, RMS axial and tangential velocity profiles of the hydrocyclone is done using Reynolds Stress Model (RSM). The hydrocyclone model has been designed in Creo 3.0 using the same dimensions which later was imported to CFD for meshing. Fine hexagonal mesh numbering up to 5 lacs were constructed to obtain optimum results. Fluid flow was allowed to be developed in ANSYS FLUENT 16.2. Entire simulation took 96 hours to generate results and track particle movements inside the hydrocyclone. The particle tracking has been done using three multiphase model. The first being the volume of fluid was used for validation purposes and the comparison of the Mixture and Eulerian model are the basic focus of this research work. Conclusive results indicate that usage of different multiphase model does not result in variation in particle motion. The slight variation in grade efficiency values are hardly noticeable. The Mixture model and Eulerian model predict lower separation efficiency as compared with Volume of fluid multiphase model.
Fri, 12 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ahmed Body; vehicle aerodynamics; drag force measurement; Simulation/Numerical investigation
Online: 12 June 2020 (12:20:55 CEST)
Automotive aerodynamics comprises of the study of aerodynamics of road vehicles. Its main goals are reducing drag, minimizing noise emission, improving fuel economy, preventing undesired lift forces and minimizing other causes of aerodynamic instability at high speeds. The Ahmed body has the form of a highly simplified car, consisting of a blunt nose with rounded edges fixed onto a box-like middle section and a rear end that has an upper slanted surface, the angle of which can be varied. It retains vital features of real vehicles in order to study the flow fields around it and the related turbulence models which characterizes the actual flow at elevated Reynolds number. In the present study, the aerodynamic behavior of this body is investigated numerically by the aid of commercial CFD tool: Ansys Fluent. The results of the simulation are validated with available experimental data and results of the simulations from other literatures. The numerical data were obtained for a fixed free stream velocity of 25 m/s at the inlet. The simulations were performed at a fixed slant angle of 25 degree and zero yaw angle. The present study focuses on how local refinement of mesh inside the concerned body and the outside, helps affect the results and for which grid dependency test is the primary objective of this paper. The present study also helps demonstrate how the drag of the body behaves, which is mainly the effect of pressure drag force generated at the rear portion of the body. The study also focuses on important properties like the velocity magnitude at different locations for different meshing cases, and to capture the flow pattern in the front or near the wake region. The study can be further helpful to future researchers in determining resistance, fuel efficiency etc. helping designers to optimize in specialized areas for better efficiency.
Sun, 7 June 2020
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; additive manufacturing; N95; respirator; particle transmission; filtration efficiency
Online: 7 June 2020 (10:33:30 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the supply chain for personal protective equipment (PPE) for medical professionals, including N95-type respiratory protective masks. To address this shortage, many have looked to the agility and accessibility of additive manufacturing (AM) systems to provide a democratized, decentralized solution to producing respirators with equivalent protection for last-resort measures. However, there are concerns about the viability and safety in deploying this localized download, print, and wear strategy. Several polymer-based AM processes produce porous parts, and inherent process variation between printers and materials also threaten the integrity of tolerances and seals within the printed respirator assembly. The goal of this paper is to quantitatively measure particle transmission through printed respirators of different designs, materials, and AM processes, and assess the viability of printed respirators as N95 equivalents. Results from this study show that respirators printed using desktop/industrial-scale fused filament fabrication processes and industrial-scale powder bed fusion processes have insufficient filtration efficiency at the size of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, even while assuming a perfect seal between the respirator and the user’s face. Almost all printed respirators provided <60% filtration efficiency at the 100-300 nm particle range. Only one respirator, printed on an industrial-scale fused filament fabrication system provided >90% efficiency as-printed. Post-processing procedures including cleaning, sealing surfaces, and reinforcing the filter cap seal generally improved performance, but no respirator sustained the filtration efficiency of an N95 respirator, which filters 95% of SARS-CoV-2 virus particles. Instead, the printed respirators showed similar performance to various cloth masks. While continued optimization of printing process parameters and design tolerances could be implemented to directly print respirators that provide the requisite 95% filtration efficiency, AM processes are not sufficiently reliable for widespread distribution and local production of N95-type respiratory protection without commensurate quality assurance processes in place. Certain design/printer/material combinations may provide sufficient protection for specific users, but the respirators should not be trusted without quantitative filtration efficiency testing. It is currently not advised to expect printed respirators originating from distributed designs to replicate performance across different printers and materials.
Fri, 5 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cyclic indentation; Vickers hardness; inverse analysis; numerical simulations; cyclic material properties; fatigue life
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:17:27 CEST)
The application of instrumented indentation to assess material properties like Young’s modulus and micro-hardness has become a standard method. In recent developments, indentation experiments and simulations have been combined to inverse methods, from which further material parameters as yield strength, work hardening rate, and tensile strength can be determined. In this work, an inverse method is introduced by which material parameters for cyclic plasticity, i.e. kinematic hardening parameters, can be determined. To accomplish this, cyclic Vickers indentation experiments are combined with finite element simulations of the indentation with unknown material properties, which are then determined by inverse analysis. To validate the proposed method, these parameters are subsequently applied to predict the uniaxial stress-strain response of a material with success. The method has been validated successfully for a quenched and tempered martensitic steel and for technically pure copper, where an excellent agreement between measured and predicted cyclic stress-strain-curves has been achieved. Hence, the proposed inverse method based on cyclic nanoindentation, as a quasi-non-destructive method, could complement or even substitute the resource-intensive conventional fatigue testing in the future for some applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0047.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: horn design; ultrasonic welding; nonwoven fabric; micro-structure; tensile strength
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:01:01 CEST)
Nonwoven fabrics have been widely used in textile manufacturing industry as a sheet or web structure because of soft, water-repellent, recycle, ecological and resilient functions. Ultrasonic welding method has been applied for bonding nonwoven fabrics due to clean, fast and reliable approach. In this work, the ultrasonic stepped horn is designed to generate uniform amplitudes on the working surface by using finite element analysis (FEA) simulation. Chromium carbon steels are utilized to produce ultrasonic horns due to high wear resistant and hardness. Isotactic polypropylene nonwoven fabrics fabricated by spunbond process were bonded by continuous ultrasonic sewing machine. Ultrasonic horn with 70 mm in diameter working at 20 kHz, polypropylene (PP) nonwoven density of 80 gsm and various design of welding joints were applied. A typical image in the case of number one was investigated by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of inter-facial micro-structure. However, welding joints of totally eight roller patterns was test the tensile strength of the ultrasonic welding joints on PP nonwoven fabrics. The tensile strength of the welding joints is proportional to the area ratio between the welding area and cycling area. The results showed that the melted zone without welding defects such as crack or blowhole can be seen. Furthermore, the tensile strength of welding joints in eight cases of roller patterns (No.1-No.8) was described in details. The ultrasonic welding joints with brick structures give higher tensile strength while the solid line in the pattern gave less strength.
Wed, 3 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0010.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: optimization; particle swarm; response surface; extended surface; fired heaters; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:32:35 CEST)
This paper proposes the use of non-uniform extended surfaces installed externally to the tubes of the radiation section of fired heaters, in order to obtain a better heat flux distribution to the coils. To this end, the heat transfer mechanisms present in such equipment were studied through computational fluid dynamics (CFD), using simplified geometries that represent typical sizes of fired heaters. Also, a simplified model for the combustion was considered. Although this model oversimplifies the physics of the problem, it was able to give satisfactory results for the parameters being optimized, considering the main objective of this paper, that is to minimize the non-uniformity of heat flux in the tubes of the radiant section of fired heaters. It was possible to obtain optimized geometric parameters for different types of extended surfaces evaluated, coupling the results of these models with the Particle Swarm optimization method through the use of a response surface technique,. The results indicate a significant improvement in the uniformity of the heat flux distribution to the tubes through the use of the proposed extended surfaces. Thus, this solution reveals to be an interesting alternative to reduce the risks of fluid degradation and coking formation. Future studies must investigate the non-uniformity of the heat flux due to the presence of the flame and consider the interaction between the reactive flow and the participating medium. Nevertheless, this paper presents some results that justify the optimization of such extended surfaces taking into consideration thermal radiation.
Tue, 2 June 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: artificial sand plant; stone crusher; screen unit and sand unit; beating phenomenon; vibration measurement and reduction
Online: 2 June 2020 (09:35:03 CEST)
Due to limitation of natural sand from rivers and seas, artificial sand production from large stones or rocks is being increased. However, this sand manufacturing process is dangerous and causes several social problems such as high level of unwanted vibrations or noises. This study investigates vibration characteristics of sand and screen units in artificial sand production plant whose actuating operation is multiple with several different exciting frequencies. As a first step, vibration levels are measured at the sand and screen unit positions using accelerometers in time and frequency domains. The measurement is carried out at two different conditions: activating sand unit only and operating entire facilities such as stone crusher. Vibration signals acquired from several locations of the sand and screen units of the plant are collected and analyzed from waveforms and spectrums of the signals. It is identified that the vibration acceleration level of the screen unit is higher than that of the sand unit. In addition, it is found from the acceleration signals measured at plant office and shipping control center those places are far away from the plant location that the beating phenomenon is occurred by close driving frequencies for several sand units. In this work, the vibration caused from the beating is significantly reduced by adjusting the driving frequencies for the sand units so that they are sufficiently scattered to avoid the beating.
