REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0379.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Climate change, Developing countries, Environmental change, Forest, Population growth
Online: 21 August 2018 (14:00:04 CEST)
This review paper is intended to exhibit the interplays between environmental change and rapid population growth in developing countries. In the course of discussion, the impacts of rapidly population growing on the environment have been discussed, and evidence, from various parts of the world have been traced. Studies on the impacts of population pressure on environment have been critically reviewed. It is revealed that all across the developing countries, farm size is shrinking as farmers continue to subdivide holdings among their children. In countries such as Malawi, Rwanda, Ethiopia, Haiti, Nepal and Bangladesh, population growth rates are high, and the non-farm sector is still in its early stages of development. Demographic pressure, land scarcity, and land fragmentation drive greater rural vulnerability and poverty, marked by decreased food security, inadequate response to such natural disasters such as drought or pest infestations, weakened resilience to shocks, and poor health. It is not just the supply of food, fodder, and fuel wood but the resource base itself and the lives that depend upon it are being affected. The evidences pinpoints that man through his non-sustainable production and consumption patterns, is placed at the heart of environmental changes. However, contradictory view, and practices are also in place that the population growth has positive impacts environmental restoration and improvements, while other evidences show insignificant effect of population on the environment. This contradicting scenario puts scholars in argument, and still need further research. Hence, it would be a blind generalization to draw conclusion from this relationship alone, rather, another factor that acts beyond population pressure must also be considered to justify the impact of population on environmental changes.
Thu, 21 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Philippines; rainfall; precipitation; Gamma distribution; probability; weather risk
Online: 21 December 2017 (04:43:17 CET)
Philippines as an archipelago and tropical country, which is situated near the Pacific ocean, faces uncertain rainfall intensities. This makes environmental, agricultural and economic systems affected by precipitation difficult to manage. Time series analysis of Philippine rainfall pattern has been previously done, but there is no study investigating its probability distribution. Modeling the Philippine rainfall using probability distributions is essential, especially in managing risks and designing insurance products. Here, daily and cumulative rainfall data (January 1961 - August 2016) from 28 PAGASA weather stations are fitted to probability distributions. Moreover, the fitted distributions are examined for invariance under subsets of the rainfall data set. We observe that the Gamma distribution is a suitable fit for the daily up to the ten-day cumulative rainfall data. Our results can be used in agriculture, especially in forecasting claims in weather index-based insurance.
Sun, 5 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0014.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: temperature; precipitation; ethiopia; mann kendall; climate variability
Online: 5 February 2017 (08:56:29 CET)
Long term Precipitation and temperature variations are one of the main determinants of climate variability of one’s area. The aim of this study is to determine trends variation in climatic elements of temperature and precipitation in the southern zone of Tigray regional state, Ethiopia. The station is assumed for the study of climatic records over southern zone of the region in detection for probable trends. The daily, monthly and annual precipitation totals and temperature observed at korem meteorological station were used for the period of 1981-2010 for Precipitation and 1985 – 2010 for minimum and maximum temperature. Summary of descriptive statistics and Mann Kendall test methods were employed for the observed data analysis to demonstrate any existence of possible trends. The main findings of the study indicated that the mean and maximum temperature had a general increasing trend; however, minimum temperature showed decreasing trend. In general annual temperature from 1985 – 2010 of the area showed a warming trend. Moreover analysis of the 30 years (1981-2010) annual precipitation showed a coefficient of variation ranging from 33.77 – 233 %. It indicated that the precipitation dissemination is not normal with large year to year variances.
Wed, 19 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0078.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: calibration; validation; optical; instrument; processing; imagery; spatial; operational
Online: 19 October 2016 (10:59:29 CEST)
As part of the Copernicus programme of the European Union (EU), the European Space Agency (ESA) has developed and is currently operating the Sentinel-2 mission that is acquiring high spatial resolution optical imagery. This paper provides a description of the calibration activities and the current status of the mission products validation activities. Measured performances, from the validation activities, cover both Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) and Bottom-Of-Atmosphere (BOA) products. Results presented in this paper show the good quality of the mission products both in terms of radiometry and geometry and provide an overview on next mission steps related to data quality aspects.
Wed, 31 August 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0236.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: noise pollution; mechanical wood industries; equipment; control
Online: 31 August 2016 (09:03:57 CEST)
High level of noise is a disturbance to the human environment. Noise in industries is also an occupational hazard because of its attendant effects on workers’ health. Noise presents health and social problems in industrial operations, and the source is related to the machineries used in the industries. One of the unique features of the noise associated with wood machinery is the level of exposure and duration. Equipment used in a factory can be extremely loud. They can produce noise at decibels high enough to cause environmental health and safety concerns. The mechanically driven transport and handling equipment, cutting, milling, shaping and dust extractor installations in the wood industry generate noise. The sources of noise pollution have increased due to non-compliance with basic safety practices. The increased use of locally fabricated machine in the industry has increased the level of noise and vibration. The effects of industrial noise pollution as discussed include: increase in blood pressure; increased stress; fatigue; vertigo; headaches; sleep disturbance; annoyance; speech problems; dysgraphia, which means reading/learning impairment; aggression; anxiety and withdrawal. As presented in this paper, noise control techniques include; sound insulation, sound absorption, vibration damping and Vibration isolation.
Fri, 13 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: mining; non-energy mineral resources; environmental impact assessment
Online: 13 January 2017 (10:56:46 CET)
The article focuses on mining of non-energy mineral resources with minimum environmental impacts. It issues from research results of a project Competence Centre for Effective and Ecological Mining of Mineral Resources implemented at the Faculty of Mining and Geology at VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Czech Geological Survey, a company Watrad ltd., a state enterprise Diamo, a company RPS Ostrava plc and a company Sedlecký kaolin plc. The paper starts with a partial analysis of the existing legal norms related to mining and processing of mineral resources. Next, it analyses mineral resource mining options free of negative environmental impacts. The fundamental tool to assess potential environmental impacts of mining is the implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process for a given mineral resource. In the Czech Republic environmental impact assessment is carried out by course of Act 100/2001 Coll. Its important amendment is Act 39/2015 Coll. claiming, inter alia, that the environmental impact assessment is rigidly connected with other permits and procedures, such as the zoning process and building construction permits. The article describes the environmental impacts of mining of non-energy mineral resources, including the following factors: appropriation of land, impacts on surface water, ground water and soil, noise, influence on the landscape character, and air pollution. The paper also includes a case study summarizing information on the environmental factors that may play a role in potential underground mining of graphite in the deposit Český Krumlov - Městský Vrch and the deposit Lazec - Křenov.
Tue, 4 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0020.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biomass, carbon stock, wetland, spectral radiance, SWIR
Online: 4 April 2017 (10:02:56 CEST)
The assessment of biomass carbon stocks was conducted at plot scale as a sample to estimate for all vegetation areas by using destructive sampling and or allometric equation method. Remote sensing is one of the techniques can be used to estimate and mapping biomass carbon stock for the entire areas. The objectives of the study are the identification and determine the range of electromagnetic wave of Landsat 8 satellite data that most suitable for assessing and mapping biomass carbon stock distribution. This research analyses exponential regression equation between spectral radiance values (Lλi) for with biomass measurement results on the field to find the best correlation based on the coefficient of determination value (R2). It also analyses the relationship between field biomass and NDVI value (Normal Differences Vegetation Index) from satellite data. The study area consists of 54.9% bush (Bs), 24.5% scrub (Sc), 16.8% secondary forest (Sf), while the rest (3.8%) is a water body. The with average biomass carbon stock value 4.11 tons.ha-1, 64.43 tons.ha-1, and 85.36 tons.ha-1, for strata Sc, Bs, and Sf respectively. Spectral radiance of SWIR (Shortwave Infra-Red) band 6 is determined as a spectral characteristic that can be used to estimating carbon stock with following the equation Y= 12657(EXP(-0.642(Lλband6)) with r2 = 0.75. Correlation NDVI and field biomass showed the low r2 value (0.08), so in this study, NDVI cannot be used to estimate the biomass carbon stock.
Tue, 11 July 2017
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0020.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: thin-skinned tectonics; thick-skinned tectonics; structural geology; structure of mountain ranges; fold-and-thrust belts; décollement; nappe stacking; continent-continent collision; subduction; basin inversion
Online: 11 July 2017 (08:12:50 CEST)
This paper gives an overview of the large-scale tectonic styles encountered in orogens worldwide. Thin-skinned and thick-skinned tectonics represents two end member styles recognized in mountain ranges. A thick-skinned tectonic style is typical for margins of continental plates. Thick-skinned style including the entire crust and possibly the lithospheric mantle are associated with intracontinental contraction. Delamination of subducting continental crust and horizontal protrusion of upper plate crust into the opening gap occurs in the terminal stage of continent-continent collision. Continental crust thinned prior to contraction is likely to develop relatively thin thrust sheets of crystalline basement. A true thin-skinned type requires a detachment layer of sufficient thickness. Thickness of the décollement layer as well as the mechanical contrast between décollement layer and detached cover control the style of folding and thrusting within the detached cover units. In subduction related orogens, thin- and thick-skinned deformation may occur several hundreds of kilometers from the plate contact zone. Basin inversion resulting from horizontal contraction may lead to the formation of basement uplifts by the combined reactivation of pre-existing normal faults and initiation of new reverse faults. In composite orogens thick-skinned and thin-skinned structures evolve with a pattern where nappe stacking propagates outward and downward.
Mon, 31 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0134.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rice; water requirement; climate change; Penman-Monteith; CROPWAT
Online: 31 October 2016 (03:21:42 CET)
In this paper, Rice water requirement and irrigation water requirement in Amol agro meteorological Station in 2016-2045 are forecasted based on the projected meteorological data of Hadcm3 under A2 scenario. Rice water requirements are estimated by using crop coefficient approach. Reference evapotranspiration are calculated by FAO Penman-Monteith method. Moreover, the irrigation water requirements are simulated by calibrated CROPWAT model using the meteorological parameters. The results show that both crop water requirement and irrigation water requirement present downward trend in the future. In 2016-2045, the rice water requirement and irrigation water requirement decrease by more than 9.9% under A2 scenario, respectively. Furthermore, the precipitation rise may be the main reason for the decrease in crop water requirement, while significant decrease of irrigation water requirement should be attributed to combined action of rising precipitation and a slight increase in temperature.
Fri, 13 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0244.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Image Fusion, Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Wetlands, Object-Based Classification, Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
Online: 13 July 2018 (17:11:07 CEST)
Wetlands benefits can be summarized but are not limited to their ability to store floodwaters and improve water quality, providing habitats for wildlife and supporting biodiversity, as well as aesthetic values. Over the past few decades, remote sensing and geographical information technologies has proven to be a useful and frequent applications in monitoring and mapping wetlands. Combining both optical and microwave satellite data can give significant information about the biophysical characteristics of wetlands and wetlands` vegetation. Also, fusing data from different sensors, such as radar and optical remote sensing data, can increase the wetland classification accuracy. In this paper we investigate the ability of fusion two fine spatial resolution satellite data, Sentinel-2 and the Synthetic Aperture Radar Satellite, Sentinel-1, for mapping wetlands. As a study area in this paper, Balikdami wetland located in the Anatolian part of Turkey has been selected. Both Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 images require pre-processing before their use. After the pre-processing, several vegetation indices calculated from the Sentinel-2 bands were included in the data set. Furthermore, an object-based classification was performed. For the accuracy assessment of the obtained results, number of random points were added over the study area. In addition, the results were compared with data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle collected on the same data of the overpass of the Sentinel-2, and three days before the overpass of Sentinel-1 satellite. The accuracy assessment showed that the results significant and satisfying in the wetland classification using both multispectral and microwave data. The statistical results of the fusion of the optical and radar data showed high wetland mapping accuracy, with an overall classification accuracy of approximately 90% in the object-based classification. Compared with the high resolution UAV data, the classification results give promising results for mapping and monitoring not just wetlands, but also the sub-classes of the study area. For future research, multi-temporal image use and terrain data collection are recommended.
Wed, 28 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0136.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: HEC-HMS model; streamflow; water availability; rainfall-runoff; Tonle Sap Basin
Online: 28 December 2016 (11:22:01 CET)
Hydrologic studies on rainfall-runoff have been extensively conducted in many regions around the globe to fulfill various desirable needs with a purpose of effective and proper planning and managing water resources for present and future uses, whereas such study is not well drawn much attention to river catchments of Tonle Sap Lake Basin in Cambodia, which may prevail to water insecurity. The Stung Sreng catchment, which is one among them considered to be a significant basin for water resources management in Cambodia, is remarkably increasing under intolerable pressures in water resources development. This study was to apply HEC-HMS (Hydrological Engineering Center-Hydrological Model System) model to predict streamflow of Stung Sangker catchment, located in Tonlesap Lake Basin in Cambodia. The result showed that the calibration was good at monthly basis. The model performance was given by Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency criteria followed by 0.44 for daily and 0.71 for monthly basis, respectively. Moreover, the Percent Bias (PBIAS) for daily and monthly simulation was 4.13% and 3.56%, indicating a satisfactory model fit. The HEC-HMS conceptual model can be used to simulate flow of Stung Sangke catchment on a continuous time scale particularly monthly basis. The result also indicated that there was a clear seasonal variation in monthly water availability, especially during both wet and dry season.
Thu, 13 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0030.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: digital elevation model; DEM; digital surface model; DSM; great barrier reef; gully erosion; multi-view stereo; point cloud; unmanned aerial vehicle
Online: 13 July 2017 (02:55:02 CEST)
Structure from Motion with Multi-View Stereo photogrammetry (SfM) is increasingly utilised in geoscience investigations as a cost-effective method of acquiring high resolution (sub-meter) topographic data, but has not been thoroughly tested in gullied savanna systems. The aim of this study was to test the accuracy of topographic models derived from aerial (via an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, ‘UAV’) and ground-based (via a handheld digital camera, ‘Ground’) SfM in modelling a hillslope gully system in dry-tropical savanna, and to assess the strengths and limitations of the approach at different scales. A UAV survey covered an entire hillslope gully system (0.715 km2), whereas a Ground survey covered a single gully within the broader system (650 m2). SfM topographic models, including Digital Surface Models (DSM) and dense point clouds, were compared against RTK-GPS point data and a pre-existing airborne LiDAR Digital Elevation Model (DEM). Results indicate UAV SfM can deliver topographic models with a resolution and accuracy suitable to define gully systems at a hillslope scale (e.g., 0.1 m resolution with ~ 0.5 – 1.3 m elevation error), while ground-based SfM is more capable of quantifying gully morphology (e.g., 0.01 m resolution with ~ 0.1 m elevation error). Key strengths of SfM for these applications include: the production of high resolution 3D topographic models and ortho-photo mosaics, low survey instrument costs (< $AUD 3,000); and rapid survey time (4 and 2 hours for UAV and Ground survey respectively). Current limitations of SfM include: difficulties in reconstructing vegetated surfaces; uncertainty as to optimal survey and processing designs; and high computational demands. Overall, this study has demonstrated great potential for SfM to be used as a cost-effective tool to aid in the mapping, modelling and management of hillslope gully systems at different scales, in tropical savanna landscapes and elsewhere.