Sun, 31 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0479.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: open source; open hardware; COVID-19; medical hardware; RepRap; 3-D printing; open source medical hardware; high temperature 3-D printing; additive manufacturing; ULTEM; polycarbonate
Online: 31 May 2020 (16:18:20 CEST)
Thermal sterilization is generally avoided for 3-D printed components because of the relatively low deformation temperatures for common thermoplastics used for material extrusion-based additive manufacturing. 3-D printing materials required for high-temperature heat sterilizable components for COVID-19 and other applications demands 3-D printers with heated beds, hot ends that can reach higher temperatures than polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) hot ends and heated chambers to avoid part warping and delamination. There are several high temperature printers on the market, but their high costs make them inaccessible for full home-based distributed manufacturing required during pandemic lockdowns. To allow for all these requirements to be met for under $1,000, the Cerberus – an open source three-headed self-replicating rapid prototyper (RepRap) was designed and tested with the following capabilities: i) 200oC-capable heated bed, ii) 500oC-capabel hot end, iii) isolated heated chamber with 1kW space heater core and iv) mains voltage chamber and bed heating for rapid start. The Cereberus successfully prints polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) and polyetherimide (PEI, ULTEM) with tensile strengths of 77.5 and 80.5 MPa, respectively. As a case study, open source face masks were 3-D printed in PEKK and shown not to warp upon widely home-accessible oven-based sterilization.
Fri, 22 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fault diagnosis; deep learning; domain adapta-tion; gearbox; current signal
Online: 22 May 2020 (05:37:13 CEST)
In the recent years, intelligent data-driven faultdiagnosis methods on gearboxes have been successfully developedand popularly applied in the industries. Currently, most ofthe machine learning techniques require that the training andtesting data are from the same distribution. However, thisassumption is difficult to be met in the real industries, sincethe gearbox operating conditions usually change in practice,which results in significant data distribution gap and diagnosticperformance deteriorations in applying the learned knowledgeon the new conditions. This paper proposes a deep learning-based domain adaptation method to address this issue. Theraw current signals are directly used as the model inputs fordiagnostics, which are easy to collect in the real industries andfacilitate practical applications. The maximum mean discrepancymetric is introduced to the deep neural network, the optimizationof which guarantees the extraction of generalized machineryhealth condition features across different operating conditions.The experiments on a real-world gearbox condition monitoringdataset validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, whichoffers a promising tool for cross-domain diagnosis in the realindustries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0347.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: deep learning; maximum mean discrepancy; gearbox; fault detection
Online: 22 May 2020 (05:21:56 CEST)
In the past years, various intelligent machine learning and deep learning algorithms have been developed and widely applied for gearbox fault detection and diagnosis. However, the real-time application of these intelligent algorithms has been limited, mainly due to the fact that the model developed using data from one machine or one operating condition has serious diagnosis performance degradation when applied to another machine or the same machine with a different operating condition. The reason for poor model generalization is the distribution discrepancy between the training and testing data. This paper proposes to address this issue using a deep learning based cross domain adaptation approach for gearbox fault diagnosis. Labelled data from training dataset and unlabeled data from testing dataset is used to achieve the cross-domain adaptation task. A deep convolutional neural network (CNN) is used as the main architecture. Maximum mean discrepancy is used as a measure to minimize the distribution distance between the labelled training data and unlabeled testing data. The study proposes to reduce the discrepancy between the two domains in multiple layers of the designed CNN to adapt the learned representations from the training data to be applied in the testing data. The proposed approach is evaluated using experimental data from a gearbox under significant speed variation and multiple health conditions. An appropriate benchmarking with both traditional machine learning methods and other domain adaptation methods demonstrates the superiority of the proposed method.
Sat, 16 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: surface metrology; surface topography; bending-torsion fatigue; fatigue fracture
Online: 16 May 2020 (17:54:13 CEST)
Post-mortem characterisation is a pivotal tool to trace back to the origin of structural failures in modern engineering analyses. This work presents a comparison of both the crack propagation profiles and the rupture roughness profiles based on areal parameters for total fracture area. Notched and smooth samples made of weather-resistant structural steel (10HNAP), popular S355J2 structural steel and aluminium alloy AA2017A under bending, torsion, and combined bending-torsion are investigated. After the fatigue tests, fatigue fractures are measured with an optical profilometer, and the relevant surface parameters are critically compared. The results show a great impact of the loading scenario on both the local profiles and the total fracture areas. In this work, the results of both approaches (local and total fracture zones) for specimens with different geometries are investigated. For all specimens, measured texture parameters decreased in the following order: total area, rupture area, and propagation area.
Thu, 14 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: damper; magnetorheological fluids; current intensity; AMESim; semi-active suspension
Online: 14 May 2020 (11:43:12 CEST)
In the context of improving the comfort and dynamics of the vehicle, the suspension system has been continuously developed and improved, especially using magnetorheological (MR) shock absorbers. The development of this technology which is relatively new has not been easy. Thus, the first widespread commercial use of MR fluid in a semi-active suspension system was implemented in passenger cars. The magnetorheological shock absorber can combine the comfort with the dynamic driving, because it allows the damping characteristic to be adapted to the road profile. The main objective of the paper is to analyze the dynamic behavior of the magnetorheological shock absorber in the semi-active suspension. In this sense, the author carried out a set of experimental measurements with a damping test bench, specially built and equipped with modern equipment. The results obtained from the experimental determinations show a significantly improved comfort when using a magnetorheological shock absorber, compared to a classic one, by the fact that the magnetorheological shock absorber allows to modify the damping coefficient according to the road conditions, thus maintaining the permanent contact between the tire and the road due to increased damping force.
Tue, 12 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: adhesion; hysteresis; energy dissipation; JKR theory; rolling friction
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:22:06 CEST)
In 1975, Fuller and Tabor have shown that roughness can destroy macroscopic adhesion. This means that in spite of the presence of adhesion at the microscopic scale, the macrosopic force of adhesion vanishes. The mechanism of vanishing macroscopic adhesion is very simple: during approach of elastic bodies, asperities are elastically deformed so strongly that after unloading they destroy the microscopic adhesive junctions. However, both in the moment of formation of microscopic adhesive junctions in the loading phase and their destruction during unloading, mechanical energy disappears. This means that the microscopic adhesion makes the contact dissipative even if there is no macroscopic force of adhesion. In particular, the force-distance dependency during indentation and pull-off do not coincide with each other showing some "adhesive hysteresis". When a ball rolls on such rough surface, there will be a final energy dissipation due to formation of a new contact at the frontline of the contact and its destruction at the rear part. Thus, microscopic adhesion will lead to appearance of rolling friction in an apparently non-adhesive contact. In the present paper, we calculate the approach and pull-off dependencies of force on distance, the dissipated energy in one loading-unloading cycle and estimate the force of rolling friction due to microscopic adhesion.
Sat, 9 May 2020
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0162.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: inverse kinematics; DLS system; redundancy resolution; redundant manipulator; continuum structure; manipulator positioning
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:12:45 CEST)
Automatic control to any of robot manipulators, some kind of issues are being observed. A numerical method for solution generation to the inverse kinematics problem of redundant robotic manipulators is presented to obtain the smoothest algorithm as possible, leading to a robust iterative method. After the primary objective of the reachability of end-effectors to the target point is achieved, the aim is set to resolve the redundant degrees of freedom of redundant manipulator. This method is numerically stable since it converges to the correct answer with virtually any initial approximation, and it is not sensitive to the singular configurations of the manipulator. In addition, this technique is computationally effective and able to apply for serial manipulators with any DOF applications. A planar 3R-DOF serial link redundant manipulator is considered as exemplar problem for solving. Also, the continuum approach for resolving more complex structure with variable DoF is illustrated here and their brief applicability to support surgeries and adaptive use of artificial linkage moments is also calculated.
Thu, 7 May 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Gamification education; manufacturing shopfloor; virtual reality; student engagement
Online: 7 May 2020 (15:01:29 CEST)
This paper shares our work in developing and implementing an immersive gamification training platform for students who undergo manufacturing shopfloor training at the School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore. In this gamification training platform, we developed a virtual manufacturing shopfloor that is identical to the actual shopfloor located in the school. Students have the freedom to learn the manufacturing shopfloor operations and safety acts through the various game scenarios and training tasks which include workshop safety, CNC machine introduction, CNC machining dynamics, MES, etc. In addition, the assessment feature with immediate feedback were embedded within the gamification platform, which aim to help students to assess their level of understanding and help teachers to monitor the learning progress of their students. To investigate the impact of this gamification training platform on students’ learning outcome and motivation in manufacturing shopfloor technologies and safety acts, a pilot study was conducted in AY2018 semester 2 for a total 134 students from 4 classes of digital & precision engineering diploma. It is found that gamification can be integrated effectively into manufacturing education to motivate students and enhance their learning effectiveness. Based on the collected data from the technical quizzes and satisfactory survey, the results showed that the integration of gamification into the classroom learning not only added a stimulating and captivating game-like layer to the learning experience of the students, but also provided a safe environment for students to learn without fear of making errors. Challenges faced in implementing this gamification training platform will also be discussed in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0112.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: lattice structures; additive manufacturing; selective laser melting; powder bed fusion; energy absorption; dynamic compression; crashworthiness
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:45:00 CEST)
Nine variants of regular lattice structures with different relative densities have been designed and successfully manufactured. The produced structures have been subjected to geometrical quality control, and the manufacturability of the implemented selective laser melting SLM technique has been assessed. It was found that the dimensions of the produced lattice struts differ from those of the designed struts. These deviations depend on the direction of geometrical evaluation. Additionally, the microstructures and phase compositions of the obtained structures were characterized and compared with those of conventionally produced 316L stainless steel. The microstructure analysis and X-Ray Diffraction XRD patterns revealed a single austenite phase in the SLM samples. Both a certain broadening and a displacement of the austenite peaks were observed due to residual stresses and a crystallographic texture induced by the SLM process. Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the lattice structure material has been defined. It was demonstrated that under both quasi-static and dynamic testing, lattice structures with high relative densities are stretch-dominated, whereas those with low relative densities are bending-dominated. Moreover, the linear relationship between the energy absorption and relative density under dynamic loading conditions has been defined
Thu, 30 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bicycle; helmet; brain injury; EPS foam; impact; safety
Online: 30 April 2020 (14:10:36 CEST)
This study evaluates various safety aspects of standardized impacts that cyclists may suffer while wearing a bicycle helmet, by combining a partially validated finite element model of the cranio-cervical region and a newly developed bicycle helmet model. Under EN 1078 standardized impact conditions, the results of simulated impact tests show that the helmet can absorb 40% to 50 % of the total impact energy at impact velocities above 4 m/s. Further, based on a relationship between Head Injury Criterion and the risk of injury from field data, the results of the simulations suggest that minor injuries may occur at impact velocities of 10 km/h, serious injuries at 15 km/h, and severe injuries at 20 km/h. Fatal injuries will likely occur at impact velocities of 30 km/h and higher.
Sat, 25 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0461.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: polydimethylsiloxane; hyperelasticity; shear strain; 3D digital image correlation; numerical simulation; finite element method; hyperelastic constitutive models
Online: 25 April 2020 (11:15:12 CEST)
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is one of the most popular elastomers and has been used in different fields, especially in biomechanics research. Among the many interesting features of this material, its hyperelastic behaviour stands out, which allows the use of PDMS in various applications, like the ones that mimic soft tissues. However, the hyperelastic behaviour is not linear and needs detailed analysis, especially the characterization of shear strain. In this work, two approaches, numerical and experimental, were proposed to characterize the effect of shear strain on PDMS. The experimental method was implemented as a simple shear testing associated with 3D digital image correlation and was made using two specimens with two thicknesses of PDMS (2 and 4 mm). A finite element software was used to implement the numerical simulations, in which four different simulations using the Mooney-Rivlin, Yeoh, Gent, and Polynomial hyperelastic constitutive models were performed. These approaches showed that the maximum value of shear strain occurred in the central region of the PDMS, and higher values emerged for the 2 mm PDMS thickness. Qualitatively, in the central area of the specimen, the numerical and experimental results have similar behaviours and the values of shear strain are close. For higher values of displacement and thicknesses, the numerical simulation results move further away from experimental values.
Sun, 19 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0350.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: solar panel; laminatel vibrations; self-cleaning; cymatics
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:51:32 CEST)
The Photovoltaic modules are usually installed on the ground which exposes it to surface deposition of foreign particles. In the Middle East and North Africa region, the primary culprit is dust and sand. They form an insulating and opaque layer on the surface of the glass, which obstructs its heat transfer and optical properties, thereby reducing the overall yield efficiency of the solar panel. Cleaning of this layer is critical to the operation of the solar panel and often requires great effort and energy on a large-scale solar array. In this paper, we propose a novel self-cleaning mechanism for solar panels, with an understanding of the structural integrity of the Photovoltaic laminate and application of external mechanical vibration. By applying an external source of vibration, the solar panels vibrate, excites its fundamental frequencies and cleans by its own. The method is analyzed using finite element analysis method and tested using experiments. Our simulation results based on IEC 61215 show that the maximum principal stress and deformation in the critical layers is within limits. Our experimental results prove the proposed theory is feasible and can be extended to large scale solar arrays. Our proposed method is retrofittable and could save money, energy and effort in cleaning the solar arrays, which can replace current techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0320.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 316L austenitic steel; selective laser melting; hot isostatic pressing; microscopic investigation; residual stresses
Online: 19 April 2020 (04:11:29 CEST)
Industries that rely on additive manufacturing of metallic elements, especially biomedical companies, require material science-based knowledge of how process parameters and methods affect element properties, but such phenomena are incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the influence of selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters and additional heat treatment on mechanical properties. The research included structural analysis of residual stress, microstructure, and scleronomic hardness in low-depth measurements. Tensile tests with element deformation analysis using digital image correlation (DIC) were performed as well. Experiment results showed it was possible to observe the porosity growth mechanism and its influence on material strength. Elements manufactured with 20% lower energy density had almost half the elongation, which was directly connected with porosity growth during energy density reduction. Hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatment allowed for a significant reduction of porosity and helped achieve properties similar to elements manufactured using different levels of energy density.
Fri, 17 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: plenum fan; blade profile; static pressure; static efficiency; velocity distribution
Online: 17 April 2020 (08:22:49 CEST)
We successfully designed an optimized plenum fan with a three-dimensional, smooth, curved blade. The optimized model revealed that the static pressure in the channel had been increased uniformly and stably, and the flow separation at the leading edge was significantly reduced. To conclude, the three-dimensional blade stabilized the fluid flow, and the flow friction was reduced by suppressing the flow separation as much as possible so that both the static pressure and the static efficiency were clearly improved in comparison with those of the original model. The static efficiency, as a result, was improved by 6% compared with that of the original model.
Wed, 15 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hybrid rocket engine; sounding rocket; carbon fiber composite; engine test; total impulse; lightweight design
Online: 15 April 2020 (05:10:53 CEST)
The development of hybrid rockets offers excellent opportunities for the practical education of students at universities due to a high safety and a relatively low complexity of the rocket propulsion system. During the German educational program STERN, students of the Technische Universität Braunschweig obtain the possibility to design and launch a sounding rocket with a hybrid engine. The design of engine HYDRA 4X is presented and results of first engine tests are discussed. Results for measured regression rates are compared to results from literature. Furthermore, the impact of the lightweight casing material CFRP on the hybrid engine mass and flight apogee altitude is examined for rockets with different total impulse classes (10 to 50 kNs). It is shown that the benefit of a lightweight casing material on engine mass decreases with an increasing total impulse. However, a higher gain on apogee altitude, especially for bigger rockets with a comparable high total impulse is shown.
Tue, 7 April 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Compression Ratio (CR); CI Diesel Engine; Ethanol; Biodiesel; Performance; Combustion; Emissions and Emulsifier
Online: 7 April 2020 (11:56:15 CEST)
In the present scenario of increased industrialization and transportation in the world leads to increased consumption of fossil fuels which in turns leads to depletion of fossil fuels at a faster rate. Fossil fuels combustion is the dominant source for greenhouse gases and global warming. In view of energy crisis raised in 1970’s and environmental concern, many researches are directed towards search of alternative fuels which can replace consumption of fossil fuels as well as reduce pollution. In developing countries like India which is agriculture land the best alternative fuels are biodiesel and ethanol as they are produced from renewable feedstocks like sugarcane, corn etc. and they are also less hazardous to environment because of lower emission property. Ethanol blends results in significant reduction of emissions of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO) and particulates matter but increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx). The main purpose of ethanol addition is to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel blends. This paper represents significance of Compression Ratio(CR) on performance, combustion and emission of single cylinder four stroke CI diesel engine by using various compression ratios such as 17.5:1, 18.5:1 and 19.5:1. Experimental research has been conducted with four types of ethanol blends, namely E10, E20, E30 and E40. Ethanol-biodiesel mixture mixed with 2% emulsifier 1% diethyl carbonate and 1% ethyl acetate to maintain similarity and to avoid phase separation. Ethanol subjected to high compression ratio has been used to increase brake thermal efficiency (BTE). The compression ratio has been increased to improve the combustion and performance of the diesel engine.
Tue, 31 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0454.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: bollard; honeycomb; Polylactic acid (PLA); LS-DYNA; shock-absorption; in-plane
Online: 31 March 2020 (10:14:16 CEST)
Lack of shock absorption capability of conventional steel bollards causes significant vehicle damage and consequently high repair costs. This research studies a solution to reduce vehicle damage by inserting PLA honeycomb structures. A honeycomb-inserted bollard was designed based on numerical simulations using LS-DYNA, which yielded the bollard designed for actual vehicle-bollard collision experiments. Simulation efforts were focused on calculating the acceleration characteristics when a vehicle collides with steel and honeycomb-inserted bollards. Compared to the simulated steel bollards, 20 MPa yield-strength honeycomb-inserted bollard showed 0.017s delay in the maximum acceleration occurrence time, reduction of the maximum acceleration to 37.4% of that of steel bollards, and 13.1% reduction in the B-pillar maximum acceleration. Actual vehicle-bollard collision experiments, with a gyro-sensor installed at the test vehicle front bumper frame, also proved improved shock absorption characteristics of the honeycomb-inserted bollards. An experiment with honeycomb-inserted bollard showed 0.783s delay in the maximum acceleration occurrence time, a significant delay when compared to steel bollards. The maximum acceleration measured by the gyro-sensor was 0.35m/s2 when the simulation predicted it to be 0.388 m/s2, proving the similarity in the simulations and experiments. Thus, this study of shock absorption characteristics promised reduced damage to vehicles and lower repair cost.