Fri, 23 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0081.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: spectral reflectance; vegetation indices; vegetation; remote sensing; oil spill; mangrove forest; oil pollution; Landsat 8
Online: 23 September 2016 (06:19:49 CEST)
This study is aimed at demonstrating application of vegetation spectral techniques for detection and monitoring of impact of oil spills on vegetation. Vegetation spectral reflectance from Landsat 8 data were used in the calculation of five vegetation indices (normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI), adjusted resistant vegetation index 2 (ARVI2), green-infrared index (G/NIR) and green-shortwave infrared (G/SWIR) from the spill sites (SS) and non-spill (NSS) sites in 2013 (pre-oil spill), 2014 (oil spill date) and 2015 (post-oil spill) for statistical comparison. The result shows that NDVI, SAVI, ARVI2, G/NIR and G/SWIR indicated certain level difference between vegetation condition at the SS and the NSS were significant with p-value <0.5 in December 2013. In December 2014 vegetation conditions indicated higher level of significant difference between the vegetation at the SS and NSS as follows where NDVI, SAVI and ARVI2 with p-value 0.005, G/NIR - p-value 0.01 and GSWIR p-value 0.05. Similarly, in January 2015 a very significant difference with p-value <0.005. Three indices NDVI, ARVI2 and G/NIR indicated highly significant difference in vegetation conditions with p-value <0.005 between December 2013 and December 2014 at the same sites. Post—spill analysis show that NDVI and ARVI2 indicated low level of significance difference p-value <0.05 suggesting subtle change in vegetation conditions between December 2014 and January 2015. This technique is essential for real time detection, response and monitoring of oil spills from pipelines for mitigation of pollution at the affected sites in the mangrove forest.
Fri, 5 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0048.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: UAV remote sensing; power line inspection; dense matching; virtual photography; automatic detection of obstacles in power line corridor
Online: 5 August 2016 (08:07:23 CEST)
When the distance between an obstacle and a power line is less than the discharge distance, a discharge arc can be generated, resulting in interruption of power supplies. Therefore, regular safety inspections are necessary to ensure safe operations of power grids. Tall vegetation and buildings are the key factors threatening the safe operation of extra high voltage transmission lines within a power line corridor. Manual or LiDAR based-inspections are time consuming and expensive. To make safety inspections more efficient and flexible, a low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle remote-sensing platform equipped with optical digital camera was used to inspect power line corridors. We propose a semi-patch matching algorithm based on epipolar constraints using both correlation coefficient and the shape of its curve to extract three dimensional (3D) point clouds for a power line corridor. Virtual photography was used to transform the power line direction from approximately parallel to the epipolar line to approximately perpendicular to epipolar line to improve power line measurement accuracy. The distance between the power lines and the 3D point cloud is taken as a criterion for locating obstacles within the power line corridor automatically. Experimental results show that our proposed method is a reliable, cost effective and applicable way for practical power line inspection, and can locate obstacles within the power line corridor with measurement accuracies better than ±0.5 m.
Thu, 15 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0103.v1
Online: 15 February 2018 (16:49:55 CET)
An effective on-board cloud detection method in small satellites would greatly improve the downlink data transmission efficiency and reduce the memory cost. In this paper, an ensemble method combining a lightweight U-Net with wavelet image compression is proposed and evaluated. The red, green, blue and infrared waveband images from Landsat-8 dataset are trained and tested to estimate the performance of proposed method. The LeGall-5/3 wavelet transform is applied on the dataset to accelerate the neural network and improve the feasibility of on-board implement. The experiment results illustrate that the overall accuracy of the proposed model achieves 97.45% by utilizing only four bands. Tests on low coefficients of compressed dataset have shown that the overall accuracy of the proposed method is still higher than 95%, while its inference speed is accelerated to 0.055 second per million pixels and maximum memory cost reduces to 2Mb. By taking advantage of mature image compression system in small satellites, the proposed method provides a good possibility of on-board cloud detection based on deep learning.
Wed, 3 August 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0021.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: electrical and electronic waste; recycling; legislative frameworks; environmental management; landfilling
Online: 3 August 2016 (12:33:45 CEST)
Households and businesses are generating unprecedented levels of electrical and electronic wastes (e-waste), fueled by modernisation and rapid obsolescence. While the challenges imposed by e-waste are similar everywhere in the world, disparities in progress to deal with it exists; with developing nations such as South Africa lagging. The increase in e-waste generation increases the need to formulate strategies to manage it. This paper presents an overview of e-waste management on a global and South African scenarios with a specific case for Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) waste management practices in South Africa. CRTs present the biggest problem for recyclers and policy makers because they contain hazardous elements such as lead and antimony. Common disposal practices have been either landfilling or incineration. The research into the South African practices with regards to CRT waste management showed that there is still more to be done to effectively manage this waste stream. This is despite clear waste regulatory frameworks in the country. However, recent developments have placed e-waste as a priority waste stream, which should lead to intensified efforts in dealing with it. Overall, these efforts should aim to maximise diversion from landfilling and to create value-addition opportunities, leading to social and environmental benefits.
Mon, 15 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0149.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: landsat 8 OLI; Nalban Lake; East Kolkata Wetland; chlorophyll-a prediction; study points; validation points
Online: 15 August 2016 (13:51:19 CEST)
1) Landsat operational land imager (OLI) data and consequent laboratory measurements were used to predict Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and the trophic states for an inland lake within the East Kolkata Wetland, India; 2) The most suitable band ratio was identified by performing Pearson correlation analysis between Chl-a concentrations and possible OLI band and band ratios from the study points; 3) The results showed highest correlation coefficient from the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 with an R value of 0.85. The prediction model was then developed by applying regression analysis between the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 and Chl-a concentration of the study points. The reflectance ratios of the validation points were given as input on the prediction model and the model output was considered as predicted Chl-a values of the validation points to check the efficiency of the prediction model. The regression model between laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points revealed a high correlation with an R2 value of 0.78. Trophic State Index (TSI) of the lake was also calculated from laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points. The study presented a high correlation of TSI determined from predicted data with TSI from laboratory reference data (R = 0.88). The TSI values of the lake ranged from 65 to 75 which indicate that the lake is appeared to be eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions. 4) This empirical study showed that Landsat 8 OLI imagery can be effectively applied to estimate Chl-a levels and trophic states for inland lakes.
Tue, 4 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0004.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: life cycle analysis, dogs; cats; carbon footprint; environmental pawprint
Online: 4 July 2017 (16:00:10 CEST)
Mexico´s inhabitants have approximately 7 million dogs and cats as pets, of which there is no accurate information about their environmental impacts as a result of their feeding and comfort requirements. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental footprint between a dog and a cat in a family environment. For this purpose, a life cycle analysis was performed including, among other factors, its feeding and waste management in one year of life. Different environmental indicators including the carbon footprint were considered. It was found that the equivalent CO2 emission of a dog is twice that estimated for a domestic cat and that the main contribution is due to the food production. The ecological footprint that is generated when satisfying the requirements for pet´s well-being impacts in the environment contributes primarily to the carbon footprint.
Fri, 2 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0016.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: mobile mapping system; LiDAR point cloud; 2D-3D registration; panoramic sensor model
Online: 2 December 2016 (10:58:19 CET)
For multi-sensor integrated systems, such as a mobile mapping system (MMS), data fusion at sensor-level, i.e., the 2D-3D registration between optical camera and LiDAR, is a prerequisite for higher level fusion and further applications. This paper proposes a line-based registration method for panoramic images and LiDAR point cloud collected by a MMS. We first introduce the system configuration and specification, including the coordinate systems of the MMS, the 3D LiDAR scanners, and the two panoramic camera models. We then establish the line-based transformation model for panoramic camera. Finally, the proposed registration method is evaluated for two types of camera models by visual inspection and quantitative comparison. The results demonstrate that the line-based registration method can significantly improve the alignment of the panoramic image and LiDAR datasets under either the ideal spherical or the rigorous panoramic camera model, though the latter is more reliable.
Mon, 27 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0093.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: used superabsorbent polymer; disposable diapers; swelling capacity; soil conditioner
Online: 27 February 2017 (06:50:27 CET)
This study was conducted to explore the potential of superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) from used disposable diapers as soil moisture conditioner. Swelling behavior of the proposed hydrogel in response to external stimuli such as salt solutions, temperature and pH was studied. In addition, laboratory experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of incorporation hydrogel on germination of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and pumpkin (C. pepo) seeds. The structure of the superabsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicate that the proposed SAP exhibited a maximum swelling capacity of 189 g.g-1 of dry gel. It was observed that the swelling capacity decreased with an increase in the ionic strength of the swelling medium. When this SAP was mixed with sandy soil, the mixture was able to lose water more slowly. The seeds germination and seedling growth was remarkably influenced by the application of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 w/w% of SAP compared to the untreated soil. Therefore, it follows that it is possible to take advantage of SAPs property from used disposable diapers to retain the moisture in soil as an alternative to value the use of such waste, showing that it has potential for diverse applications in agriculture.
Fri, 5 October 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0098.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: flood prediction; machine learning; forecasting
Online: 5 October 2018 (11:52:28 CEST)
Floods are among the most destructive natural disasters, which are highly complex to model. The research on the advancement of flood prediction models has been contributing to risk reduction, policy suggestion, minimizing loss of human life and reducing the property damage associated with floods. To mimic the complex mathematical expressions of physical processes of floods, during the past two decades, machine learning (ML) methods have highly contributed in the advancement of prediction systems providing better performance and cost effective solutions. Due to the vast benefits and potential of ML, its popularity has dramatically increased among hydrologists. Researchers through introducing the novel ML methods and hybridization of the existing ones have been aiming at discovering more accurate and efficient prediction models. The main contribution is to demonstrate the state of the art of ML models in flood prediction and give an insight over the most suitable models. The literature where ML models are benchmarked through a qualitative analysis of robustness, accuracy, effectiveness, and speed have been particularly investigated to provide an extensive overview on various ML algorithms usage in the field. The performance comparison of ML models presents an in-depth understanding about the different techniques within the framework of a comprehensive evaluation and discussion. As the result, the paper introduces the most promising prediction methods for both long-term and short-term floods. Furthermore, the major trends in improving the quality of the flood prediction models are investigated. Among them, hybridization, data decomposition, algorithm ensemble, and model optimization are reported the most effective strategy in improvement of the ML methods. This survey can be used as a guideline for the hydrologists as well as climate scientists to assist them choosing the proper ML method according to the prediction task conclusions.
Sat, 13 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0137.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: heavy metal; contamination assessment; X-ray fluorescence; bus station dusts
Online: 13 August 2016 (09:41:18 CEST)
The objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and spatial distribution patterns of six potentially toxic heavy metal elements (Mn, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu and Ni) in bus station dusts in the Xifeng district of Gansu province, NW China. The contents were analyzed for Mn, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu and Ni by using S8 TIGER Brochures wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo ), enrichment factor (EF), pollution index (PI) and integrated pollution index(IPI) were calculated to evaluate the heavy metal contamination level of bus station dusts. The results indicate that, in comparison with the background values of local soil, bus station dusts in Xifeng have elevated metal concentrations as a whole. The concentrations of heavy metals investigated in this paper are compared with the reported data of other cities. The results show that the arithmetic means of Mn, Zn, Cr, Pb, Cu and Ni are 440.8, 137.9, 60.0, 42.8, 33.5 and 19.8mg kg−1 respectively. The mean values of Igeo reveal the order of Ni<Mn<Cr<Cu<Zn<Pb. The high Igeo and EF for Cu, Zn and Pb in bus station dusts indicate that there is a considerable Cu, Zn and Pb pollution, which mainly originate from traffic and industry activities. The Igeo and EF of Ni, Mn and Cr are low and the assessment results indicate an absence of distinct Ni, Mn and Cr pollution in bus station dusts. The assessment results of PI also support Cu, Zn and Pb in bus station dusts presented middle pollution, and IPI indicates heavy metals of bus station dusts polluted seriously.
Fri, 3 February 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0091.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: reanalysis climate data; hydrologic modeling; comparative analysis
Online: 3 February 2017 (03:50:07 CET)
Large-scale hydrological modeling in China is challenging given the sparse meteorological stations and large uncertainties associated with atmospheric forcing data.Here we introduce the development and use of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) in the Heihe River Basin(HRB) for improving hydrologic modeling, by leveraging the datasets from the China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS)(including climate data from nearly 40000 area encryption stations, 2700 national automatic weather stations, FengYun (FY) 2 satellite and radar stations). CMADS uses the Space Time Multiscale Analysis System (STMAS) to fuse data based on ECWMF ambient field and ensure data accuracy. In addition, compared with CLDAS, CMADS includes relative humidity and climate data of varied resolutions to drive hydrological models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Here, we compared climate data from CMADS, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and traditional weather station (TWS) climate forcing data and evaluatedtheir applicability for driving large scale hydrologic modeling with SWAT. In general, CMADS has higher accuracy than CFRS when evaluated against observations at TWS; CMADS also provides spatially continuous climate field to drive distributed hydrologic models, which is an important advantage over TWS climate data, particular in regions with sparse weather stations. Therefore, SWAT model simulations driven with CMADS and TWS achieved similar performances in terms of monthly and daily stream flow simulations, and both of them outperformed CFRS. For example, for the three hydrological stations (Ying Luoxia, Qilian Mountain, and ZhaMasheke) in the HRB at the monthly and daily Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranges of 0.75-0.95 and 0.58-0.78, respectively, which are much higher than corresponding efficiency statistics achieved with CFSR (monthly: 0.32-0.49 and daily: 0.26 – 0.45). The CMADS dataset is available free of charge and is expected to a valuable addition to the existing climate reanalysis datasets for deriving distributed hydrologic modeling in China and other countries in East Asia.
Mon, 6 April 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coronavirus; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; respiratory diseases; air pollution
Online: 6 April 2020 (15:48:46 CEST)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), known to cause 2019-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is a zoonotic coronavirus and crosses species to infect human populations, where an efficient transmission of virus occurs human-to-human. Nationwide lockdown is being adopted to stop public transport, keep people at their homes and out of their work, and maintain social distancing. In turn, large geographic areas in the world (including China, Italy, Spain, and USA) has been almost halted. This temporary halt is significantly slashing down the air pollution (air pollutants and warming gases) in most cities across the world. This paper: (i) introduces both COVID-19 and air pollution; (ii) overviews the relation of air pollution with respiratory/lung diseases; (iii) compiles and highlights major data appeared in media and journals reporting lowering of air pollution in major cities those have been highly impacted by the COVID-19; and also (iv) lists the way forward in the present context. Because COVID-19 is an ongoing pandemic and currently far from over, strong conclusions could not be drawn with very limited data at present. The temporary slashed down global air pollution as a result of COVID-19 restrictions are expected to stimulate the researchers, policy makers and governments for the judicious use of resources; thereby minimise the global emissions, and maintain their economies once the pandemic eases. On the other, lifting of the nationwide lockdown and eventual normalisation of the temporarily halted sectors may also reverse the currently COVID-19 pandemic-led significantly slashed down global air pollution that could make the future respiratory health crisis grimmer.
Sat, 6 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation; phenology; Xishuangbanna; Landsat; object-based approach; pixel-based approach
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:54:28 CEST)
Effectively mapping and monitoring rubber plantation is still changing. Previous studies have explored the potential of phenology features for rubber plantation mapping through a pixel-based approach (pixel-based phenology approach). However, in fragmented mountainous Xishuangbanna, it could lead to noises and low accuracy of resultant maps. In this study, we investigated the capability of an integrated approach by combining phenology information with an object-based approach (object-based phenology approach) to map rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were firstly used to acquire the temporal profile and phenological features of rubber plantations and natural forests, which delineates the time windows of defoliation and foliation phases. Landsat images were then used to extract a phenology algorithm comparing three different approaches: pixel-based phenology, object-based phenology, and extended object-based phenology to separate rubber plantations and natural forests. The results showed that the two object-based approaches achieved higher accuracy than the pixel-based approach, having overall accuracies of 96.4%, 97.4%, and 95.5%, respectively. This study proved the reliability of a phenology-based rubber mapping in fragmented landscapes with a distinct dry/cool season using Landsat images. This study indicated that the object-based phenology approaches can effectively improve the accuracy of the resultant maps in fragmented landscapes.