Fri, 27 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0396.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: production process design; design for manufacturability; fuzzy logic
Online: 27 March 2020 (13:01:50 CET)
The paper presents design methodology for the production process of a new product from the point of view of the assembly operations technology criterion (Design for Assembly - DFA) in the conditions of high-volume production. Mentioned are DFA methods and techniques used in the implementation of a new product. Author presents a new method to assess design for manufacturability based on fuzzy variables based on fuzzy variables. An example was given to illustrate the proposed course of action
Thu, 26 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0396.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: production process design; design for manufacturability; fuzzy logic
Online: 26 March 2020 (15:26:42 CET)
The paper presents methodology for designing the production process of a new product from the point of view of the assembly operations technology criterion (Design for Assembly - DFA) in the conditions of high-volume production. Mentioned are DFA methods and techniques used in the implementation of a new product. Author presents a new method for assessing design for manufacturability based on fuzzy variables based on fuzzy variables. An example was given to illustrate the proposed course of action
Fri, 20 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Plasma keyhole arc welding; X-ray observation; Heat transportation; Eddy; Convective pattern
Online: 20 March 2020 (13:03:13 CET)
This investigation aims to discuss the formation process of eddies and the heat transportation in plasma keyhole arc welding. In order to clarify this issue, the measurement of the convection inside the weld pool, the convection on the weld pool surface, also the temperature distribution on the weld pool surface were carried out. The results showed that two eddies were found in the weld pool, which is controlled mainly through the shear force by the plasma flow acting on the weld pool surface. The magnitude, extent and direction of the shear force are thought to be determined primarily by the variation of keyhole profile. The relative shape and strength of each eddy is largely changed depending on the change of the keyhole profile when nozzle diameter changed. These relative strengths of each eddy are considered to decisively govern the heat transport in the weld pool coinciding with the direction of eddies. A larger eddy near the lower part of the keyhole inside the weld pool was found out in the case of 1.6 mm, meanwhile a upward larger eddy was found out near the upper part of the keyhole inside the weld pool in the case of 2.4 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0305.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: refractories; mortarless masonry; mechanical homogenization; thermomechanical modeling; steel ladle
Online: 20 March 2020 (04:56:11 CET)
Mortarless refractory masonry structures are widely used in the steel industry for the linings of many high-temperature industrial applications including steel ladle. The design and the optimization of these components require accurate numerical models that consider the presence of joints as well as joints closure and opening due to cyclic heating and cooling. The present work reports on the formulation, numerical implementation, validation, and application of homogenized numerical models for simulation of refractory masonry structures with dry joints. The validated constitutive model has been used to simulate a steel ladle and to analyze its transient thermomechanical behavior during a typical thermal cycle of steel ladle. 3D solution domain, enhanced thermal and mechanical boundary conditions have been used. Parametric studies to investigate the impact of joints thickness on the thermomechanical response of the ladle have been carried out. The results clearly demonstrate that the thermomechanical behavior of mortarless masonry is orthotropic nonlinear due to gradual closure and reopening of joints with the increase and decrease of temperature. Also, resulting thermal stresses increase with the increase of temperature and decrease with the increase of joints thickness.
Wed, 18 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric ceramic; piezo-composite actuator; unimorph; piezoelectric single crystal; LIPCA
Online: 18 March 2020 (02:58:14 CET)
Research on piezo-composite actuators has been actively conducted over the past two decades as a response to strong demand for light, compact actuators to replace electro-magnetic motor actuators in micro robots, small flying drones, and compact missile systems. Layered piezo-composite unimorph actuators have been studied to provide active vibration control of thin-walled aerospace structures, control the shapes of aircraft wing airfoils, and control the fins of small missiles, because they require less space and provide better frequency responses than conventional electro-magnetic motor actuator systems. However, based on the limited actuation strains of conventional piezo-composite unimorph actuators with poly-crystalline piezoelectric ceramic layers, they have not been implemented effectively as actuators for small aerospace vehicles. In this study, a lightweight piezo-composite unimorph actuator (LIPCA-S2) was manufactured and analyzed to predict its flexural actuation displacement. It was found that the actuated tip displacement of a piezo-composite cantilever could be predicted accurately using the proposed prediction model based on the nonlinear properties of the piezoelectric strain coefficient and elastic modulus of a piezoelectric single crystal.
Wed, 11 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0179.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fast tool servo; voice coil motor; flexure mechanism; resonant controller
Online: 11 March 2020 (04:04:49 CET)
In this paper, a voice coil motor (VCM) actuated fast tool servo (FTS) system is developed for diamond turning. To guide motions of the VCM actuator, a crossed double parallelogram flexure mechanism is selected featuring totally symmetric structure with high lateral stiffness. To facilitate the determination of the multi-physical parameters, analytical models of both electromagnetic and mechanical systems are developed. The designed FTS with balanced stroke and natural frequency is then verified through the finite element analysis. Finally, the prototype of the VCM actuated FTS is fabricated and experimentally demonstrated to have a stroke of ±59.02 μm and a first natural frequency of 253 Hz. By constructing a closed-loop control using PID controller with the internal-model based resonant controller, the error for tracking a harmonic trajectory with ±10 μm amplitude and 120 Hz frequency is obtained to be ±0.2 μm, demonstrating the capability of the FTS for high accuracy trajectory tracking.
Tue, 10 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0157.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: stress state; pressure gradient; normal contact; tangential contact; friction; axial symmetry; method of dimensionality reduction
Online: 10 March 2020 (03:22:49 CET)
The Hertzian contact theory, as well as most of the other classical theories of normal and tangential contact, provides displacements and the distribution of normal and tangential stress components directly in the contact surface. However, other components of the full stress tensor in the material may essentially influence the material behaviour in contact. Of particular interest are principal stresses and the equivalent von Mises stress, as well as the gradient of the hydrostatic pressure. For many engineering and biomechanical problems, it would be important to find these stress characteristics at least in the contact plane. In the present paper, we show that the complete stress state in the contact plane can be easily found for axially symmetric contacts under very general assumptions. We provide simple explicit equations for all stress components and the normal component of the gradient of hydrostatic pressure in the form of one-dimensional integrals.
Sun, 8 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: adhesion; hysteresis; energy dissipation; JKR theory; MDR; specific surface energy; hetero-geneity
Online: 8 March 2020 (04:31:20 CET)
According the JKR theory of adhesive contact, changes of the contact configuration after formation of the adhesive neck and before detaching are completely reversible. This means, that after formation of the initial contact, the force-distance dependencies should coincide, independently on the direction of the process (indentation or pull-off). In the majority of real systems, this invariance is not observed. The reasons for this may be either plastic deformation in the contacting bodies or surface roughness. One further mechanism of irreversibility (and corresponding energy dissipation) may be chemical heterogeneity of the contact interface leading to the spatial dependence of the specific work of adhesion. In the present paper, this "chemical" mechanism is analyzed on a simple example of an axisymmetric contact (with axisymmetric heterogeneity). It is shown that in the asymptotic case of a "microscopic heterogeneity", the system follows, during both indentation and pull-off, JKR curves, however, corresponding to different specific surface energies. After the turning point of the movement, the contact area first does not change and the transition from one JKR curve to the other occurs via a linear dependency of the force on indentation depth. The macroscopic behavior is not sensitive to the absolute and relative widths of the regions with different surface energy but depends mainly on the values of the specific surface energy.
Sat, 7 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: unconfined blast; confined blast; digital image correlation; dynamic response; blast loading
Online: 7 March 2020 (15:40:40 CET)
Defensive structure is important in transportation field for kinds of intentional or unintentional explosion. Structures subjected to unconfined and confined explosion will bear different blast loads and their dynamic responses are different. The present work focus on the dynamic response mechanism of steel plate under unconfined and confined blast loads through both numerical and experimental studies. In the experiment, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique was applied to record and analyze the dynamic response process of large-scale field blast test. The DIC measured curve and the numerical calculated curves agrees well in both the trends and the peak values. Then, the dynamic response mechanism of steel plate under unconfined blast (UB) load and confined blast (CB) load were compared and discussed. Results show that the dynamic response of plate can be divided into three phases under both UB and CB loads, while with different mechanism. In phase I, plastic hinge starts from the center and moves to the boundary in UB condition, while in case of CB, plastic hinge occurs close to the boundary and moves in the opposite direction. In phase II, two plastic hinge lines propagates towards each other, and a platform exists between the boundary and the central area remains undeformed in UB condition, while in CB condition, larger deformation in peripheral region rather than central area produces.
Mon, 2 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Friction damper; Coating; Damping capacity; Fretting-wear
Online: 2 March 2020 (15:42:09 CET)
The concept of friction damper is widespread technique and used to reduce the structural vibrations in many industrial applications. These friction dampers are generally coated with low wear rate materials to reduce the fretting wear. This paper investigates the use of physical vapor deposition (PVD) nitride based AlTiN coating material applied over the stainless steel friction damper to enhance the damping capacity and to reduce the fretting wear. A friction test rig has been developed to measure the dynamic hysteresis characteristics of friction damper at high temperature (700 °C). The damping capacity and fretting wear analysis is carried out at room temperature, 300 °C and 600 °C. The force versus displacment characterisitcs curve is used to predict the damping capacity and fretting wear analysis is carried out at microscopic level for the comparision. It is observed that at room temperature AlTiN coated friction damper has not much influence to improve the damping capacity and to reduce the fretting-wear. However, at high temperature it has better damping capacity and less wear in comparision to uncoated friction damper. Wear behaviour in coated and uncoated damper is different at room temperature and at elevated temperature.
Sun, 1 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: 316L austenitic steel; selective laser melting; powder bed fusion; technological parameters; mechanical property characterization
Online: 1 March 2020 (15:36:32 CET)
The main aim of this study is to investigate the optimization of the technological process for selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing. The group of process parameters considered was selected from the first-stage parameters identified in preliminary research. Samples manufactured using three different sets of parameter values were subjected to static tensile and compression tests. The samples were also subjected to dynamic Split–Hopkinson tests. To verify the microstructural changes after the dynamic tests, microstructural analyses were conducted. Additionally, the element deformation during the tensile tests was analyzed using digital image correlation (DIC). To analyze the influence of the selected parameters and verify the layered structure of the manufactured elements, sclerometer scratch hardness tests were carried out on each sample. Basing on the research results it was possible to observe the porosity growth mechanism and its influence on the material strength (including static and dynamic tests). Parameters modifications that caused 20% lower energy density, elongation of the elements during tensile testing decreased twice, which was strictly connected with porosity growth. An increase of energy density by almost three times caused a significant reduction of force fluctuations differences between both tested surfaces (parallel and perpendicular to the building platform) during sclerometer hardness testing. That kind of phenomenon had been taken into account in the microstructure investigations before and after dynamic testing where it had been spotted a positive impact on material deformations based on fused material grains formation after SLM processing.
Fri, 28 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0434.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: acoustic levitation; ultrasonic phased array; droplet; coalescence; lab-on-a-drop
Online: 28 February 2020 (13:02:22 CET)
The contactless coalescence of a droplet is of paramount importance for physical and industrial applications. This paper describes a coalescence method in mid-air via acoustic levitation using an ultrasonic phased array system. Acoustic levitation using ultrasonic phased arrays provides promising lab-on-a-drop applications, such as transportation, coalescence, mixing, separation, evaporation, and extraction in a continuous operation. The mechanism of droplet coalescence in mid-air may be better understood by experimentally and numerically exploring the droplet dynamics immediately before the coalescence. In this study, water droplets were experimentally levitated, transported, and coalesced by controlling acoustic fields. We observed that the edge of droplets deformed and attracted each other immediately before the coalescence. Through image processing, the radii of curvature of the droplets were quantified and the pressure difference between the inside and outside the droplet was simulated to obtain the pressure and velocity information on the droplet surface. The results revealed that the sound pressure acting on the droplet clearly decreased before the impact of the droplets. This pressure on the droplets was quantitatively analyzed from the experimental data. Our experimental and numerical results provide deeper physical insights into contactless droplet manipulation for futuristic lab-on-a-drop applications.
Wed, 26 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0394.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Dimensionless number; Similarity; Scaling; Geometric distortion; Structural impact
Online: 26 February 2020 (12:28:04 CET)
A framework of similarity laws, termed oriented-density-length-velocity (ODLV) framework, is suggested for the geometric distorted structures subjected to impact loading. The distinct feature of this framework is that the newly proposed oriented dimensions, dimensionless numbers and scaling factors for physical quantity are explicitly expressed by the characteristic lengths of three spatial directions, which overcome the inherent defects that traditional scalar dimensional analysis could not express the effects of structural geometric characteristics and spatial directions for similarity. The non-scalabilities of geometrical distortion as well as other distortions such as different materials and gravity could be compensated by the reasonable correction for the impact velocity, the geometrical thickness and the density, when the proposed dimensionless number of equivalent stress is used between scaled model and prototype. Three analytical models of beam, plate and shell subjected to impact mass or impulsive velocity are verified by equation analysis. And a numerical model of circular plate subjected to dynamic pressure pulse is verified in more detail, form the view of point of space deformation, deformation history and the components of displacement, strain and stress. The results show that the proposed dimensionless numbers have attractively perfect ability to express the dimensionless response equations of displacement, angle, time, strain and strain rate. When the proposed dimensionless numbers are used to regularize impact models, the structural responses of the geometrically distorted scaled models can behave the completely identical behaviors with those of the prototype on space and time —not only for the direction-independent equivalent stress, strain and strain rate but also for the direction-dependent displacement, stress and strain components.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0390.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: proper orthogonal decomposition; wind farms; eigenspectra; counter-rotating roll cells
Online: 26 February 2020 (11:09:26 CET)
Large scale coherent structures in atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are known to contribute to the power generation in wind farms. In the current paper, we perform a detailed analysis of the large scale structures in a finite sized wind turbine canopy using modal analysis from three dimensional proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). While POD analysis sheds light on the large scale coherent modes and scaling laws of the eigenspectra, we also observe a slow convergence of the spectral trends with the available number of snapshots. Since the finite sized array is periodic in the spanwise direction, we propose to adapt a novel approach of performing POD analysis of the spanwise/lateral Fourier transformed velocity snapshots instead of the snapshots themselves. This methodology not only helps in decoupling the length scales in the spanwise and the streamwise direction when studying the energetic coherent modes, but also provides a detailed guidance towards understanding the convergence of the eigenspectra. In particular, the Fourier-POD eigenspectra helps us illustrate if the dominant scaling laws observed in 3D POD are actually contributed by the laterally wider or thinner structures and provide more detailed insight on the structures themselves. We use the database from our previous large eddy simulation (LES) studies on finite-sized wind farms which uses wall-modeled LES for modeling the Atmospheric boundary layer laws, and actuator lines for the turbine blades. Understanding the behaviour of such structures would not only help better assess reduced order models (ROM) for forecasting the flow and power generation but would also play a vital role in improving the decision making abilities in wind farm optimization algorithms in future. Additionally, this study also provides guidance for better understanding the POD analysis in the turbulence and wind farm community.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0384.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: sweeping jet actuator; jet oscillation frequency; compressibility effect; unsteady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes; mass flow rate
Online: 26 February 2020 (02:17:51 CET)
The time-resolved flowfield of a spatially oscillating jet emitted by a Sweeping Jet (SWJ) actuator is investigated numerically using three-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (3D-URANS) equations. Numerical simulations are performed for a practical range of mass flow rates providing flow conditions ranging from incompressible to subsonic compressible flows. A linear relationship between the mass flow rate and the jet oscillation frequency is found. The results of the numerical model are compared with the experimental data in the literature, and good agreement is found. Additionally, it is observed that the SWJ actuator frequency response switches from one linear mode to another linear mode when the compressibility effects become important.
Thu, 13 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0172.v1
Online: 13 February 2020 (12:54:49 CET)
The quality and shelf-life of NCS (Non-centrifugal sugar) mainly depend on the moisture content present in it. NCS formed by the current practice of open sun drying contains moisture substantially greater than the acceptable level of 3%. This paper presents the work taken up to design a tunnel dryer to attain require moisture content in granular NCS for various load conditions. Initially, an experimental investigation had been carried out on a laboratory scale dryer to achieve required moisture content (< 3%) for various load conditions. This experimental data was used for validating two drying models and found that one of the models is best suitable for designing an industrial-scale dryer. For various load conditions on each tray and dryer exit temperature, nine different cases were arrived at. The number of trucks, trays, drying time and energy requirements were computed using the suitable theoretical model. Tunnel dryer with a length of 18 m, a height of 1.2 m, a width of 1 m, number of trucks of 18 and 24 number of trays on each truck was found to be the suitable dryer to dry 1 tone of NCS based on the minimum energy requirement of 176.49 MJ, and a minimum drying time of 68 minutes.
Tue, 11 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: undersea project; measuring the two pipelines; rotating shaft; magnetic coupling; assisted rope winch
Online: 11 February 2020 (11:40:30 CET)
In order to solve the problem of measuring the distance and position between the flanges of two pipelines on the seabed, a measuring device for pulling rope in seawater was designed. Aiming at the sealing problem of the key equipment that is the rotating shaft of the rope winch, this paper used the principle of the magnetic coupling to transfer the driving moment, and adopted the method of converting the dynamic seal into the static seal structure to realize the reliable sealing of the motor. Through the experiment of measuring two pipelines with underwater rope pulling device, it was verified that the measuring accuracy of the device meets the design requirements, and the feasibility of the application of magnetic coupling technology in winch is also verified.
Fri, 7 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Pyrolysis; hardwood chips; heat transfer; physical parameters; kinetics parameters
Online: 7 February 2020 (09:31:24 CET)
This paper emphasises on the analogous modelling of hardwood (Acacia) pyrolysis. The effect of physical characteristics of hardwood chips on the pyrolysis is examined through the conservation of solid mass fraction of biomass. The chip size of G30 and G50 are used in the pyrolysis reactor. In the analogous situation, the fixed bed is assumed to be a wooden slab with a porosity equivalent to the voidage of bed. The bulk density, the length of the bed and the porosity are some of the physical attributes of a fixed bed used to determine the variation of solid mass of the hardwood across the fixed bed. The four-temperature sensors separated from each other by 80 mm are used to determine the temperature along the length of the pyrolysis unit. The heating element of 2 kWe is used to initiate the pyrolysis of biomass. The experiments are conducted in three different stages. The ONORM standard chips, G30 and G50, and the combination of them are separately pyrolysis to determine the validity of a model for different sizes of chips. The proposed model is also used to establish the relationship between the kinetics of pyrolysis and decomposition of the hardwood.
Thu, 30 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0361.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; FFF technology; Laser amplified ultrasonography; Tensile testing
Online: 30 January 2020 (11:05:28 CET)
The paper is focused on the examination of the internal quality of joints created in a multi-material - additive manufacturing process. The main part of the work focuses on experimental production and non-destructive testing of restrained joints of modified PLA (polylactic acid) and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) 3Dprinted on RepRap 3D device that works on the "open source" principle. The article presents the outcomes of non-destructive materials test in the form of the data from the Laser Amplified Ultrasonography, microscopic observations of the joints area and tensile tests of the specially designed samples. The samples with designed joints were additively manufactured of two materials: specially blended PLA (Market name – PLA Tough) and conventionally made ABS. The tests are mainly focused on the determination of the quality of material connection in the joints area. Based on the results obtained, the samples made of two materials were compared in the end to establish which produced material joint is stronger and have a lower amount of defects.