Thu, 28 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0087.v1
Online: 28 July 2016 (04:48:33 CEST)
The relations between the kinetic energy spectrum and the second order longitudinal structure function in two dimensions are derived, and several examples are considered. The forward conversion (from spectrum to structure function) is illustrated first with idealized power law spectra, representing turbulent inertial ranges. The forward conversion is also applied to the zonal kinetic energy spectrum of Nastrom and Gage (1985) and the result agrees well with the longitudinal structure function of Lindborg (1999). The inverse conversion (from structure function to spectrum) is tested with data from 2D turbulence simulations. When applied to the theoretical structure function (derived from the forward conversion of the spectrum), the result closely resembles the original spectrum, except at the largest wavenumbers. However the inverse conversion is much less successful when applied to the structure function obtained from pairs of particles in the flow. This is because the inverse conversion favors large pair separations, which are typically noisy with particle data. Fitting the structure function to a polynomial improves the result, but not sufficiently to distinguish the correct inertial range dependencies. Furthermore the inversion of non-local spectra is largely unsuccessful. Thus it appears that focusing on structure functions with Lagrangian data is preferable to estimating spectra.
Mon, 15 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0123.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: geobody modeling, object-based facies modeling (OBFM), variogram analysis, farewell formation, paleo-depositional environment
Online: 15 January 2018 (10:01:00 CET)
The early-mid Paleocene Farewell Formation is stratigraphically distributed across the southern Taranaki Basin (STB) which is also encountered within the Maui Gas Field. Using available 3D seismic and well log data, a challenging task to delineate the spatial distribution and geobody patterns of the potential reservoir sands of the formation was performed. Object based modeling coupled with sequential indicator simulation were used to analyze the spatial distribution of facies configuration and a conceptual model was developed based on the outputs from the structurally- modeled grids. The facies modeling followed a hierarchical object-based mechanism which was set to perform with constraints like channel geometry and heterogeneity within the formation. The resultant 3D geobody model showed that the distributary channels, mainly braided geobodies flowed from northeast cutting through several regional normal-fault systems to the southwest. Overbank facies was adhered to the fringe of the channels whereas the floodplain facies was at the periphery of the model. Meandering channel-sand facies were mostly observed at the center of the model flowing in a more random manner, occupying major flow directions of northwest to southwest and southeast to northwest within the model.
Fri, 18 November 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0101.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biodiversity conservation, livelihood, co-management, stakeholder, law enforcement
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:20:07 CET)
Despite of being an exceptionally biodiversity rich country, the forest coverage of Bangladesh is declining at an alarming rate. Declaration and management of protected areas in this regard is one of the efforts from government side to tackle the loss of biodiversity. The limited numbers of forest-protected areas (FPA), established to conserve the dwindling forest biodiversity of the country with high pressure on them for timber, non-timber forest products, and fuelwood - makes their management challenging. Moreover, most of the FPAs of the country declared only in the recent decades with very limited infrastructure, manpower and policy support for monitoring and governance. Some people-centred approaches for the management of FPAs and alternative livelihood and income generation subsidies although made available through a few project interventions, their number are still inadequate and performance remains less than satisfactory. This chapter provides a critical review of the FPAs of Bangladesh looking at their role in biodiversity conservation, management challenges, and key lessons from previous management interventions with recommendations for the future. It has been revealed that the FPA system of Bangladesh still poorly represents the diverse forest ecosystems with relatively small forest size and lack of corridors for the movement of wildlife. There are ample opportunities to render co-management of FPAs an effective strategy to minimize the conflicts in FPAs management in the country. It is, however, important to ensure the access of local forest-dependent people to different alternative income generating options that may adequately support their livelihoods.
Sat, 10 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0059.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban
Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)
Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0089.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: ASTER; TIR; geology; mineralogy; suture zone; quartz; feldspars; silicates; carbonates; sulfates; granitic rocks; felsic; ultramafic; mapping
Online: 9 August 2016 (10:10:41 CEST)
The mineralogical indices, e.g., Quartz Index (QI), Carbonate Index (CI), Mafic Index (MI) for ASTER multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) data have been applied to various geological materials. The indices are proved to be robust in extracting geological information at the local scale. Considering the relatively narrow spatial coverage of each ASTER scene compared to LANDSAT, many scenes are needed when mosaicking the images to be mapped at regional scales. We develop a system to search ASTER data for a target area given the vast and expanding ASTER data archive. The data is then conditioned, prioritized, and the indices are calculated before finally mosaicking the imagery. The maps of the indices covering the very wide region of the central Tibetan Plateau are produced with this system. The characteristic features of the indices relating to their geology in the study area are analyzed and discussed. Many interesting lithological and structural information that are not currently well understood in the central Tibetan Plateau, the highest and most extensive plateau in the world, with an average elevation of over 4,500 meters above sea level, for example, distributions of the mafic-ultramafic rocks along the suture zones, the quarzitic and marine sedimentology accreted to the Eurasian continent and sulfate layers related to the Tethys and neo-Tethys geological setting can be retrieved from the processed ASTER images.
Fri, 17 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0301.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Salinity intrusion; climate change; rising sea level; electrical conductivity; Landsat 8 OLI; Tra Vinh Province; Mekong Delta
Online: 17 August 2018 (11:41:14 CEST)
Salinity intrusion is one of the most serious consequences of climate change coupled with rising sea level that significantly affects agricultural activities in many parts of the world. This phenomenon has increasingly become more serious and frequently occurred in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. As a result, Vietnam has been ranked among top five countries where have been devastatingly impacted by climate change, in particular, its Tra Vinh Province characterized by coastal plain and alluvial deposit. In addition, this area is of the tropical monsoon zone of long rainy season with source of salt brought from the sea by the tides and sea level rise. Regions that are contaminated by salt are located in lowland and often suffer from floods linking to tidal effects with salty water from river systems and channels. Soil salinity evaluation is critical for coastal protection, restoration, and agricultural planning since it can be considered as an agricultural indicator to evaluate quality of soil. Here, we attempt to estimate the soil salinity in Tra Vinh Province, in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. Landsat 8 OLI images are utilized to derive indices for soil salinity evaluation including single bands, Vegetation Soil Salinity Index (VSSI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Salinity Index (NDSI). Subsequently, satistical analysis between soil salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, dS/m), and environmental indices derived from Landsat 8 OLI image is performed. Results indicate that spectral value of Near Infrared (NIR) band and VSSI are highly correlated with EC (R2 = 0.7779 and R2 = 0.6957, respectively) in comparison with the other indices. Comparative results show that soil salinity derived from Landsat 8 is consistent with in situ data. Findings of this study demonstrate that Landsat 8 OLI images reveal a high potential for spatiotemporally monitoring the magnitude of soil salinity at the top soil layer. Outcomes of this study are useful for agricultural activities, planners, and farmers by providing the base map of soil salinity contamination for better selection of accomodating crop types to reduce economical lost in the context of climate change. Our proposed method that estimates soil salinity using satellite-derived variables can be applied in the other regions.
Sat, 13 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0134.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: spatial resolution; interpolation method; CREST model; Qinhuai catchment
Online: 13 August 2016 (04:28:19 CEST)
Distributed/semi-distributed models are considered to be sensitive to the spatial resolution of the data input. In this paper, we take a small catchment in high urbanized Yangtze River Delta, Qinhuai catchment as study area, to analyze the impact of spatial resolution of precipitation and the potential evapotranspiration (PET) on the long-term runoff and flood runoff process. The data source includes the TRMM precipitation data, FEWS download PET data, and the interpolated metrological station data. GIS/RS technique was used to collect and pre-process the geographical, precipitation and PET series, which were then served as the input of CREST (Coupled Routing and Excess Storage) model to simulate the runoff process. The results clearly showed that, the CREST model is applicable to the Qinhuai catchment; the spatial resolution of precipitation had strong influence on the modelled runoff results and the metrological precipitation data cannot be substituted by the TRMM data in small catchment; the CREST model was not sensitive to the spatial resolution of the PET data, while the estimation fourmula of the PET data was correlated with the model quality. This paper focused on the small urbanized catchment, suggesting the influential explanatory variables for the model performance, and providing reliable reference for the study in similar area.
Mon, 19 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0100.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: engineering barriers; bentonite clays; thermochemical treatments; montmorillonite; structure modification; adsorption properties
Online: 19 December 2016 (11:08:23 CET)
The paper discusses the mechanism of montmorillonite structure alteration and bentonites properties modification (on the example of samples from clay deposit Taganka, Kazakhstan) due to the thermochemical treatment (treatment with inorganic acid solutions at different temperatures, concentrations and reaction times). With the use of the suit of methods certain processes were distinguished: transformation of montmorillonite structure, which appears in the leaching of interlayer and octahedral cations, protonation of the interlayer and OH groups at octahedral sheets. Changes in the structure of the 2:1 layer of montmorillonite and its interlayer result in significant changes in the properties – reduction of cation exchange capacity and an increase of specific surface area. The results of the work showed that bentonite clays retain a significant portion of its adsorption properties even after the long term and intense thermochemical treatment (6M HNO3, 60°C, 108 hours)
Thu, 14 September 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0058.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: GIS; image classification; LiDAR; remote sensing; wetland indicator; global wetland inventory; wetland mapping
Online: 14 September 2017 (17:25:27 CEST)
Wetlands are recognized as one of the world’s most valuable natural resources. With the increasing world population, human demands on wetland resources for agricultural expansion and urban development continue to increase. In addition, global climate change has pronounced impacts on wetland ecosystems through alterations in hydrological regimes. To better manage and conserve wetland resources, we need to know the distribution and extent of wetlands and monitor their dynamic changes. Wetland maps and inventories can provide crucial information for wetland conservation, restoration, and management. Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing technologies have proven to be useful for mapping and monitoring wetland resources. Recent advances in geospatial technologies have greatly increased the availability of remotely sensed imagery with better and finer spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. This chapter presents an introduction to the uses of GIS and remote sensing technologies for wetland mapping and monitoring. A case study is presented to demonstrate the use of high-resolution light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data and aerial photographs for mapping prairie potholes and surface hydrologic flow pathways.
Sat, 30 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0393.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Sentinel-1; PolSAR; synthetic aperture radar; earth observation; SNAP
Online: 30 November 2019 (11:39:51 CET)
Sentinel-1 SAR data preprocessing is essential for several earth observation applications, including land cover classification, change detection, vegetation monitoring, urban growth, natural hazards, etc. The information can be extracted from the 2x2 covariance matrix [C2] of Sentinel-1 dual-pol (VV-VH) acquisitions. To generate the covariance matrix from Sentinel-1 single look complex (SLC) data, several preprocessing steps are required. The ESA SNAP S-1 toolbox can be used to preprocess the data to generate a [C2] matrix. The polarimetric analysis in respective application fields often starts with the covariance matrix. However, due to limited availability of Sentinel-1 SLC data preprocessing workflow standards for polarimetric applications in contemporary research methods, downstream applications unable to comply with these workflows directly. In this paper, we propose a couple of generic practices to preprocess Sentinel-1 SLC data in SNAP S-1 toolbox, which would be beneficial for the radar remote sensing user community.
Thu, 24 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0081.v1
Online: 24 August 2017 (15:51:17 CEST)
The digital elevation model (DEM) is one of the key geospatial datasets used in many fields of engineering and science for countless applications. In this contribution, we assess the vertical accuracy of the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) World 3D-30m (AW3D30) DEM using the runway method (RWYM). The RWYM utilizes the longitudinal profiles of runways which are reliable and ubiquitous reference data. A reference dataset used in this project consists of 36 runways located at various points throughout the world. The same dataset was previously used to test the accuracy of WorldDEMTM. Our study indicates that AW3D30 has a remarkably high RMSE of 1.78 m (one σ). However, while analyzing the results, it has become apparent that it also contains a widespread elevation anomaly. We conclude that this anomaly is the result of uncompensated sensor noise and the data processing algorithm (downsampling of the higher resolution data). We believe that this issue should be communicated to the user community. Also, we would like to note that the traditional accuracy assessment of a DEM, e.g., statistical assessment of the elevation differences = model – reference, does not allow for identification of these type of anomalies in a DEM.
Thu, 27 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0320.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Central Rift Valley, Ethiopia, Landsat images, Lake, land use/land cover
Online: 27 December 2018 (10:49:16 CET)
LULC changes are major environmental challenges in many parts of the world which are adversely affecting ecosystem services. This study was aimed to analyze LULC changes in the ecological landscape of Ethiopia CRV areas from 1985 to 2015. Satellite images were accessed and pre-processing and classification is done. Major LULC types were detected and change analysis was executed. Nine LULC changes were successfully evaluated. The classification result revealed that in 1985, 44.34% of the land was covered with small scale farming followed by mixed cultivated/acacia (21.89%), open woodland (11.96%), and water bodies (9.77%). Whereas for the same study year open grazing land, forest, degraded savannah and settlements accounted the smallest proportion. Though the area varied among land use classes, the trend of share occupied by the LULC types in the study area remained the same in 1995 and 2015. Increase in small and large scale farming, settlements and mixed cultivation/acacia while a decrease in water bodies, forest, and open woodlands is noted. About 86.11% of the land showed major changes in land use/cover. Lastly, DPSIR framework analysis was done and integrated land use and development planning and policy reform are suggested for sustainable land use planning and management.
Sun, 29 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0129.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: emissivity; land cover; land surface temperature; surface urban heat island; thermal environment; mitigation
Online: 29 January 2017 (10:38:44 CET)
In urban area, one of the great problem is the rise of temperature, which leads to form the urban heat island effect. This paper refers to the trend of the urban surface temperature extracted from the Landsat images from which to consider changes in the formation of surface urban heat island for the north of Ho Chi Minh city in period 1995-2015. Research has identified land surface temperature from thermal infrared band, according to the ability of the surface emission based on characteristics of normalized difference vegetation index NDVI. The results showed that temperature fluctuated over the city with a growing trend and the gradual expansion of the area of the high-temperature zone towards the suburbs. Within 20 years, the trend of the formation of surface urban heat island with two typical locations showed a clear difference between the surface temperature of urban areas and rural areas with space expansion of heat island in 4 times in 2015 compared to 1995. An extreme heat island located in the inner city has an area of approximately 18% compared to the total area of the region. Since then, the solution to reduce the impact of urban heat island has been proposed, in order to protect the urban environment and the lives of residents in Ho Chi Minh City becoming better
Thu, 5 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0023.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Random forest classification; urban sprawl; spatial metrics; Renyi’s entropy; sustainability; land change modelling; remote sensing; urban growth model; Chennai
Online: 5 January 2017 (09:20:29 CET)
Urban sprawl propelled by rapid population growth leads to the shrinkage of productive agricultural lands and pristine forests in the suburban areas and, in turn, substantially alters ecosystem services. Hence, the quantification of urban sprawl is crucial for effective urban planning, and environmental and ecosystem management. Like many megacities in fast growing developing countries, Chennai, the capital of Tamilnadu and one of the business hubs in India, has experienced extensive urban sprawl triggered by the doubling of total population over the past three decades. We employed the Random Forest (RF) classification on Landsat imageries from 1991, 2003, and 2016, and computed spatial metrics to quantify the extent of urban sprawl within a 10km suburban buffer of Chennai. The rate of urban sprawl was quantified using Renyi’s entropy, and the urban extent was predicted for 2027 using land-use and land-cover change modeling. A 70.35% increase in urban areas was observed for the suburban periphery of Chennai between 1991 and 2016. The Renyi’s entropy value for year 2016 was ≥ 0.9, exhibiting a two-fold rate of urban sprawl. The spatial metrics values indicate that the existing urban areas of Chennai became denser and the suburban agricultural, forests and barren lands were transformed into fragmented urban settlements. The forecasted urban growth for 2027 predicts a conversion of 13670.33ha (16.57 % of the total landscape) of existing forests and agricultural lands into urban areas with an associated increase in the entropy value of 1.7. Our findings are relevant for urban planning and environmental management in Chennai and provide quantitative measures for addressing the social-ecological consequences of urban sprawl and the protection of ecosystem services.