Tue, 28 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0340.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: thermal drilling; material; visual evaluation; macrostructure; microstructure
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:52:21 CET)
The contribution deals with the joining of various types of materials by technology of thermal drilling. In various branches of industries, also in the automotive industry must be joining operations, service, repairing, substitution or protection workpieces, components with various types of materials. Equally, the important role as joint, is also used material, and a product preparation by assembly and disassembly operations. By utilization of new friction hybrid joining technologies we can shortage the production time, provide automation in operations, increase the quality of joints, spare of economical expenses and also we can protect the environment. In this paper authors have investigated the effect of friction drilling on the tested material, aluminium alloy AlMgSi, which was used for material testing. The created joints were evaluated visually and by microscopy methods. The errors of tested joining were documented and described, too. This contribution was made with cooperation of Technical University of Kosice and with U. S. Steel Kosice, s.r.o.
Fri, 24 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0287.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: wheelchair; hybrid manual-electric drives; drives supporting the movement
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:00:13 CET)
Overcoming terrain obstacles presents a major problem for people with disabilities or with limited mobility who are dependent on wheelchairs. An engineering solution designed to facilitate the use of wheelchairs are assisted propulsion systems. The objective of the research described in this article is to analyse the impact of the hybrid manual-electric wheelchair propulsion system on the kinematics of the anthropotechnical system when climbing hills. The tests were carried out on a wheelchair ramp with an incline degree of 4°, using a prototype wheelchair with a hybrid manual-electric propulsion system in accordance with the patent application P.427855. The test subjects were three people whose task was to propel the wheelchair in two assistance modes supporting manual propulsion. The first mode is hill climbing assistance, while the second one is assistance with propulsion torque in the propulsive phase. During the tests, a number of kinematic parameters of the wheelchair were monitored. An in-depth analysis was performed for the amplitude of speed during a hill climb and the number of propulsive cycles performed on a hill. The tests performed showed that when propelling the wheelchair only using the hand rims, the subject needed an average of 13 pushes on the uphill slope, and their speed amplitude was 1.8 km/h with an average speed of 1.73 km/h. The climbing assistance mode reduced the speed amplitude to 0.76 km/h, while the torque assisted mode in the propulsive phase reduced the number of cycles required to climb the hill from 13 to 6. The tests were carried out at various values of assistance and assistance amplification coefficient, and the most optimally selected parameters of this coefficient were presented in the results. The tests proved that electric propulsion assistance has a beneficial and significant impact on the kinematics of manual wheelchair propulsion when compared to a classic manual propulsion system when overcoming hills. In addition, assistance and assistance amplification coefficient were proved to be correlated to operating conditions and the user's individual characteristics.
Thu, 23 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0268.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: residual stress prediction; maraging steel 350; experimental measurement of residual stress
Online: 23 January 2020 (16:12:51 CET)
Rapid and accurate prediction of residual stress in metal additive manufacturing processes is of great importance to guarantee the quality of the fabricated part to be used in a mission-critical application in the aerospace and automotive industries. Experimentation and numerical modeling are valuable tools for measuring and predicting the residual stress; however, to-date conducting experimentation and numerical modeling is expensive and time-consuming. Thus, herein, a physics-based thermomechanical analytical model is proposed to predict the residual stress of the additively manufactured part rapidly and accurately. A moving point heat source approach is used to predict the temperature field by considering the effects of scan strategies, heat loss, and energy needed for solid-state phase transformation. Due to the high temperature gradient in this process, part experiences a high amount of thermal stress following solidification which may exceed the yield strength of the material. The thermal stress is obtained using Green’s function of stresses due to the point body load. The Johnson-Cook flow stress model is used to predict the yield surface of the part under repeated heating and cooling. As a result of the cyclic heating and cooling and the fact that the material is yielded, the residual stress build-up is predicted based on incremental plasticity and kinematic hardening behavior of the metal according to the property of volume invariance in plastic deformation in coupling with the equilibrium and compatibility conditions. The computational methodology is realized with the laser powder fusion of maraging steel 350 as a material of example. The validation of the predictive models has been presented in terms of the comparison of predicted and measured scan-direction and build-direction residual stress distributions along depth of build under various process parameter combinations. Moreover, for the first time, the Jonson-Cook parameters of maraging steel 350 are predicted using analytical modeling of machining forces and non-linear optimization techniques.
Sat, 11 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0108.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: shear stress distribution; entropy; uncertainty; Shannon; Shannon PL; Tsallis; Renyi
Online: 11 January 2020 (11:33:47 CET)
The entropy models have been recently adopted in many studies to evaluate the distribution of the shear stress in circular channels. However, the uncertainty in their predictions and their reliability remains an open question. We present a novel method to evaluate the uncertainty of four popular entropy models, including Shannon, Shannon-Power Low (PL), Tsallis, and Renyi, in shear stress estimation in circular channels. The Bayesian Monte-Carlo (BMC) uncertainty method is simplified considering a 95% Confidence Bound (CB). We developed a new statistic index called as FREEopt-based OCB (FOCB) using the statistical indices Forecasting Range of Error Estimation (FREE) and the percentage of observed data in the CB (Nin), which integrates their combined effect. The Shannon and Shannon PL entropies had close values of the FOCB equal to 8.781 and 9.808, respectively, had the highest certainty in the calculation of shear stress values in circular channels followed by traditional uniform flow shear stress and Tsallis models with close values of 14.491 and 14.895, respectively. However, Renyi entropy with much higher values of FOCB equal to 57.726 has less certainty in the estimation of shear stress than other models. Using the presented results in this study, the amount of confidence in entropy methods in the calculation of shear stress to design and implement different types of open channels and their stability is determined.
Sat, 4 January 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: drag reduction; drag reducing agents; curved pipes; single phase flow; two phase flows
Online: 4 January 2020 (06:24:32 CET)
A review of influence of drag-reducing agents on curved pipe flows is presented in this work. In addition, this review outlined proposed mechanism, friction factor and fluid flux models for drag-reducing agents in curved pipe flows. Our finding reveals that drag reduction by additives in curved pipes is quite significant but generally lower than the corresponding drag reduction in straight pipes. It decreases with increase in curvature ratio and more pronounced in the transition and turbulent flow regimes. Drag reduction strongly depends on the polymers and surfactants’ concentrations as well as the bubble fraction of micro-bubbles. It is also reported that drag reduction in curved pipes depends on temperature and existence of dissolved salts in the fluids. Maximum drag reduction asymptote differed between straight and curved pipes and between polymer and surfactant. No definite conclusion could be drawn as regards drag reduction for two-phase flow in curved pipes due to the limited studies in this area. Many questions such as the mechanism of drag reduction in curved pipes and how drag-reducing agents interact with secondary flows still remained unanswered. Hence, some research gaps have been identified with recommendations for areas of future researches.
Tue, 31 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0417.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tangible interfaces; Internet of Things tangibles; children with hearing impairment
Online: 31 December 2019 (16:48:04 CET)
A Tangible User Interface (TUI) is a new interaction option that uses nontraditional input and output elements. A tangible interface thus allows the manipulation of physical objects using digital information. The exploration and manipulation of physical objects is a factor to be considered in learning in children, especially those with some kind of disability such as hearing, who maximize the use of other senses such as vision and touch. In a tangible interface, three elements are related - physical, digital and social. The potential of IoT for children is growing. This technology IoT integrated with TUI, can help for that parents or teachers can monitoring activities of the child. Also to identify behavior patterns in the child with hearing impairment. This article shows four case studies, where had been designed different products of Internet of Things Tangible applied a several contexts and with products of low cost.
Thu, 26 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0349.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: verification and validation; computational thermal analysis; computational physics
Online: 26 December 2019 (02:35:47 CET)
In the power plant industry, the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) plays a key role in the efficiency of the gas turbine and, therefore, the overall—in most cases combined—thermal power cycle efficiency. Gas turbine efficiency increases by increasing TIT. However, an increase of TIT would increase the turbine component temperature which can be critical (e.g., hot gas attack). Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs)—porous media coatings—can avoid this case and protect the surface of the turbine blade. This combination of TBC and film cooling produces a better cooling performance than conventional cooling processes. The effective thermal conductivity of this composite is highly important in design and other thermal/structural assessments. In this article, the effective thermal conductivity of a simplified model of TBC is evaluated. This work details a numerical study on the steady-state thermal response of two-phase porous media in two dimensions using personal finite element analysis (FEA) code. Specifically, the system response quantity (SRQ) under investigation is the dimensionless effective thermal conductivity of the domain. A thermally conductive matrix domain is modeled with a thermally conductive circular pore arranged in a uniform packing configuration. Both the pore size and the pore thermal conductivity are varied over a range of values to investigate the relative effects on the SRQ. In this investigation, an emphasis is placed on using code and solution verification techniques to evaluate the obtained results. The method of manufactured solutions (MMS) was used to perform code verification for the study, showing the FEA code to be second-order accurate. Solution verification was performed using the grid convergence index (GCI) approach with the global deviation uncertainty estimator on a series of five systematically refined meshes for each porosity and thermal conductivity model configuration. A comparison of the SRQs across all domain configurations is made, including uncertainty derived through the GCI analysis.