Thu, 29 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0141.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: automated water extraction; landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI); modified histogram bimodal method (MHBM); remote sensing
Online: 29 December 2016 (10:49:38 CET)
Surface water distribution extracted from remote sensing data has been used in water resource assessment, coastal management, and environmental change studies. Traditional manual methods for extracting water bodies cannot satisfy the requirements for mass processing of remote sensing data; therefore, accurate automated extraction of such water bodies has remained a challenge. The histogram bimodal method (HBM) is a frequently used objective tool for threshold selection in image segmentation. The threshold is determined by seeking twin peaks, and the valley values between them; however, automatically calculating the threshold is difficult because complex surfaces and image noise which lead to not perfect twin peaks (single or multiple peaks). We developed an operational automated water extraction method, the modified histogram bimodal method (MHBM). The MHBM defines the threshold range of water extraction through mass static data; therefore, it does not require the identification of twin histogram peaks. It then seeks the minimum values in the threshold range to achieve automated threshold. We calibrated the MHBM for many lakes in China using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) images, for which the relative error (RE) and squared correlation coefficient (R2) for threshold accuracy were found to be 2.1% and 0.96, respectively. The RE and root-mean-square error (RMSE) for the area accuracy of MHBM were 0.59% and 7.4 km2. The results show that the MHBM could easily be applied to mass time-series remote sensing data to calculate water thresholds within water index images and successfully extract the spatial distribution of large water bodies automatically.
Mon, 13 March 2017
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: air pollution; mosses; low-cost; equipment; time-consuming
Online: 13 March 2017 (09:28:31 CET)
Air pollution has created a lot of problems in the developed and developing countries. To avoid or reduce these problems, constant monitoring of the air should be ensured. The conventional techniques is costly because it requires a lot of money and time consuming. Biomonitoring has been the alternative method. Moss, lichens and plants are biomonitors available to entrap air pollutants. The aim of this paper is to discuss one of the ways of monitoring air pollution – Moss bag technique. To do this, types, choice, preparation, handling of bags after preparation of moss were discussed. From the literatures consulted, it was discovered that there were differences in the techniques used by the researchers. In all, the use of mosses with emphasis on the employment of moss bag have proved to be a powerful tool in airborne particulate and toxic elements. To conclude, developing countries should focus more on this technique because it will reduce cost of air monitoring.
Fri, 5 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0055.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: seismic damage building; watershed segmentation; SAR; texture feature; change detection
Online: 5 August 2016 (12:19:24 CEST)
The information of seismic damage of buildings in SAR images of different time phase, especially in SAR images after earthquake, is easily disturbed by other factors, which affects the accuracy of information discrimination. In order to identify and evaluate the distribution information of the seismic damage accurately and make full use of the abundant texture features in the SAR image. The conventional method of change detection based on texture features usually takes the pixel as the calculating unit. In this paper, a method of texture feature change detection of SAR images based on watershed segmentation algorithm is proposed. Based on the optimization of texture feature parameters, the feature parameters are segmented by the watershed segmentation algorithm, and the feature object image is obtained. This method introduces the idea of object oriented, and carries out the calculation of the difference map at the object level, Finally, the classification threshold value of different types of seismic damage types is selected, and the recognition of building damage is achieved. Taking the ALOS data before and after the earthquake in Yushu as an example to verify the effectiveness of the method, the overall accuracy of the building extraction is 88.9%, Compared with pixel-based methods, it is proved that the proposed method is effective.
Thu, 2 March 2017
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0014.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: PM10; TSP; pollutants; element markers; epidemiological; dispersion modeling
Online: 2 March 2017 (07:29:35 CET)
No doubt pollution is a global problem which must be holistically tackled. In doing this, adequate knowledge of the sources of pollution is important, therefore the aim of this paper is to review source apportionment with reference to top-down and bottom-up methods. In this paper, dispersion modeling, emissions inventory, and sampling methods were discussed. Also, analytical methods involved in top-down source apportionment were mentioned. The two techniques are needed to evaluate pollutants and their sources. Based on these two approaches, pollution control strategy would be developed and decisions can be made in deciding the right approach to solve or reduce the pollution problems.
Thu, 14 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0033.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: industrial pollutant emissions; urbanization; the spatial panel model; Chinese case
Online: 14 July 2016 (12:12:25 CEST)
Urbanization is considered as a main indicator of regional economic development due to its positive effect on promoting industrial development; however, many regions, especially developing countries, are troubled by its negative effect — the aggravating environmental pollution. Many researchers have indicated that rapid urbanization stimulated the expansion of industrial production scale and increased industrial pollutant emissions. However, this judgement contains a grave deficiency in that urbanization not only expands industrial production scales but can also increase industrial labour productivity and change the industrial structure. To modify this deficiency, we first decompose the influence which urbanization impacts on industrial pollutant emissions into the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect by using the Kaya Identity and the LMDI Method; second, we perform an empirical study of the three effects’ impacts by applying the spatial panel model with data from 282 Chinese cities between 2003 and 2013. Our results indicate that (1) there are significant reverse U-shapes between Chinese urbanization rate and its industrial pollutant emissions; (2) the scale effect and the structure effect have aggravated Chinese industrial waste water discharge, sulphur dioxide emissions and soot (dust) emissions, while the intensive effect has generated a decreasing and ameliorative impact on that aggravated trend. The definite relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions depends on the combined influence of the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect; (3) there are significant spatial autocorrelations of industrial pollutant emissions between Chinese cities, but the spatial spillover effect from other cities does not aggravate local urban industrial pollutant emissions, we offer an explanation to this contradiction that the vast rural areas surrounding Chinese cities have served as sponge belts and have absorbed the spatial spillover of cities’ industrial pollutant emissions. According to the results, we argue that this type of decomposition of the influence into three effects is necessary and meaningful, it establishes a solid foundation for understanding the relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions, and effectively helps to meet relative policy making.
Sun, 22 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0096.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: biomineralization; calcium ions; magnesium ions; Bacillus lichemiformis; carbonates
Online: 22 January 2017 (04:58:39 CET)
Reducing the hardness of hard water is of great concern nowadays due to some adverse effects on water pipes, boilers and soap consumption. Using the method of biomineralization to precipitate calcium and magnesium ions to become carbonate minerals was one of the most important innovations for reducing the hardness of hard water. The present study sought to explore the physical and chemical conditions of carbonates bio-precipitation and the potential use of Bacillus licheniformis SRB2 strain (GenBank: KM884945.1) isolated from sludge sample of Moshui River (Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao, China) in reducing the hardness of hard waters by the induction of carbonate minerals. In this study, B. licheniformis SRB2 strain was identified based on the morphological, biochemical and 16S rDNA gene sequence homology analysis. The carbonate minerals induced by B. licheniformis bacteria in the liquid culture medium with 3% NaCl and Mg/Ca molar ratio of 0, 6, 8, 10 and 12 were investigated. The culture medium was inoculated with the bacterial liquid seed was set as the experimental group and the other culture medium was inoculated with the same volume of distilled water was set as the control group. The mineral phases, micromorphologies, and crystal structures were analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray detector, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. The bacterial concentrations and pH values of the solution were measured by a spectrophotometer and a pH meter, respectively. The urease secreted by B. licheniformis SRB2 was found to greatly increase the pH values of the liquid medium, which favored the formation of calcium carbonate.As a result, Mg2+ and Ca2+ ion concentrations decreased greatly due to the biomineralization of calcium carbonate and nesquehonite minerals in the presence of B. licheniformis SRB2 bacterium. There were only few calcium carbonates and no nesquehonite minerals in the control groups. It was also found that the minerals of nesquehonite induced by B. licheniformis SRB2 had a phenomenon of preferred orientation. What was more, even though Mg2+ ions inhibited the precipitation of Ca2+ ions, but under the action of B. licheniformis SRB2 bacteria, the inhibition effect was significantly declined. The bio-precipitation of calcium carbonate and nesquehonite minerals may represent a new method of pretreatment for the hardness reduction of hard water. The accomplished study is of certain interest for interpretation of the carbonates biomineralization in natural environment, and maybe also has a certain application value in the former processing of hard water
Thu, 17 November 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0095.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: : Crop Water Requirements; Irrigation Requirements; crop coefficient; web-GIS; Earth Observation; evapotranspiration
Online: 17 November 2016 (15:41:52 CET)
The experiences gathered during the past 30 years support the operational use of irrigation scheduling based on frequent multi-spectral image data. Currently, the operational use of dense time series of multispectral imagery at high spatial resolution makes monitoring of crop biophysical parameters feasible, capturing crop water use across the growing season, with suitable temporal and spatial resolutions. These achievements, and the availability of accurate forecasting of meteorological data, allow for precise predictions of crop water requirements with unprecedented spatial resolution. This information is greatly appreciated by the end users, i.e. professional farmers or decision-makers, and can be provided in an easy-to-use manner and in near-real-time by using the improvements achieved in web-GIS methodologies. This paper reviews the most operational and explored methods based on optical remote sensing for the assessment of crop water requirements, identifying strengths and weaknesses and proposing alternatives to advance towards full operational application of this methodology. In addition, we provide a general overview of the tools which facilitates co-creation and collaboration with stakeholders, paying special attention to these approaches based on web-GIS tools.
Tue, 13 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0028.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: VOC; technological risk; exposure to risks; DRI; risk mapping; SIG; BTEX
Online: 13 September 2016 (03:42:52 CEST)
The population’s mobility in urban areas is a necessary variable in the modeling of risk scenarios caused by atmospheric contamination. The inclusion of this concept makes static models more dynamic while considering people within a city to be an entity with complex mobility processes. We propose a conceptual and methodological tool to make the representation of the social, economic and territorial components, as well as the patterns in the population´s mobility to delimitate risk areas for human health by exposure of contaminants. In the volatile organic compounds (VOC), benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene and xylene (BTEX) are amongst the most dominant substances in fugitive vapor emissions in gas stations (GS). In urban areas, the exposure to BTEX by residential proximity and proximity to other facilities, which cause intra-urban agglomeration, can impact and affect human health. This model seeks to facilitate the focalization, identification and prioritization of risk areas by BTEX environmental contamination. This article goes beyond de conceptual framework. It suggests methodological and instrumental aspects to be applied in other cities. The government agencies must consider these results when establishing rules, permissions and procedures to reduce environmental pollution for managing the risk in a complex urban environment.
Sat, 6 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0059.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: riparian zone; transitional environment; riparian forest buffer; spatial modelling; mapping; spatial ecology; ecosystem functions
Online: 6 August 2016 (06:07:11 CEST)
Riparian zones represent ecotones between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and are of utmost importance to biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Modelling/mapping of these valuable and fragile areas is needed for an improved ecosystem management, based on an accounting of changes and on monitoring of their functioning in time. In Europe, the main legislative driver behind this goal is the European Commission’s Biodiversity Strategy to 2020, on one hand aiming at reducing biodiversity loss, on the other hand enhancing ecosystem services by 2020, and restoring them as far as feasible. A model, based on Earth Observation data, including Digital Elevation Models, hydrological, soil, land cover/land use data, and vegetation indices is employed in a multi-modular and stratified approach, based on fuzzy logic and object based image analysis, to delineate potential, observed and actual riparian zones. The approach is designed in an open modular way, allowing future modifications and repeatability. The results represent a first step of a future monitoring and assessment campaign for European riparian zones and their implications on biodiversity and on ecosystem functions and services. Considering the complexity and the enormous extent of the area, covering 39 European countries, including Turkey, the level of detail is unprecedented. Depending on the accounting modus, 0.95%–1.19% of the study area can be attributed as actual riparian area (considering Strahler’s stream orders 3-8, based on the Copernicus EU-Hydro dataset), corresponding to 55,558–69.128 km2. Similarly depending on the accounting approach, the potential riparian zones are accounted for about 3-5 times larger. Land cover/land use in detected riparian areas was mainly of semi-natural characteristics, while the potential riparian areas are predominately covered by agriculture, followed by semi-natural and urban areas.
Wed, 7 November 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0162.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: High-spatial-resolution images; Geology; Deep learning; Remote sensing
Online: 7 November 2018 (13:17:40 CET)
Geologists employ high-spatial-resolution (HR) remote sensing (RS) data for many diverse applications as they effectively reflect detailed geological information, enabling high-quality and efficient geological surveys. Applications of HR RS data to geological and related fields have grown recently. By analyzing these applications, we can better understand the results of previous studies and more effectively use the latest data and methods to efficiently extract key geological information. HR optical remote sensing data are widely used in geological hazard assessment, seismic monitoring, mineral exploitation, glacier monitoring, and mineral information extraction due to high accuracy and clear object features. Compared with optical satellite images, synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images are stereoscopic and exhibit clear relief, strong performance, and good detection of terrain, landforms, and other information. SAR images have been applied to seismic mechanism research, volcanic monitoring, topographic deformation, and fault analysis. Furthermore, a multi-standard maturity analysis of the geological applications of HR images using literature from the Science Citation Index reveals that optical remote sensing data are superior to radar data for mining, geological disaster, lithologic, and volcanic applications, but inferior for earthquake, glacial, and fault applications. Therefore, geological remote sensing research needs to be truly multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary, ensuring more detailed and efficient surveys through cross-linking with other disciplines. Moreover, the recent application of deep learning technology to remote sensing data extraction has improved automatic processing and data analysis capabilities.
Fri, 14 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0059.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: ammonium–arsenic jarosite; characterization; chemical decomposition and thermal decomposition
Online: 14 October 2016 (11:27:36 CEST)
Arsenic, an element of environmental impact, can be incorporated into jarosite–type compounds and remain stabilised within the structure under a wide range of environmental conditions. In this study, a sample of ammonium–arsenic jarosite was synthesised by precipitation in sulphate medium at controlled pH of 1.2–1.8. The behaviour of arsenic during the thermal and chemical decomposition of jarosite was analysed; the degradation in alkaline medium of jarosite was also studied. According to the results, the synthesised jarosite is composed of joined rhombohedral crystals, forming tightly spherical shaped particles, 37–54 μm size. The ammonium jarosite produced possessed a high arsenic concentration; its calculated stoichiometry being (NH4)Fe2.45[(SO4)1.80(AsO4)0.20][(OH)4.15(H20)1.85]. It was found that arsenic is stabilised in the jarosite structure; upon heating, it remains in residual solids above 700°C, whilst in alkaline medium an incongruent dissolution takes place, with the arsenic retained in the solid phase along with iron. These solids, when exposed to high temperatures (1200°C), transform into a type of iron oxide known as hematite, so with arsenic it is retained an iron compound forming a stable compound which withstands high temperatures.
Tue, 13 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0067.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: water in the soil; surface irrigation; water storage; irrigation modelling; soil hydrodynamics
Online: 13 December 2016 (09:55:18 CET)
An adequate representation of the water infiltration process in the soil allows improving the efficiency in application and the uniformity in surface irrigation. The Green and Ampt model has shown a good representation of the process, and researchers from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) determined the values of their parameters for soils of that country, which are shown in tables or through functional relationships and this information is used as reference in several parts of the world, although there is no certainty that they are representative of the soils in Mexico. In this study, the parameters of the Green & Ampt equation were determined and evaluated in some soils of agricultural importance in Mexico. The parameters were obtained in four ways: one of them applied a methodology adapted from Brooks and Corey to quantify the wetting front capillary pressure head and used an permeameter under constant hydraulic head to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity, and the other three consisted in taking them from three studies reported by the USDA. The values of the parameters suggested in Mexico drastically underestimated the results with relative errors (RE) in a range of -49.0 to -94.0% and the most representative were those obtained with the methodology proposed in this research with RE of -15.0 to 6.0%.
Mon, 7 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0036.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: multi-task learning; feature fusion; sparse representation; low-rank representation; scene classification
Online: 7 November 2016 (05:25:11 CET)
Scene classification plays an important role in the intelligent processing of high-resolution satellite (HRS) remotely sensed image. In HRS image classification, multiple features, e.g. shape, color, and texture features, are employed to represent scenes from different perspectives. Accordingly, effective integration of multiple features always results in better performance compared to methods based on a single feature in the interpretation of HRS image. In this paper, we introduce a multi-task joint sparse and low-rank representation model to combine the strength of multiple features for HRS image interpretation. Specifically, a multi-task learning formulation is applied to simultaneously consider sparse and low-rank structure across multiple tasks. The proposed model is optimized as a non-smooth convex optimization problem using an accelerated proximal gradient method. Experiments on two public scene classification datasets demonstrate that the proposed method achieves remarkable performance and improves upon the state-of-art methods in respective applications.
Fri, 21 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0091.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: hydrological processes; hillslope hydrological modeling; rainfall simulators; subsurface flow processes
Online: 21 October 2016 (09:30:21 CEST)
Hydrological processes are complex to compute on hilly areas when compared to the plain areas. Most of the hydrological model do not take into account the critical rainfall-runoff generation processes such as subsurface storm flow, saturation excess flow, overland flow, return flow and pipe storage. The simulations of the above processes in the soil matrix requires detailed hillslope hydrological modelling. In present study, a hillslope experimental plot is designed to study the runoff generation processes on the plot scale. The setup is designed keeping in view the natural hillslope conditions prevailing in the north western Himalayas, India where high intensity storm event occurs frequently. Using the experimental data and the developed conceptual model, the overland flow and the subsurface flow through macropore dominated area has been estimated/analyzed on the pixel basis. Over the experimental hillslope plot, a rainfall simulator was installed to generate the rainfall intensity in the range of 15 to 150 mm/hr which represented the dominating rainfall intensity range in the region. Soil moisture sensors were also installed at 100 mm and 300 mm depth at different locations of the plot to observe soil moisture variations. It was found that once the soil is saturated, it remains in the field capacity for next 24-36 hours. Such antecedent moisture conditions are most favorable for the generation of rapid stormflow from hillslopes. Dye infiltration test was also performed on the undisturbed soil column to observe the macropore fraction variability over the vegetated hillslopes. The surface runoff predicted using the developed hillslope hydrological model compared well with the observed surface runoff under high intensity rainfall conditions.
Thu, 3 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0024.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SWAT; model development; paddy fields; irrigation; return flow
Online: 3 November 2016 (09:42:16 CET)
The consumption of rice, which recently increases globally, leads to requirement for planning sustainable water management for paddy cultivation. In this research, SWAT model was modified to evaluate sustainability of paddy cultivation. Modifications to simulate paddy cultivation are 1) to equip with a new water balance model of impounded fields, 2) to add an irrigation management option for paddy fields, which is characterized by flood irrigation managed by farmers on a daily basis, 3) to consider puddling operation that influences water quality and infiltration rate of soil. The enhanced model, named SWAT-PADDY, was applied to an agricultural watershed in Japan as a case study. The modified model succeeded in representing paddy cultivation in the study area. However, SWAT-PADDY underestimated base flow in irrigation period. The cause of this is inferred that the modified model doesn’t represent return flow of excess withdrawal of river water. In conclusion, addition of the models of impoundment and management practices in paddy fields to SWAT improved field scale simulation of water balance and irrigation in paddy fields. However, further improvement of the model on irrigation return flow process is needed to better predict hydrology of watersheds dominated by paddy irrigation.
Wed, 24 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0202.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: HR satellite remote sensing; urban fabric vulnerability; UHI & heat waves; landsat & MODIS sensors; LST & urban heating; segmentation & objects classification; data mining; feature extraction & selection; stepwise regression & model calibration
Online: 24 August 2016 (10:19:40 CEST)
Densely urbanized areas, with a low percentage of green vegetation, are highly exposed to Heat Waves (HW) which nowadays are increasing in terms of frequency and intensity also in the middle-latitude regions, due to ongoing Climate Change (CC). Their negative effects may combine with those of the UHI (Urban Heat Island), a local phenomenon where air temperatures in the compact built up cores of towns increase more than those in the surrounding rural areas, with significant impact on the quality of urban environment, on citizens health and energy consumption and transport, as it has occurred in the summer of 2003 on France and Italian central-northern areas. In this context this work aims at designing and developing a methodology based on aero-spatial remote sensing (EO) at medium-high resolution and most recent GIS techniques, for the extensive characterization of the urban fabric response to these climatic impacts related to the temperature within the general framework of supporting local and national strategies and policies of adaptation to CC. Due to its extension and variety of built-up typologies, the municipality of Rome was selected as test area for the methodology development and validation. First of all, we started by operating through photointerpretation of cartography at detailed scale (CTR 1: 5000) on a reference area consisting of a transect of about 5x20 km, extending from the downtown to the suburbs and including all the built-up classes of interest. The reference built-up vulnerability classes found inside the transect were then exploited as training areas to classify the entire territory of Rome municipality. To this end, the satellite EO HR (High Resolution) multispectral data, provided by the Landsat sensors were used within a on purpose developed "supervised" classification procedure, based on data mining and “object-classification” techniques. The classification results were then exploited for implementing a calibration method, based on a typical UHI temperature distribution, derived from MODIS satellite sensor LST (Land Surface Temperature) data of the summer 2003, to obtain an analytical expression of the vulnerability model, previously introduced on a semi-empirical basis.
Mon, 18 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0056.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land use change; urban sprawl; Logistic regression; Markov chain; Cellular automata; Gilan Province
Online: 18 July 2016 (11:53:16 CEST)
Although, promotion of urbanization culture in recent decades has made inevitable development of cities in the world, however, the development can be guided in a direction that leave, to the extent possible, minimum socioeconomic and environmental impacts. For this, it is required to first forecast auto-spreading orientation of cities and suburbs in rural areas over time and then avoid shapeless growth of cities. This paper is an attempt to develop a dynamic hybrid model based on logistic regression (LR), Markov chain (MC), and cellular automata (CA) for prediction of future urban sprawl in fast-growing cities. The model was developed using 12 widely-used urban development criteria, whose significant coefficient was determined by logistic regression, and validated by relative operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The validated model was run in Guilan, a tourist province in northern Iran with a very high rate of urban development. For this, changes in the area of urban land use were detected over the period of 1989 to 2013 and then, future sprawl of the province was forecasted by the years 2025 and 2037. The analysis results revealed that the area of urban land use was increased by more than 1.7 % from 36012.5 ha in 1989 to 59754.8 ha in 2013, and the area of Caspian Hyrcanian forestland was reduced by 31628 ha. The results also predicted an alarming increase in the rate of urban development in the province by the years 2025 and 2037, during which urban land use is predicted to develop 0.9 % and 1.38 %, respectively. The development pattern is expected to be uneven and scattered, without following any particular direction. The development will occur close to the existing or newly-formed urban basements as well as around major roads and commercial areas. This development, if not controlled, will lead to the loss of 13863 ha of Hyrcanian forests and if the trend continues, 21013 ha of Hyrcanian forests and 20208 ha of Barren/open lands are expected to be destroyed by the year 2037. In general, the proposed model is an efficient tool for the support of urban planning decisions and facilitates the process of sustainable development of cities by providing decision-makers with an overview on future development of cities where the growth rate is very fast.
Mon, 12 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0062.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agricultural productivity; agrometeorology; climate change; crop yield
Online: 12 December 2016 (09:59:28 CET)
In Bangladesh, climate change is a major concern because of its geophysical location and climate dependent agriculture. As sessile organisms, crops plants have to face difficulties often in this environmentally vulnerable country. Therefore, this study examines the seasonal trend of two climatic parameters viz. temperature (maximum and minimum) and rainfall over a period of 1983 to 2013. Besides, this study provides insight into the relationship between climatic parameters and crop yield of two major crops viz. rice and wheat during 1997-2013. To assess the relationship of climatic parameters with time and yield using Pearson correlation analysis, time series data used at an aggregate level. SPSS software utilized for this analysis. The cropping seasons such as rice growing seasons Aus (summer rice), Aman (autumn rice) and Boro (winter rice) exhibited a significant increase in maximum and minimum temperature. Rainfall found to have a decreasing trend for all the seasons. This study also revealed that the climatic parameters had significant effects on rice yield, but these results varied among three rice crops. Maximum temperature had positive effects on all rice yields, especially on Aus and Aman. Minimum temperature had a negative effect on Aman rice yield but a positive effect on Aus rice yield. Wheat yield negatively associated with temperature. Rainfall exhibited negative relation with both rice and wheat yield.
Tue, 9 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0098.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: ET; CWR; landsat ETM+; remote sensing; SEBAL; SSEB; SSEBop
Online: 9 August 2016 (12:27:09 CEST)
Remote sensing datasets are increasingly being used to provide spatially explicit large scale evapotranspiration (ET) estimates. The focus of this study was to estimate and thematically map pixel-by-pixel basis, and compare the actual evapotranspiration (ETa) of the Wonji Shoa Sugarcane Estate using Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEB) and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop) algorithms on Landsat7 ETM+ images acquired on four days in 2002. The algorithms were based on image processing which uses spatially distributed spectral satellite data and ground meteorological data to derive the surface energy balance components. The results obtained revealed that the ranges of the daily ETa estimated on January 25, February 26, September 06 and October 08, 2002 using SEBAL were 0.0–6.85, 0.0–9.36, 0.0–3.61, 0.0–6.83 mm/day; using SSEB 0.0–6.78, 0.0–7.81, 0.0–3.65, 0.0–6.46 mm/day, and SSEBop were 0.05–8.25, 0.0–8.82, 0.2–4.0, 0.0–7.40 mm/day, respectively. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values between SSEB and SEBAL, SSEBop and SEBAL, and SSEB and SSEBop were 0.548, 0.548, and 0.99 for January 25, 2002; 0.739, 0.753, and 0.994 for February 26, 2002;0.847, 0.846, and 0.999 for September 06, 2002; 0.573, 0.573, and 1.00 for October 08, 2002, respectively. The standard deviation of ETa over the sugarcane estate showed high spatio-temporal variability perhaps due to soil moisture variability and surface cover. The three algorithm results showed that well watered sugarcane fields in the mid-season growing stage of the crop and water storage areas had higher ETa values compared with the other dry agricultural fields confirming that they consumptively use more water. Generally during the dry season ETa is limited to water surplus areas only and in wet season, ETa was high throughout the entire sugarcane estate. The evaporation fraction (ETrF) results also followed the same pattern as the daily ETa over the sugarcane estate. The total crop and irrigation water requirement and effective rainfall estimated using the Cropwat model were 2468.8, 2061.6 and 423.8 mm/yr for January 2001 planted and 2281.9, 1851.0 and 437.8 mm/yr for March 2001 planted sugarcanes, respectively. The mean annual ETa estimated for the whole estate were 107 Mm3, 140 Mm3, and 178 Mm3 using SEBAL, SSEB, and SSEBop, respectively. Even though the algorithms should be validated through field observation, they have potential to be used for effective estimation of ET in the sugarcane estate.
Tue, 1 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0010.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: millimeter-wavelength cloud radar; attenuation correction; dual-radar; data fusion
Online: 1 November 2016 (10:05:18 CET)
In order to correct attenuated millimeter-wavelength (Ka-band) radar data and address the problem of instability, an attenuation correction methodology (attenuation correction with variation trend constraint; VTC) was developed. Using synchronous observation conditions and multi-band radars, the VTC method adopts the variation trends of reflectivity in X-band radar data captured with wavelet transform as a constraint to adjust reflectivity factors of millimeter-wavelength radar. The correction was evaluated by comparing reflectivities obtained by millimeter-wavelength cloud radar and X-band weather radar. Experiments showed that attenuation was a major contributory factor in the different reflectivities of the two radars when relatively intense echoes exist, and the attenuation correction developed in this study significantly improved data quality for millimeter-wavelength radar. Reflectivity differences between the two radars were reduced and reflectivity correlations were enhanced. Errors caused by attenuation were eliminated, while variation details in the reflectivity factors were retained. The VTC method is superior to the bin-by-bin method in terms of correction amplitude and can be used for attenuation correction of shorter wavelength radar assisted by longer wavelength radar data.
Mon, 31 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0139.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: glacier mass balance; runoff; Tianshan Mts.; Koxkar River Basin; HBV model; interpolation
Online: 31 October 2016 (09:43:50 CET)
Water resources provided by alpine glaciers are an important pillar for people living in the arid regions in the west of China. In this study, the HBV (Hydrologiska Byrans Vattenavdelning) light model was applied to simulate glacier mass balance and runoff in the Koxkar River Basin (KRB) on the south slope of Mt. Tumur, western Tianshan Mts.. Daily temperature and precipitation were calculated by multiple linear regressions and gradient-inverse distance weighting, respectively, based on in-situ observed data by automatic weather stations (AWSs) in the basin (2007–2009) and at four meteorological stations neighbering the basin (1959–2009). Observed daily air temperature and precipitation were taken as input data for the HBV model, which was calibrated using runoff in 2007/08 and 2009/10, and validated in 2008/09 and 2010/11. Generally, the model could simulate runoff very well. The annual glacier mass balance and runoff were calculated using the HBV model driven by interpolated meteorological data for the period of 1959–2009. The simulated glacier mass balance were reasonable when compared with those observed values at nearby glaciers, indicating a decrease trend of mass balance in the basin with an average value of –370.4 mm a-1 since 1959. The annual runoff showed a slight increase trend (5.51 mm a-1). Futher analysis indicated that the runoff is more sensitive to temperature than precipitation amuont in the Koxkar river basin.
Thu, 6 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0008.v3
Online: 6 October 2016 (08:52:44 CEST)
The properties of the annual, semiannual and triennial oscillations (AO, SAO and TO) in the middle atmosphere have been investigated using the TIMED/SABER temperature data. The Lomb-Scargle and wavelet spectra were used to determine the dominant oscillations in the background temperature field. The AO is prominent at the mid-latitudes. The AO amplitudes present an asymmetry between the two Hemispheres, being larger in the mesosphere than in the stratosphere. The SAO dominates the tropical regions, with three amplitude maxima at altitudes of 45, 75, and 85 km. The SAOs in the upper mesosphere (75 km) are out of phase with those in the mesopause (85 km) in the tropical regions, which can generate an enhancement of 11 K at each equinox, contributing to the lower mesospheric inversion layer. The TO is significant in the tropical region, with amplitude being maximum at 35, 45 and 85 km. Result shows that there may be potential interaction by the TO with SAO at 85km at the equator. The relation between ENSO and TO has also been discussed. The ENSO signal may modulate the amplitude of the TO, mainly in the lower stratosphere. The real origin of the TO may lie in the wave-mean-flow interaction.