Wed, 25 December 2019
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: diesel engine; fault diagnosis; variational mode decomposition; random forest; feature extraction
Online: 25 December 2019 (11:13:13 CET)
Diesel engines, as power equipment, are widely used in the fields of automobile industry, ship and power equipment. Due to wear or faulty adjustment, the valve train clearance abnormal fault is a typical failure of diesel engines, which may result in the performance degradation, even valve fracture and cylinder hit fault. However, the failure mechanism features mainly in time domain and angular domain, on which the current diagnosis methods based, are easily affected by working conditions or hard to extract accurate enough, as the diesel engine keeps running in transient and non-stationary process. This work arms at diagnosing this fault mainly based on frequency band features which would change when the valve clearance fault occurs. For the purpose of extracting a series of frequency band features adaptively，a decomposition technique based on improved variational mode decomposition is investigated in this work. As the connection between the features and the fault is fuzzy, the random forest algorithm is used to analyze the correspondence between features and faults. In addition, the feature dimension is reduced to improve the operation efficiency according to importance score. The experimental results under variable speed condition show that the method based on variational mode decomposition and random forest is capable to detect valve clearance fault effectively.
Tue, 24 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cavitation jet; Finite volume method; Structural parameters; Numerical Simulation
Online: 24 December 2019 (11:12:20 CET)
In order to reveal the mechanism and influencing factors of high pressure jet cavitation of nozzle in submerged environment, this study focused on the evolutionary process of cavitation bubbles and combined finite volume method and mixed multi-phase flow model to analyze the cavitation, velocity distribution and experimental cavitation intensity of fishing net cleaning equipment. Results show that the cavitation inception, growth and collapse mainly occurred in the peripheral region of the flow field. Ring-shaped cavitation erosion zone appeared on the test sample target. A lot of small dense erosion pits were densely distributed in the ring-shaped erosion zone, erosion marks were observed in the center. The cavitation erosion intensity was greatly affected by the nozzle structure. As the diameter of nozzle increased from 0.6 mm to 1 mm, the maximum gas volume fraction increased by 8.53%. The nozzle outlet enlargement angle greatly increased the cavitation intensity. The nozzle with an outlet angle of 30° exhibited the optimal cavitation erosion performance . The cavitation volume fraction of the nozzle with short necking structure was slightly larger than that of the nozzle with long necking structure at the same level in the necking length rang of 3mm to 7mm. In terms of the influence of nozzle structure on the cavitation erosion effect, the nozzle diameter D ranked the first, followed by the outlet angle α, and the necking length L was at the last.
Wed, 18 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tomato harvesting; gripper; continuum robot; tomato detection; design; agricultural robot
Online: 18 December 2019 (04:34:30 CET)
Designing and development of agricultural robot is always a challenging issue, because of robot intends to work an unstructured environment and at the same time, it should be safe for the surrounded plants. Therefore, traditional robots cannot meet the high demands of modern challenges, such as working in confined and unstructured workspaces. Based on current issues, we developed a new tomato harvesting wire-driven discrete continuum robot arm with a flexible backbone structure for working in confined and extremely constrained spaces. Moreover, we optimized a tomato detaching process by using newly designed gripper with passive stem cutting function. Moreover, by designing the robot we also developed ripe tomato recognition by using machine learning. This paper explains the proposed continuum robot structure, gripper design, and development of tomato recognition system.
Mon, 16 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0207.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: press bending; orbital auto welding; steel-tube correction; STKN540B; high-strength steel tube; manufacturing process
Online: 16 December 2019 (06:20:58 CET)
The purpose of this study is to propose a consecutive manufacturing process system to secure the productivity of excellent STKN540B steel tube in the respect of economy and safety as the supporting material for mega structures such as building, bridge and ship. The components of consecutive manufacturing are press-bending, orbital auto welding and steel tube correction. By using STKN540B a high-strength steel material with low yield point that requires a special manufacturing process unlike other steel materials, an actual tube manufacturing is carried out at each stage in this experimental study. With this, the quality of steel tube and the efficiency of the manufacturing process are analyzed to draw out some points to improve in the future.
Thu, 12 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0156.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: tensile strength; flexural strength; friction stir welding; microstructure; dissimilar aluminium alloys
Online: 12 December 2019 (01:58:14 CET)
Welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys has been a challenge for a long period until the discovery of the solid state welding technique called friction stir welding (FSW). The discovery of this technique encouraged different research interests revolving around the optimization of this technique. This involves the welding parameters optimization and this optimization is categorized into two classes i.e. similar alloys and dissimilar alloys. This paper reports about the mechanical properties of the friction stir welded dissimilar AA1050-H14 and AA5083-H111 joint. The main focus is to compare the mechanical properties of specimens extracted from different locations of the welds i.e. the beginning, middle and the end of the weld. The specimen extracted at the beginning of the weld showed low tensile properties compared to specimens extracted from different locations of the weld. There was no certain trend noted through the bending results. All three specimens showed dimpled fracture which is the characterization of the ductile fracture.
Sat, 7 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: cell-based smoothed finite element method; quadratic triangular element; linear smoothing function; hyperelasticity
Online: 7 December 2019 (01:51:23 CET)
This work presents a linear smoothing scheme over high-order triangular elements in the framework of a cell-based strain smoothed finite element method for two-dimensional nonlinear problems. The main idea behind the proposed linear smoothing scheme for strain-smoothed finite element method (S-FEM) is no subdivision of finite element cells to sub-cells while the classical S-FEM needs sub-cells. Since the linear smoothing function is employed, S-FEM is able to use quadratic triangular or quadrilateral elements. The modified smoothed matrix obtained node-wise is evaluated. In the same manner with the computation of the strain-displacement matrix, the smoothed stiffness matrix and deformation graident are obtained over smoothing domains. A series of benchmark tests are investigated to demonstrate validity and stability of the proposed scheme. The validity and accuracy are confirmed by comparing the obtained numerical results with the standard FEM using 2nd-order triangular element and the exact solutions.
Mon, 2 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0001.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: gas turbine engine; performance model; gas path analysis; robust estimation; identification; fuzzy set; membership function
Online: 2 December 2019 (02:54:00 CET)
Gas Path Analysis and matching turbine engine models to experimental data are inverse problems of mathematical modelling which are characterized by parametric uncertainty. This results from the fact that the number of measured parameters is significantly lower than the number of components’ performance parameters needed to describe the real engine. In these conditions, even small measurement errors can result in a high variation of results, and obtained efficiency, loss factors etc. can appear out of the physical range. The current methods of engine model identification have developed considerably to provide stable, precise and physically adequate solutions. Presented in this work is an estimation method of engine components’ parameters based on multi-criteria identification which provides stable estimations of parameters and their confidence intervals with the known measurement errors. A priori information about the engine, its parameters and performance is used directly in the regularised identification procedure. The mathematical basis for this approach is the fuzzy sets theory. Forming objective functions and scalar convolutions synthesis of these functions is used to estimate gas-path components’ parameters. A comparison of the proposed approach with traditional methods showed that its main advantage is high stability of estimation in the parametric uncertainty conditions. Regularization reduces scattering, excludes incorrect solutions which do not correspond to a priori assumptions, and also helps to implement the Gas Path Analysis at the limited number of measured parameters. The method can be used for matching thermodynamic models to experimental data, Gas Path Analysis and also adapting dynamic models for the needs of the engine control system.
Fri, 29 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0374.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: finishing; plastic working; machining; nickel matrix composite; coatings
Online: 29 November 2019 (09:43:58 CET)
Metal matrix composite are used in such fields of technology, such as: aerospace, electronics, energy, industry, defense, automotive, aviation, shipbuilding, and more. Composite coatings of ceramic - metals is used primarily to enhance the durability of machine parts. Therefore, new materials are permanently looked for, what has resulted in the past in development of composite materials. The coatings dispersed are consisting of metallic matrix (metals and their alloys) and small non-metallic particles. The deposition of ceramic particles simultaneously with metallic matrix leads often to composite coatings possessing properties much better than those of metallic coating. The nickel and less often, other iron group elements are usually used as a matrix and Al2O3 as tough particles. The welding technology of applying alloy and composite coatings is widely used. The technology of infrasound thermal spraying of metal matrix composite coatings was presented. It is a simple technology and a very useful one in ship machinery regeneration during the cruise craft (e.g. internal combustion engines, torque pumps, separators). The metal matrix composite coatings must undergo finishing due to high surface roughness after application. In the article to used finishing by plastic working and machining of coatings nickel matrix composite was proposed.
Tue, 26 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: entropy; fatigue; damage mechanics; unified mechanics; thermodynamics; Ti-6Al-4V; physics of failure
Online: 26 November 2019 (11:50:12 CET)
Fatigue in any material is a result of continuous irreversible degradation process. Traditionally, fatigue life is predicted by extrapolating experimentally curve fitted empirical models. In the current study, unified mechanics theory is used to predict fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V under monotonic tensile, compressive and cyclic load conditions. The unified mechanics theory is used to derive constitutive model for fatigue life prediction using a three-dimensional computational model. The proposed analytical and computational models have been used to predict the low cycle fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V alloys. It is shown that the unified mechanics theory can be used to predict fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V alloys by using simple predictive models that are based on fundamental equation of the material, which is based on thermodynamics associated with degradation of materials.