Fri, 2 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0009.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: Sentinel-2; remote sensing; European Space Agency; Copernicus; continental; cloud-free; composite; darkest pixel; maximum NDVI
Online: 2 June 2017 (05:03:53 CEST)
The processing of cloud free geo-referenced imagery is one of the preliminary processing step of any land application. This letter describe the methodology developed to obtain a seamless cloud free composite of Africa for 2016 using Sentinel-2A data at 10 meters resolution freely available from the European Space Agency. The method is based on an hybrid method resulting from the merging of the two most robust time series methods namely the "darkest pixel" and the "maximum NDVI" previously developed with AVHRR time series.
Tue, 23 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0193.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: chromophoric dissolved organic matter; polluted waters; optical properties; Yinma River watershed
Online: 23 August 2016 (10:35:36 CEST)
Spectral characteristics of CDOM in water column are a key parameter for bio-optical modeling. Knowledge of CDOM optical properties and spatial discrepancy based on the relationship between water quality and spectral parameters in Yinma River watershed with in situ data collected highly-polluted waters are exhibited in this study. Seasonal field data sets collected over a period of 2 months in 2015 in Yinma River Watershed. Based on the comprehensive index method, the riverine waters showed serious contamination, especially the COD, Fe, Mn, Hg and DO were out of range contamination warning. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total suspended matter (TSM) with prominent non-homogenizing were significantly high in the riverine waters, but chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) was opposite. Ternary phase diagram showed that non-algal paritcles absorption played an important role in total non-water light absorption (>50%) in most sampling locations, and mean contribution of CDOM were 13% and 22% in summer and autumn respectively. Analysis of ratio of absorption at 250-365 nm (E250:365) and spectral slope (S275-295) indicated that CDOM had higher aromaticity and molecular weight in autumn than in summer, is consistent with the results of water quality and relative contribution. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that the environmental variables OSM had a strong correlation with CDOM absorption, followed by heavy metal, e.g., Mn, Hg and Cr6+. However, for the specific UV absorbance (SUVA254), the seasonal values showed opposite results compared with the reported literature. The potential reasons were the more UDOM (uncolored Dissolved Organic Matter) from human source (wastewater effluent) existed in waters. Terrigenous inputs simultaneously are in relation to the aCDOM(440)-DOC relationship with the correlation coefficient was 0.90 in summer (2-tailed, p<0.01), and 0.58 in autumn (2-tailed, p<0.05). Spatial distribution of CDOM parameters exhibited that the downstream regions focused on dry land have high CDOM molecular weight and aromatic hydrocarbon. Partial sampling locations around the cities or countries generally showed abnormal values due to terrigenous inputs. As a bio-optical model parameter, spectral characteristic of CDOM is helpful in adjusting the derived algorithms in highly-polluted environments. The study on organic carbon and pollutants in highly-polluted waters had an important contribution to global carbon balance estimation and water environment protection.
Mon, 1 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0003.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: seasonally frozen soil; frost heave; soil moisture content; soil type; freezing depth; soil porosity
Online: 1 August 2016 (09:47:52 CEST)
Frost heave, which is the volumetric expansion of frozen soil, has great ecological significance, since it creates water storage spaces in soils at the beginning of the growing season in cold temperate forests. To understand the characteristics of frost heave in seasonally frozen soil and the factors that impact its extent, we investigated the frost heave rates of forest soil from different depths and with different soil moisture contents, using both lab-based simulation and in situ measurement in a broadleaved Korean pine forest in the Changbai Mountains (northeastern China). We found that frost heave was mainly affected by soil moisture content, soil type, and gravitational pressure. Frost heave rate increased linearly with soil moisture content, and for each 100% increase in soil moisture content, the frost heave rate increased by 41.6% (loam, upper layer), 17.2% (albic soil, middle layer), and 4.6% (loess, lower layer). Under the same soil moisture content, the frost heave rate of loam was highest, whereas that of loess was lowest, and the frost heave of the uppermost 15 cm, which is the biologically enriched layer, accounted for ~55% of the frost heave. As a result, we determined the empirical relationship between frost heave and freezing depth, which is important for interpreting the effects of frost heave on increases in the storage space of forest soils and for calculating changes in soil porosity.
Wed, 28 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0113.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microphytobenthos; intertidal mudflat; primary production; hyperspectral; growth forms; LUE; ETR
Online: 28 September 2016 (11:43:29 CEST)
Monitoring photosynthesis is a great challenge to improve our knowledge of plant productivity at the ecosystem level, which may be achieved using remote-sensing techniques with synoptic abilities. The main objective of the current study is to take up this challenge for microphytobenthos (MPB) primary production in intertidal mudflats. This was achieved by coupling hyperspectral radiometry (reflectance, ρ and second derivative, δδ) and PAM-fluorometry (non-sequential light curve, NSLC) measurements. The later allowed the estimation of the primary production via the light use efficiency (LUE) and the electron transport rate (ETR) whereas ρ allowed to estimate pigment composition and optical absorption cross-section (a*). Five MPB species representative of the main growth forms: epipelic (benthic motile), epipsammic (benthic motile and non motile) and thycoplanktonic (temporarily resuspended in the water column) were lighted at increasing light intensity from dark to 1950 µmol photons.m-2.s-1. After spectral measurements, a* was retrieved using a radiative transfer model and several radiometric indices were tested for their capacity to predict LUE and ETR. The spectral estimation of these two photosynthetic variables was subsequently compared to the values estimated by PAM-fluorometry. Results showed that different responses related to the xanthophyll cycle (de-epoxydation state) were observed for the three growth-forms with increasing light levels. However, a single relationship with radiometric index was not affected by species/growth-forms, i.e. δδ496/508, called the MPBLUE index to predict LUE and ETR. This index has the potential to be applied to air borne hyperspectral imagery for large-scale assessment of MPB production.
Thu, 29 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0144.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Green Space; NDVI; Per Capita; Urbanization
Online: 29 December 2016 (16:04:18 CET)
Green spaces take part a vital role in reducing the harmful effects occurred through the process of rapid urbanization. This study focuses on evaluating the change of green space and per capita green space in Colombo District, Sri Lanka in between 2008 and 2015 using Landsat images. The NDVI differencing method and classification method were used to detect the change of land cover. According to the results, a gradual decline of green space from 629.1km2 to 591.16km2 with a rate of 6.03% can be depicted. The change is considerable in Kaduwela, Moratuwa and Maharagama DSDs and quite better in the areas such as Avissawella, Homagama and Padukka. The per capita green space has been decreased from 272.361 m2 to 248.811 m2. Though these rates are very well higher than the UN, EU and WHO standards for the district, Colombo DSD do not comply with UN and EU standards. The case would turn into worst in 2025, as the predictions with current rates. Therefore, the study recommends taking immediate actions to make a greener city. Further, a tax system is proposed to get the attraction of the general public.
Wed, 24 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0229.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Palaeontology Keywords: Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO); nannoplankton; temperature changes; Cibulakan Formation
Online: 24 January 2018 (18:50:42 CET)
Global climatic event on Middle Miocene triggered by geology activity is called by Mid- Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO). This event was widely distributed and associated with increasing temperature and CO2 content in the atmosphere. The effect of MMCO was widely known the mid-latitude region, but still limited information in low latitude sediments. This study try to perform the effect of MMCO at Cibulakan Formation in which deposited in the low latitude basin, Bogor Basin. Fifty eights samples from Cileungsi River were taken at Cibulakan Formation and quantitative nannoplankton analysis was carried out for this study. Nannoplankton shows the sensitive response with sea surface temperature changes. Increasing of total population nannoplankton indicates the rising of temperature and dropping temperature is marked by decreasing population. The effect of sea surface temperature changes relates with salinity changes as the effect of evaporation. Helicosphaera carteri and Umbilicosphaera jafari were counted to know the salinity trend at Cibulakan Formation. Sea surfaces temperature changes was observed on Early Miocene which was influenced by small scale Early Miocene glaciation and active tectonic during this period. Warming temperature taken place on Middle Miocene as the effect of warm and open sea during Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum. Afterwards, hot temperature continued on Late Miocene triggered by global increasing temperature at Pacific Ocean and widely distribution of clean water at North West Java Basin.
Sun, 18 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0061.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: dry intrusion; Stratosphere-troposphere exchange; mid-latitude; satellite
Online: 18 September 2016 (10:27:56 CEST)
Dry intrusion is an important mid-latitude atmosphere phenomenon within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is always found to be related to the cyclogenesis, rainstorm, as well as convection generation and precipitation enhancement. Since the atmosphere environment for any of these above-mentioned weather is terribly complicated, those preexisting popular schemes which takes no account of water vapor may not suitable for detecting the dry intrusion related to these weathers. With regard to the merits and demerits of the current preexisting schemes, a new scheme based on Fengyun-2E geo-stationary satellite data is presented in this study to detect the atmospheric dry intrusion. The scheme is set up based on the statistical relationship between water vapor at high level troposphere, the general moist potential vorticity, ozone concentration and upper-level jet. After using the total amount of ozone and ozone profile operational products retrieved by Fengyun-3 Polar Orbiting Meteorological Satellites and the potential vorticity calculated by ECMWF Interim data for validation, this scheme is applied to analyze two typical middle-latitude weather processes. One is the famous Beijing extreme rainfall of 21 July 2012 and the other is a hailstorm occurred on the eastern China during March 19, 2014. A good application effect in both cases suggests that our new method of detecting dry intrusion is feasible and can be helpful in middle-latitude disastrous weather monitoring and forecasting.
Fri, 30 December 2016
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0150.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Environmental Assessment Report (EAR); environmental health; Environmental Management/Environmental Management Systems (EM/EMS) Model; Environmental Management Plan (EMP); Multinational oil companies (MOCs); Niger Delta; Ogoni; Ogoniland; Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC); United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP)
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:39:30 CET)
In August 4 2011, United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) submitted an unprecedented, scientific, groundbreaking Environmental Assessment Report (EAR) of Ogoniland, to the Nigerian government. This was the outcome of a 14–month intensive evaluation of the extent of pollution. It was intended that UNEP’s recommendations would be implemented to restore the devastated environment, on the one hand, and on the other, counteract the numerous environmental health issues that have for decades, plagued Ogoniland. However, five years post EAR, and, despite the seriousness of the situation, no significant resolution has occurred, both on the part of the government, and on the part of Shell Petroleum Development Company (SPDC) or Shell. To date, millions of Niger Delta residents, particularly those living in the oil-bearing communities, continue to suffer severe consequences. Although, the assessment was conducted in Ogoniland, other communities in the Niger Delta are also affected. This article explores prevailing issues, using Ogoniland (a microcosm of the Niger Delta) as an example. A multidisciplinary approach for sustainable mitigation of environmental health risks in the Niger Delta is paramount, and Environmental Management tools offer valuable strategies. Adopting UNEP’s recommendations for addressing environmental health problems requires implementing the Environmental Management/Environmental Management System (EM/EMS) model.
Sat, 8 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0023.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: climate change; water cycle; downscaling; hydrological model; Yangtze River; Yellow River; Tibetan Plateau
Online: 8 October 2016 (11:29:05 CEST)
Climate change is a global issue that draws widespread attention from the international society. As an important component of the climate system, the water cycle is directly affected by climate change. Thus, it is very important to study the influences of climate change on the basin water cycle with respect to maintenance of healthy rivers, sustainable use of water resources, and sustainable socioeconomic development in the basin. In this study, by assessing the suitability of multiple General Circulation Models (GCMs) recommended by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM) and Automated Statistical Downscaling model (ASD) were used to generate future climate change scenarios. These were then used to drive distributed hydrologic models (Variable Infiltration Capacity, Soil and Water Assessment Tool) for hydrological simulation of the Yangtze River and Yellow River basins, thereby quantifying the effects of climate change on the basin water cycle. The results showed that suitability assessment adopted in this study could effectively reduce the uncertainty of GCMs, and that statistical downscaling was able to greatly improve precipitation and temperature outputs in global climate mode. Compared to a baseline period (1961–1990), projected future periods (2046–2065 and 2081–2100) had a slightly decreasing tendency of runoff in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin. In particular, a significant increase in runoff was observed during flood seasons in the southeast part. However, runoff of the upper Yellow River basin decreased continuously. The results provide a reference for studying climate change in major river basins of China.
Wed, 2 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0019.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: satellite; rainfall; estimates; rain gauge; uncertainties; topography; seasonality; East Africa
Online: 2 November 2016 (09:25:04 CET)
Accurate and consistent rainfall observations are vital for climatological studies in support of better planning and decision making. However, estimation of accurate spatial rainfall is limited by sparse rain gauge distributions. Satellite rainfall products can thus potentially play a role in spatial rainfall estimation but their skill and uncertainties need to be under-stood across spatial-time scales. This study aimed at assessing the temporal and spatial performance of seven satellite products (TARCAT (Tropical Applications of Meteorology using SATellite and ground-based observations (TAMSAT) African Rainfall Climatology And Time series), Climate Hazards Group InfraRed Precipitation with Station data (CHIRPS), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM-3B43), Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Morphing (CMORPH), the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks- Climate Data Record (PERSIANN-CDR), CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP) and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) using gridded (0.05o) rainfall data over East Africa for 15 years(1998-2012). The products’ error distributions were qualitatively compared with large scale horizontal winds (850 mb) and elevation patterns with respect to corresponding rain gauge data for each month during the ‘long’ (March-May) and ‘short’ (October-December) rainfall seasons. For validation only rainfall means extracted from 284 rain gauge stations were used, from which qualitative analysis using continuous statistics of Root Mean Squared Difference, Standard deviations, Correlations, coefficient of determinations (from scatter plots) were used to evaluate the products’ performance. Results revealed rainfall variability dependence on wind flows and modulated by topographic influences. The products’ errors showed seasonality and dependent on rainfall intensity and topography. Single sensor and coarse resolution products showed lowest performance on high ground areas. All the products showed low skills in retrieving rainfall during ‘short’ rainfall season when orographic processes were dominant. CHIRPS, CMORPH and TRMM performed well, with TRMM showing the best performance in both seasons. There is need to reduce products’ errors before applications.
Wed, 31 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0237.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: AirMOSS; radar backscatter; P-band remote sensing; root zone; soil moisture profile; Richards’ equation
Online: 31 August 2016 (08:48:11 CEST)
P-band radar remote sensing applied during the Airborne Microwave Observatory of Subcanopy and Subsurface (AirMOSS) mission has shown great potential for estimation of root zone soil moisture. When retrieving the soil moisture profile (SMP) from P-band radar, a mathematical function describing the vertical moisture distribution is required. Because only a limited number of observations are available, the number of free parameters of the mathematical model must not exceed the number of observed data. For example, a second order polynomial that contains 3 free parameters was presumed based on in-situ SMP data. The polynomial is currently parameterized based on 3 backscatter observations provided by AirMOSS (i.e. one frequency at three polarizations of HH, VV and HV). In this paper, a more realistic, physically-based SMP model containing 3 free parameters is derived based on a solution to Richards’ equation for unsaturated flow in soils. Evaluation of the new SMP model based on both numerical simulations and measured data revealed that it exhibits greater flexibility for fitting measured and simulated SMPs than the currently applied polynomial. It is also demonstrated that the new SMP model can be reduced to a second order polynomial at the expense of fitting accuracy.
Mon, 15 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0153.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Eco-security; Land use and cover change (LUCC); Sustainability development and assessment
Online: 15 August 2016 (12:41:51 CEST)
Land use and cover change (LUCC) is an important method to investigate the causes of global environment change. We utilized the emergy ecological footprint (EEF) model to construct a land-use change model to be used as a systematic measuring tool for monitoring sustainable development trends. In particular, we estimated the eco-security of the Cing-jing region as a case study so that responsible agencies can use it to maintain a balance between ecological preservation and tourism development. The results indicated the following: First, the ecological environment of the Cing-jing region satisfied the safety standard in 2008–2014; however, the related indices increased considerably. Second, the grey model predicted a decrease in 2015–2024 ecological carrying capacities of Cing-jing and a large increase in capita EFs, resulting in a larger ecological deficit and higher EFI. The eco-security from 2015–2024 was higher compared to 7 years ago and is predicted to reach the Grade 2 intermediate level in 2022; thus the Cing-jing region is gradually becoming ecologically unsustainable. Strengths of our study included the use of EEF theory in a quantitative analysis of slope lands for the effective evaluation of ecological security. Finally, we expanded our research to include ecological security issues.
Fri, 26 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0214.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: land-use/land-cover (LULC); uncertainty; bootstrap resampling; chi-square threshold; class probability vector (CPV); entropy
Online: 26 August 2016 (11:56:26 CEST)
Supervised land-use/land-cover (LULC) classifications are typically conducted using class assignment rules derived from a set of multiclass training samples. Consequently, classification accuracy varies with the training data set and is thus associated with uncertainty. In this study, we propose a bootstrap resampling and reclassification approach that can be applied for assessing not only the uncertainty in classification results of the bootstrap-training data sets, but also the classification uncertainty of individual pixels in the study area. Two measures of pixel-specific classification uncertainty, namely the maximum class probability and Shannon entropy, were derived from the class probability vector of individual pixels and used for the identification of unclassified pixels. Unclassified pixels that are identified using the traditional chi-square threshold technique represent outliers of individual LULC classes, but they are not necessarily associated with higher classification uncertainty. By contrast, unclassified pixels identified using the equal-likelihood technique are associated with higher classification uncertainty and they mostly occur on or near the borders of different land-cover.
Fri, 15 July 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0041.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: natural gas hydrate; five forces model; intuitional arrangement
Online: 15 July 2016 (11:33:39 CEST)
Natural gas hydrate, also known as combustible ice and mainly composed of methane, it is identified as the potential clean energy in the 21th century. Due to its large reserves, gas hydrate can ease problems caused by energy resource shortage and has gained attention around the world. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and development of gas hydrate as well as discussing its status and future development trend in China and abroad, then we analyze its opportunities and challenges in China from four aspects: resource, technology, economy and police with five forces model and PEST method. The results show, China has abundance gas hydrate resource; however the backward technologies and inadequate investment has seriously hindered the future development of gas hydrate, so China should establish relevant cooperation framework and intuitional arrangement to attract more investment as well as breaking through technical difficulties to make gas hydrate commercialization as soon as possible.
Thu, 27 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0116.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: solar cyclic variability; Canonical and Modoki ENSO; Indian summer monsoon
Online: 27 October 2016 (11:31:29 CEST)
A flow-chart is presented depicting atmosphere-ocean coupling, which is initiated by decadal solar variability. Possible mechanisms for Canonic ENSO, Modoki ENSO and Canonic-Modoki ENSO are proposed and their relevance to the decadal variation of Hadley, Walker circulation and mid-latitude jets are discussed. We also show subsequent teleconnections by ENSO for eg., on ISM with a special emphasis on later two decades of the last century. As there is a disruption of the usual ENSO-ISM teleconnection, we discussed on possible mechanism. The role of volcanos and the change in sun-NAO connection were discussed. The regional Hadley circulation, via NAO in the northern hemisphere and Indian Ocean Dipole in the southern hemisphere, may have a role in the change of ISM behaviour. Such flow-chart helps to improve our understanding of various types of ENSO in both temporal as well as spatial scale. It subsequently can benefit the modelling community by improved representation of ENSO in models.
Sun, 18 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0091.v1
Online: 18 December 2016 (05:12:01 CET)
Large-scale hydrological modeling in China is challenging given the sparse meteorological stations and large uncertainties associated with atmospheric forcing data. Here we introduce the development and use of the China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Datasets for the SWAT model (CMADS) in the Heihe River Basin(HRB) for improving hydrologic modeling, by leveraging the datasets from the China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS)(including climate data from nearly 40000 area encryption stations, 2700 national automatic weather stations, FengYun (FY) 2 satellite and radar stations). CMADS uses the Space Time Multiscale Analysis System (STMAS) to fuse data based on ECWMF ambient field and ensure data accuracy. In addition, compared with CLDAS, CMADS includes relative humidity and climate data of varied resolutions to drive hydrological models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. Here, we compared climate data from CMADS, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) and traditional weather station (TWS) climate forcing data and evaluated their applicability for driving large scale hydrologic modeling with SWAT. In general, CMADS has higher accuracy than CFRS when evaluated against observations at TWS; CMADS also provides spatially continuous climate field to drive distributed hydrologic models, which is an important advantage over TWS climate data, particular in regions with sparse weather stations. Therefore, SWAT model simulations driven with CMADS and TWS achieved similar performances in terms of monthly and daily stream flow simulations, and both of them outperformed CFRS. For example, for the three hydrological stations (Ying Luoxia, Qilian Mountain, and ZhaMasheke) in the HRB at the monthly and daily Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency ranges of 0.75-0.95 and 0.58-0.78, respectively, which are much higher than corresponding efficiency statistics achieved with CFSR (monthly: 0.32-0.49 and daily: 0.26 – 0.45). The CMADS dataset is available free of charge and is expected to a valuable addition to the existing climate reanalysis datasets for deriving distributed hydrologic modeling in China and other countries in East Asia.
Mon, 12 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0064.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Downwelling surface longwave radiation (DSLR); dust aerosol; aerosol optical depth (AOD); MODIS
Online: 12 December 2016 (14:58:20 CET)
The variation of aerosols, especially dust aerosol, in time and space plays an important role in climate forcing studies. Aerosols can effectively reduce land surface longwave emission and re-emit energy at a colder temperature, making estimation of downwelling surface longwave radiation (DSLR) with satellite data difficult. Using the latest atmospheric radiative transfer code (MODTRAN 5.0), we simulate the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and DSLR under different land surface and atmospheric profile conditions. The results show that dust aerosol has an obvious “warming” effect to longwave radiation compared with other aerosols, that aerosol longwave radiative forcing (ALRF) increased with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD), and that the atmospheric water vapor content (WVC) is critical to the understanding of ALRF. A method is proposed to improve the accuracy of DSLR estimation from satellite data for the skies under heavy dust aerosols. The AOD and atmospheric WVC under cloud-free conditions with a relatively simple satellite-based radiation model that yields the high accurate DSLR under heavy dust aerosol are used explicitly as model input to reduce the effects of dust aerosol on the estimation of DSLR. Validations of the proposed model with satellites data and field measurements show that it estimates the DSLR accurately under heavy dust aerosol skies. The root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 20.4 W/M2 and 24.2 W/M2 for Terra and Aqua satellites, respectively, at the Yingke site, and the biases are 2.7 W/M2 and 9.6 W/M2, respectively. For the Arvaikheer site, the RMSEs are 23.2 W/M2 and 19.8 W/M2 for Terra and Aqua, respectively, and the biases are 7.8 W/M2 and 10.5 W/M2, respectively. The proposed method is especially applicable to acquire relatively high accurate DSLR under heavy dust aerosol using MODIS data with available WVC and AOD data.
Fri, 2 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0018.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: ionospheric delay, Kriging spatial interpolation, semivariogram, variance component estimation, CMONOC
Online: 2 December 2016 (17:13:10 CET)
Ionospheric delay has been a critical issue that limits the accuracy of GNSS precise positioning and navigation for single-frequency users, especially in mid- and low-latitude regions where irregularity of ionosphere is often significant. Kriging spatial interpolation techniques have been recently introduced to model the spatial correlation and variability of ionosphere, which intrinsically assume that the ionosphere field is stochastically stationary but does not take the random observational errors into account. In this paper, by treating the spatial statistical information on ionosphere as prior knowledge and based on TEC semivariogram analysis, we use Kriging techniques to spatially interpolate TEC values. By assuming that the stochastic models of both the ionospheric signals and measurement errors are only known up to some unknown factors, we propose a new Kriging spatial interpolation method with unknown variance components for both the signals of ionosphere and TEC measurements. Variance component estimation has been integrated with Kriging to reconstruct regional ionospherical delay. The method has been applied to data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) and compared with the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolations with spherical cap harmonic functions, polynomial functions and low-degree spherical harmonic functions. The results have shown that the interpolation accuracy of the new proposed method is better than the ordinary Kriging and polynomial interpolation by about 1.2 TECU and 0.7 TECU, respectively. The root mean squared error of the proposed new Kriging with variance components is within 1.5 TECU and is smaller than those from other methods under comparison by about 1 TECU. When compared with ionospheric grid points, the mean squared error of the proposed method is within 6 TECU and smaller than Kriging, indicating that the proposed method can produce more accurate ionospheric delays and better estimation accuracy.
Wed, 10 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0093.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: water level measurement; surface hydrology; unmanned aerial vehicle; drone; dam
Online: 10 January 2018 (17:48:03 CET)
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are now filling in the gaps between spaceborne and ground-based observations and enhancing the spatial resolution and temporal coverage of data acquisition. In the realm of hydrological observations, UAVs have a key role to quantitatively characterize the surface flow allowing for remotely accessing the water body of interest. In this paper we propose a technology which uses a sensing platform encompassing a drone and a camera to determine the water level. The images acquired my means of the sensing platform are then analyzed using the Canny method to detect the edges of water level and of Ground Control Points (GCPs) used as reference points. The water level is then retrieved from images and compared to a benchmark value obtained by a traditional device. The method is tested at four locations in an artificial lake in central Italy. Results are encouraging as the overall mean error between estimated and true water level values is around 0.02 m. This technology is well suited to improve hydraulic modeling and thus provide a reliable support to flood mitigation strategies also in uneasy-to-access environments.
Thu, 21 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0147.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: wastewater recovery; innovative treatment technologies; electro-flotation; reverse logistics system
Online: 21 December 2017 (03:55:44 CET)
Proper management of water is a challenge for every individual but especially for companies. Nowadays also legislation obliges companies to clean the wastewater before being discharged into municipal public sewer especially if they use some chemicals or oily elements in their production process. Construction of the wastewater cleaner depends directly on the way of pollution, the amount of contaminated water and the energy demand of the cleaning process. The paper deals with the construction of the wastewater cleaner, which is based on the technology of electro-flotation for the treatment of water contaminated with disperse colorants. The experimental work as well as the modelling using the statistical methods proved the suitability of the chosen technology. Also, each colour combination requires a specific time period for the water treatment. The authors determined the time interval for cleaning the wastewater that was polluted with yellow colour to 33 minutes. Finally, the wastewater cleaner that is based on the electro-flotation technology was included in the company’s reverse logistics system.
Wed, 26 October 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0113.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pedestrian; traffic; ultrafine particles; school; children; exposure
Online: 26 October 2016 (10:31:30 CEST)
Walking School Buses (WSBs) provide a safe alternative to being driven to school. Children benefit from the contribution the exercise provides towards their daily exercise target, it gives children practical experience with respect to road safety and helps to relieve traffic congestion around the entrance to their school. Walking routes are designed largely based in road safety considerations, catchment need and the availability of parent support. However, little attention is given to the air pollution exposure experienced by children during their journey to school, despite the commuting microenvironment being an important contributor to a child’s daily air pollution exposure. This study aims to quantify the air pollution exposure experienced by children walking to school and those being driven by car. A school was chosen in Bradford, UK. Three adult participants carried out the journey to and from school each carrying a P-Trak ultrafine particle (UFP) count monitor. One participant travelled the journey to school by car while the other two walked, each on opposite sides of the road for the majority of the journey. Data collection was carried out over a period of two weeks, for a total of five journeys to school in the morning and five on the way home at the end of the school day. Results of the study suggest that car commuters experience lower levels of air pollution dose due to lower exposures and reduced commute times. The largest reductions in exposure for pedestrians can be achieved by avoiding close proximity to traffic queuing up to intersections, and, where possible, walking on the side of the road opposite the traffic, especially during the morning commuting period. Major intersections should also be avoided as they were associated with peak exposures. Steps to ensure that the phasing of lights is optimized to minimize pedestrian waiting time would also help reduce exposures. If possible, busy roads should be avoided altogether. By the careful design of WSB routes, taking into account air pollution, children will be able to experience the benefits that walking to school brings while minimizing their air pollution exposure during their commute to and from school.
Sat, 30 September 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: groundwater; hydrogeological structures; remote sensing; aeromagnetic survey; radial vertical electrical sounding
Online: 30 September 2017 (12:29:44 CEST)
Aeromagnetic data coupled with Landsat ETM+ data and SRTM DEM have been processed in order to map regional hydrogeological structures in the basement complex region of Paiko, north-central Nigeria. Lineaments were extracted from derivative maps from aeromagnetic, Landsat ETM+ and SRTM DEM datasets. Ground geophysical investigation utilizing Radial Vertical Electrical Sounding (RVES) was established in nine transects comprising of four sounding stations which are oriented in three azimuths. Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) was employed to map the average depths structures from aeromagnetic dataset. Selected thematic layers which included lineaments density, lithologic, slope, drainage density and geomorphologic maps were integrated and modelled using ArcGIS to generate groundwater potential map of the area. Groundwater zones were classified into four categories: very good, good, moderate and poor according to their potential to yield sustainable water to drilled wells. Results from RVES survey reveal a close correlation to lineaments delineated from surface structural mapping and remotely sensed datasets. Hydrogeological significance of these orientations suggest that aeromagnetic data can be used to map relatively deep-seated fractures which are likely to be open groundwater conduits while remotely sensed lineaments and orientations delineated from the RVES survey may indicate areas of recharge. Regions with high lineament density have relatively better groundwater potential. This is attributable to areas having deep weathering profiles associated with intrusive bodies that have resulted in intense fracturing in the area. Drill depths in this area should target a minimum of 80 m to ensure sufficient and sustainable supplies to drilled wells. The outcome of this study should act as information framework that would guide the siting of productive water wells and while providing needed information for relevant agencies in need of data for the development of groundwater resources.
Fri, 19 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0178.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: FY-3C/MWHTS; linear regression correction; neural networks correction; one-dimensional variational algorithm; atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles
Online: 19 August 2016 (09:22:31 CEST)
The Microwave Humidity and Temperature sounder (MWHTS) on board the Fengyun (FY)-3C satellite measure the outgoing radiance form the Earth surface and atmospheric constituents. MWHTS makes measurements in the isolated oxygen absorption line near 118 GHz and the vicinity of strong water vapor line around 183 GHz, can provide fine vertical distribution structure of both atmospheric humidity and temperature. However, in order to obtain the accurate soundings of humidity and temperature by the physical retrieval method, bias between the observed radiance and those simulated by radiative transfer model from the background or first guess profiles must be correct. In this study, two bias correction methods are developed through the correlation analysis between MWHTS measurements and air mass identified by the first guess profiles of the physical inversion, one is the linear regression correction (LRC) and the other is neural networks correction (NNC), representing the linear and nonlinear nature between MWHTS measurements and air mass, respectively. Both correction methods have been applied to MWHTS observed brightness temperatures over the geographic area (180° W-180° E, 60° S-60° N). The corrected results are evaluated by the probability density function of the difference between corrected observations and simulated values and the root mean square error (RMSE) with respect to simulated observations. The numerical results show that the NNC method perform better, especially in MWHTS channels 1 and 7-9 whose peak weight function heights are close to the surface. In order to assess the effects of bias correction methods proposed in this study on the retrieval accuracy, a one-dimensional variational system was built and applied to the MWHTS uncorrected and corrected brightness temperatures to estimated atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, The retrieval results show that the NNC has better performance which is to be expected. An indication of the stability and robustness of NNC method is given which suggests that the NNC method has promising application perspectives in the physical retrieval.