Sun, 24 November 2019
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: blade vibration; blade tip-timing; rotating stall; axial compressor; blade health monitoring; least squares; bladed disc dynamics
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:32:49 CET)
Complex blade responses such as a rotating stall or simultaneous resonances are common in modern engines and their observation can be a challenge even for state-of-the-art tip-timing systems and trained operators. This paper analyses forced vibrations of axial compressor blades, measured during the bench tests of the SO-3 turbojet. In relation to earlier studies conducted in ITWL with a small number of sensors, a multichannel tip-timing system let us observe simultaneous responses or higher-order modes. To find possible symptoms of a failure, blade responses in a healthy and unhealthy engine configuration with an inlet blocker were studied. The used analysis methods covered all-blade spectrum and the circumferential fitting of blade deflections to the harmonic oscillator model. The proposed modal solver can track the vibration frequency and adjust the engine order on the fly. That way, synchronous and asynchronous vibrations are observed and analysed together with an extended variant of least squares. The proposed approach helps to avoid common mistakes and saves a lot of work related to configuring the conventional solver.
Wed, 20 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fuzzy based AHP (FAHP); multi-objective decision making; path planning; mobile robot
Online: 20 November 2019 (07:34:53 CET)
This study presents a path planning method for a mobile robot to be effectively operated through a multi-objective decision-making problem. Specifically, the proposed Fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) determines an optimal position as a sub-goal within the multi-objective boundary. The key features of the proposed FAHP are evaluating the candidates according to the fuzzified relative importance among objectives to select an optimal solution. In order to incorporate FAHP into path planning, an AHP framework is defined, which includes the highest level (goal), middle level (objectives), and the lowest level (alternatives). The distance to the target, robot’s rotation, and safety against collision between obstacles are considered as objective functions. Comparative results obtained from the artificial potential field and AHP/FAHP simulations show that FAHP is much preferable for the mobile robot’s path planning than typical AHP.
Tue, 19 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0229.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: extensometer; tensile strain; shear strain; calibration; elastic deformation; combined loads
Online: 19 November 2019 (10:10:14 CET)
The paper presents an extensometer designed to measure two mechanical strains at the same time—one from tensile load and the other from torsion load. Strain transducers provide different electric signals, which, after calibration, lead to the simultaneous measurement of linear (ε) and angular (γ) strains. Each of these two signals depends on the measured process and is not influenced by the other strain process. This extensometer is designed to be easily mounted on the sample with only two mounting points and can be used to measure the combined cyclical fatigue of tensile and torsional loadings. This extensometer has two bars—one rigid, reported at the resulting stress points, and one elastic and deformable. The elastic deformable bar has two beams with different orientations. When the sample is deformed, both beams are loaded by two bending moments (perpendicular to each other and both perpendicular on the longitudinal axis of the bars).
Wed, 13 November 2019
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Fracture Fatigue Entropy; Thermography; Exergy
Online: 13 November 2019 (10:28:55 CET)
Recent works in mechanical fatigue consider that a threshold of entropy exists, the fracture fatigue entropy. The determination of this quantity is usually done considering empirical models for the mechanical power estimation. In this paper, we experimentally observe the existence of a threshold of entropy and exergy in low cycle fatigue for a flat Al-2024 specimen avoiding the use of a model, solely measuring the heat generated during a fatigue test. Results are then compared considering various hypotheses (1D heat dissipation with convection and radiation considered as heat sources, and, heat transfer from a fin with convection and radiation as boundary conditions) to an empirical mechanical model known in the literature and deviations between them are discussed.
Sun, 10 November 2019
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: large-scale additive manufacturing; interlayer cooling time; tool path optimization; part deformation; Ti-6Al-4V
Online: 10 November 2019 (09:04:24 CET)
Laser metal deposition with wire (LMD-w) is a developing additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has a high deposition material rate and efficiency, and is suitable for fabrication of large aerospace components. However, control of material properties, geometry, and residual stresses is needed before LMD-w technology can be widely adopted for the construction of critical structural components. In this study, we investigated the effect of interlayer cooling time, clamp constraints, and tool path strategy on part distortion and residual stresses in large-scale laser additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V components using finite element method (FEM). The simulations were validated with the temperature and the distortion measurements obtained from a real LMD-w process. We found that a shorter interlayer cooling time, full clamping constraints on the build plates, and a bidirectional tool path with 180⁰ rotation minimized part distortion and residual stresses and resulted in symmetric stress distribution.
Fri, 8 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0087.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: fluorescence recovery after photo bleaching (FRAP); diffusion coefficient; electric charge; Poly-DADMAC; 3D hydrogel
Online: 8 November 2019 (04:16:49 CET)
The diffusion coefficients of ions are measured in a microchip filled with a cationic charged 3D hydrogel in order to study the effect of cationic charged 3D hydrogel on the diffusivity of ions. In this study, poly-diallyl-dimethyl-ammoniumchloride (poly-DADMAC) is used to produce a 3D hydrogel. Four different fluorophores are used in the 3D hydrogel rhodamine 6G, rhodamine-BSA, fluorescein isothio-cyanate (FITC) and FITC-BSA. The rhodamine 6G and rhodamine-BSA are positively charged (cations), while fluorescein isothio-cyanate (FITC) and FITC-BSA are negatively charged (anions). Two widely used techniques which are short time diffusivity measurement technique and long time diffusivity measurement techniques are used to measure the diffusion coefficients. For the short time measurement, Fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching (FRAP) is used by a 3D confocal microscope. For the long time measurement, fluorescence images are taken for 11 days to observe a pure diffusivity without any convective movement. As a result, the diffusivity of the cations was found to be lower than that of the anions in the cationic charged hydrogel.
Mon, 4 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0036.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: turboshaft; axial compressor; blade; FEM; CFD; erosion; wear; stall margin; compressor surge; brownout; gas-turbine performance
Online: 4 November 2019 (03:58:12 CET)
This paper analyses the health and performance of 12-stage axial compressor of the TV3-117VM/VMA turboshaft operated in a desert environment. The results of the dimensional control of 4,800 worn blades are analysed to model the wear process. Operational experience and numerical simulations are used to assess the effectiveness of an Inlet Particle Separator. Numerical modal analysis is performed to generate the Campbell diagram of worn blades and identify resonant blade vibration which can lead to high cycle fatigue (HCF). It is shown that the gradual loss of the stall margin over time determines the serviceability limits of compressor blades. Recommendations setting out go / no-go criteria are made to maintenance and repair organisations.
Sun, 27 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0306.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: T-shaped microchannel; degree of mixing; twisting angle; optimization
Online: 27 October 2019 (11:11:58 CET)
A new design scheme is proposed for twisting the walls of a microchannel, and its performance is demonstrated numerically. The numerical study was carried out for a T-shaped microchannel with twist angles in the range of 0 to 34π. The Reynolds number range was 0.15 to 6. The T-shaped microchannel consists of two inlet branches and an outlet branch. The mixing performance was analyzed in terms of the degree of mixing and relative mixing cost. All numerical results show that the twisting scheme is an effective way to enhance the mixing in a T-shaped microchannel. The mixing enhancement is realized by the swirling of two fluids in the cross section and is more prominent as the Reynolds number decreases. The twist angle was optimized to maximize the DOM, which increases with the length of the outlet branch. The twist angle was also optimized in terms of the relative mixing. The two optimum twisting angles are generally not coincident. The optimum twist angle shows a dependence on the length of the outlet branch but it is not affected much by the Reynolds number.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0293.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: additive manufacturing; 3D printing; fused filament fabrication; flexural properties; fatigue; PLA
Online: 27 October 2019 (03:46:18 CET)
This paper aims to analyse the mechanical properties response of polylactic acid (PLA) parts manufactured through fused filament fabrication. The influence of six manufacturing factors (layer height, filament width, fill density, layer orientation, printing velocity, and infill pattern) on the flexural resistance of PLA specimens is studied through an L27 Taguchi experimental array. Different geometries have been tested on a four-point bending machine and on a rotating bending machine. From the first experimental phase, an optimal set of parameters deriving in the highest flexural resistance have been determined. Results show that layer orientation is the most influential parameter, followed by layer height, filament width, and printing velocity, whereas the fill density and infill pattern show no significant influence. Finally, the fatigue fracture behaviour is evaluated and compared with previous studies results, to present a comprehensive study of the mechanical properties of the material under different kind of solicitations.
Thu, 24 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0274.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: welding thin sheets; constricted nozzle; TIG welding; EBSD; blowhole; heat input
Online: 24 October 2019 (05:55:00 CEST)
A study about influence of heat input on welding defects in vertical upward welding position for dissimilar material and thickness using a new variation of TIG welding torch is done with support of advanced inspection methods SEM and EBSD. With vertical upward welding position, control heat input plays an important role to keep the weld stabilization without defects. On the other hand, TIG welding process using a conventional TIG torch (conventional TIG welding process) has low efficiency and it is difficult to control heat input with high accuracy. So, it is considered that using conventional TIG torch is still a challenge for welding thin plates. In this case, a new variation of TIG torch has been developed. This torch used a constricted nozzle to improve plasma arc characteristics. As a result, it can control efficiently the heat input to prevent the excessive or insufficiency for joining thin sheets. For evaluation of welding quality, advanced examination methods SEM and EBSD were applied to directly observe the welding defects. From the results, the formation mechanism of blowhole inside weld zone in case of welding dissimilar material and thickness was discussed. It is pointed out that when sufficient welding current, the change from weld zone to base metal is uniform, no welding defects such as blowhole was seen. However, in case of low welding current, the thinner base metal is insufficient fusion and the change between weld zone and base metal is not uniform. The blowhole was observed at SS400 material side.
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