Wed, 28 September 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0114.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: marginal technology; power grid; consequential LCA; China
Online: 28 September 2016 (11:49:30 CEST)
Electricity consumption is often the hotspot of life cycle assessment (LCA) of products, industrial activities, or services. The objective of this paper is to provide a consistent, scientific, region-specific electricity-supply-based inventory of electricity generation technology for national and regional power grids. Marginal electricity generation technology is pivotal in assessing impacts related to additional consumption of electricity. China covers a large geographical area with regional supply grids; these are arguably equally or less integrated. Meanwhile, it is also a country with internal imbalances in regional energy supply and demand. Therefore, we suggest an approach to achieve a geographical subdivision of the Chinese electricity grid, corresponding to the interprovincial regional power grids, namely the North, the Northeast, the East, the Central, the Northwest, and the Southwest China Grids, and the China Southern Power Grid. The approach combines information from the Chinese national plans on for capacity changes in both production and distribution grids, and knowledge of resource availability. The results show that nationally, marginal technology is coal-fired electricity generation, which is the same scenario in the North and Northwest China Grid. In the Northeast, East, and Central China Grid, nuclear power gradually replaces coal-fired electricity and becomes the marginal technology. In the Southwest China Grid and the China Southern Power Grid, the marginal electricity is hydropower towards 2030.
Sun, 29 January 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0128.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Precipitation; Tibetan Plateau; trends; temporal-spatial distribution; hydrological cycle;
Online: 29 January 2017 (09:43:00 CET)
The Tibetan Plateau(TP) is known as ‘the water tower of Asian’, its precipitation variation play an important role in the eco-hydrological processes and water resources regimes. based on the monthly mean precipitation data of 65 meteorological stations over the Tibetan Plateau and the surrounding areas from 1961-2015,variations, trends and temporal-spatial distribution were analyzed, furthermore, the possible reasons were also discussed preliminarily. The main results are summarized as follows: the annual mean precipitation in the TP is 465.54mm during 1961-2015, among four seasons, the precipitation in summer accounts for 60.1% of the annual precipitation, the precipitation in summer half year (May.- Oct.) accounts for 91.0% while that in winter half year (Nov.- Apr.) only accounts for 9.0%; During 1961-2015, the annual precipitation variability is 0.45mm/a and the seasonal precipitation variability is 0.31mm/a, 0.13mm/a, -0.04mm/a and 0.04mm/a in spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively on the TP; The spatial distribution of precipitation can be summarized as decreasing from southeast to northwest in the TP, the trend of precipitation is decreasing with the increase of altitude, but the correlation is not significant. The rising of air temperature and land cover changes may cause the precipitation by changing the hydrologic cycle and energy budget, furthermore, different pattern of atmospheric circulation can also influence on precipitation variability in different regions.
Tue, 11 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0060.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Ionosphere; vertical total electron content (VTEC); seismo-ionospheric anomaly
Online: 11 April 2017 (06:54:25 CEST)
This paper studies ionospheric vertical total electron content (VTEC) variations before the 2014 Mw8.2 Chile earthquake. VTEC derived from 14 GPS (Global Positioning System) stations and GIM (Global Ionospheric Map) were used to analyze ionospheric variations before the earthquake using the sliding interquartile range method, and results showed that significant positive VTEC anomalies occurred on 28 March. To explore possible causes of these anomalies, effects of solar and geomagnetic activities were examined, and VTEC variations during 17 March to 31 March in 2009-2013 were cross-compared. Also, VTEC for a full year before the earthquake was investigated. Results indicated that these anomalies were weakly associated with high solar activities and geomagnetic storms and that these anomalies were not normal seasonal and diurnal variations. An analysis of the spatial distribution of the observed anomalies was also presented, and it demonstrated that anomalies specifically appeared around the epicenter on 28 March. It suggests that observed anomalies may be associated with the subsequent Chile earthquake. Equatorial anomaly variations were analyzed to discuss the possible physical mechanism, and results showed that the equatorial anomaly unusually increased on 28 March, which indicates that anomalous electric fields generated in the earthquake preparation area and the meridional wind are possible causes of the observed ionospheric anomalies.
Fri, 17 March 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0145.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: SMOS, L-band, Level 3, ECMWF, SMOS-IC, soil moisture, vegetation optical depth, MODIS, NDVI
Online: 17 March 2017 (22:14:31 CET)
The main goal of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission over land surfaces is the production of global maps of soil moisture (SM) and vegetation optical depth (τ) based on multi-angular brightness temperature (TB) measurements at L-band. The operational SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 soil moisture algorithms account for different surface effects, such as vegetation opacity and soil roughness at 4 km resolution, in order to produce global retrievals of SM and τ. In this study, we present an alternative SMOS product which was developed by INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) and CESBIO (Centre d’Etudes Spatiales de la BIOsphère). This SMOS-INRA-CESBIO (SMOS-IC) product provides daily SM and τ at the global scale and differs from the operational SMOS Level 3 (SMOSL3) product in the treatment of retrievals over heterogeneous pixels. Specifically, SMOS-IC is much simpler and does not account for corrections associated to the antenna pattern and the complex SMOS viewing angle geometry. It considers pixels as homogeneous to avoid uncertainties and errors linked to inconsistent auxiliary data sets which are used to characterize the pixel heterogeneity in the SMOS L3 algorithm. SMOS-IC also differs from the current SMOSL3 product (Version 300, V300) in the values of the effective vegetation scattering albedo (ω) and soil roughness parameters. An inter-comparison is presented in this study based on the use of ECMWF (European Center for Medium range Weather Forecasting) SM outputs and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) from MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). A 6 year (2010-2015) inter-comparison of the SMOS products SMOS-IC and SMOSL3 SM (V300) with ECMWF SM yielded higher correlations and lower ubRMSD (unbiased root mean square difference) for SMOS-IC over most of the pixels. In terms of τ, SMOS-IC τ was found to be better correlated to MODIS NDVI in most regions of the globe, with the exception of the Amazonian basin and of the northern mid-latitudes.
Mon, 26 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0547.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Tornadoes; CAPE; Overview; Case Study; Klerksdorp; South Africa
Online: 26 November 2018 (10:02:42 CET)
This paper contributes to the understating of tornadoes in South Africa using case study analysis. In South Africa tornadoes are the recurring phenomenon (the climatology) but so far they have received less attention. Damages from storms itself (tornadoes inclusive) are significant in South Africa relative to other weather-related disasters for example floods, heat waves, and droughts. For their understanding, a case study approach was adopted in the current study. Data were in courtesy of the following, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Centers for Environmental Predictions (NCEP), Eumetsat Germany, and South African Weather Service (SAWS). The aim of the study was to provide an overview of the occurrence of tornadoes in South Africa using a Klerksdorp tornado, which occurred on March 4, 2007, Northwest Province in South Africa. From the case study analysis, the tornado was associated with the cold front and cut-off low (both are extratropical circulation) which were the dominant weather systems of the day. Therefore we conclude that, a case study approach may be the best way to study events of these nature for a more informed decision, for example, issuing an early warning system. In future, case studies, for example, involving interaction between extratropical and tropical circulation will also be an interesting study.
Tue, 13 December 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0070.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: solar energy; solar radiation; climatic data; solar radiation estimation
Online: 13 December 2016 (10:06:35 CET)
Solar radiation is the main energy source for mankind and an accurate data of solar radiation levels for a particular location is vital for the optimum operation of solar energy transducers such as photovoltaic cells and solar thermal collectors. In this work, we show that there is a linear relationship between recorded monthly average temperatures and solar radiation in Swaziland. The good correlation can be utilized to develop two mathematical models for the estimation of solar radiation: one from the measured monthly average temperatures and the other based on the square-root of the difference between measured maximum and minimum monthly average temperatures. Both models fit the data well and can be applied to estimate solar radiation in other parts of the region.
Wed, 1 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0003.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: Sentinel-1A; TanDEM-X science phase; wetlands mapping
Online: 1 November 2017 (04:37:20 CET)
This research is related to the eco-hydrological problems of herbaceous wetland drying and biodiversity loss in the floodplain lakes of the Middle Basin of the Biebrza river (Poland). An experiment was set up, whose main goals were: (i) mapping the vegetation types and the temporarily or permanently flooded areas, and (ii) comparing the usefulness of C-band Sentinel-1A (S1A) and X-band TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X (TSX/TDX) for mapping purposes. The S1A imagery was acquired on a regular basis using the dual polarization VV/VH and the Interferometric Wide Swath Mode. The TSX/TDX data were acquired in quad-pol, a fully polarimetric mode, during the Science Phase. The paper addresses the following aspects: i) wetland mapping with S1A multi-temporal series; ii) wetland mapping with fully polarimetric TSX/TDX data; iii) comparing the wetland mapping using dual polarization TSX/TDX subsets, i.e. HH-HV, HH-VV and VV-VH; iv) comparing wetland mapping using S1A and TSX/TDX data based on the same polarization (VV-VH); v) studying the suitability of the Shannon Entropy for wetland mapping; and vi) assessing the contribution of interferometric coherence for wetland classification. The experimental results show main limitations of the S1A dataset, while they highlight the good accuracy that can be achieved using the TSX/TDX data, especially those taken in fully polarimetric mode.
Mon, 24 October 2016
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0098.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: quasicrystals; aperiodic mineral structures; crystal and quasicrystal morphologies; quasicrystalline minerals; skutterudite; cobaltine
Online: 24 October 2016 (04:59:48 CEST)
In this article, we first present and discuss eighteenth-century descriptions of minerals that contributed decisively to the development of crystallography. Remarkably, these old crystallographic descriptions included morphologies with symmetries incompatible with an internal periodic order of atoms, which, however, have been recognised to be characteristics of quasicrystals. Moreover, we also review a number of studies of minerals with aperiodic crystal structures, including recently reported natural quasicrystals of extra-terrestrial origin. Finally, we discuss the current investigations addressing the search for new quasicrystalline minerals in nature.
Fri, 27 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0170.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: tree counting, olive trees, Xylella fastidiosa, Puglia, Italy, algorithms, image processing
Online: 27 October 2017 (12:30:05 CEST)
Olive trees have been of economic and cultural value since pre-Roman times, and continue to dominate landscapes and agriculture in many mediterranean regions. Recent mass losses of olive trees in Southern Italy due to an exotic plant pathogen highlight the need for methods that to monitor the olive trees in a landscape or region operationally. Here, we develop a method for counting olive trees from aerial photographs and test it in areas with a high diversity of olive tree ages, sizes, and shapes. This heterogeneity complicates tree counting as centennial trees often have crowns that are split into multiple segments, resembling multiple crowns, while nearby crowns often form a semi-closed canopy comprising multiple trees. Comparisons with reference counts in two 20 ha sites and over three different years indicate the automated counts tend to be reasonably accurate (median error 13%, n = 6), but heavily influenced by a few olive orchards with particularly high planting densities and a relatively closed canopy in which distinguishing individual trees is challenging. Overall, the algorithm estimated tree densities well (counting 82 to 109 trees/ha versus 87 to 104 trees/ha in the reference counts), indicating the method is suitable to track the number of olive trees over large areas.
Thu, 13 October 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0048.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: emergency rainwater tanks; earthquake; Wellington; health hazards; drinking-water quality; E. coli; lead; zinc
Online: 13 October 2016 (05:41:48 CEST)
The greater Wellington region, New Zealand, is highly vulnerable to large earthquakes because it is cut by active faults. Bulk water supply pipelines cross the Wellington Fault at several different locations, and there is considerable concern about severe disruption of the provision of reticulated water supplies to households and businesses in the aftermath of a large earthquake. A number of policy initiatives have been launched encouraging householders to install rainwater tanks to increase post-disaster resilience. However, little attention has been paid to potential health hazards associated with consumption of these supplies. To assess health hazards for householders in emergency situations, six 200-litre emergency water tanks were installed at properties across the Wellington region, with five tanks being allowed to fill with roof-collected rainwater and one tank being filled with municipal tapwater as a control. Such tanks are predominantly set aside for water storage, and once filled, feature limited drawdown and recharge. Sampling from these tanks was carried out fortnightly for one year, and samples analysed for E. coli, pH, conductivity, a range of major and trace elements, and organic compounds, enabling an assessment of the evolution of water chemistry in water storage tanks over time. Key findings were that the overall rate of E.coli detections in the rain-fed tanks was 17.7%, which is low in relation to other studies. We propose that low incidences of E.coli may be due to biocidal effects of high zinc concentrations in tanks, originating from unpainted galvanised steel roof cladding. Lead concentrations were high compared to other studies, with 69% of rain-fed tank samples exceeding the World Health Organisation’s health-based guideline of 0.01 mg/L. Further work is required to determine risks of short-term consumption of this water in emergency situations.
Mon, 13 March 2017
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0014.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: PM10; TSP; pollutants; element markers; epidemiological; dispersion modeling
Online: 13 March 2017 (08:49:10 CET)
No doubt pollution is a global problem which must be holistically tackled. In doing this, adequate knowledge of the sources of pollution is important, therefore the aim of this paper is to review source apportionment with reference to top-down and bottom-up methods. In this paper, dispersion modeling, emissions inventory, and sampling methods were discussed. Also, analytical methods involved in top-down source apportionment were mentioned. The two techniques are needed to evaluate pollutants and their sources. Based on these two approaches, pollution control strategy would be developed and decisions can be made in deciding the right approach to solve or reduce the pollution problems.
Mon, 14 November 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0073.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: rainfall; TMPA; CMORPH; Pra basin; satellite-based precipitation; Ghana
Online: 14 November 2016 (07:39:44 CET)
Satellite-based rainfall estimation products provide a vital alternative source of rainfall data in areas where conventional precipitation measurement is not readily available. In order to facilitate the use of these products there is the need to evaluate their accuracies. This study evaluated the accuracy of three satellite rainfall products; TMPA 3B42RT, TMPA 3B42 and CMORPH in the Pra basin (23,330 km2) of Ghana. The evaluation was through the point-to-pixel method by comparing 0.25°x 0.25° satellite grids to gauged rainfall based on gauge locations and analyzed statistically using correlation coefficient (r), bias and percent bias (pBias) as the performance verification methods. Seven (7) gauge stations with no missing data for the period of 2003-2008 was used in the evaluation. The analysis was based on daily, monthly, annual and seasonal timescales. Our results showed a good correlation between the TMPA products and the gauged data on all timescales considered. The CMORPH on the other hand showed huge overestimation at all gauge locations. The TMPA 3B42 was seen to be the best amongst the three products. The overall rainfall in the basin was well depicted by the TMPA 3B42 and 3B42RT. Although there wasn’t a perfect match between the 3B42RT and 3B42 products and the gauged rainfall, these products can be used to supplement gauged rainfall measurements in the basin and in estimation of rainfall in ungauged basins with similar characteristics.
Wed, 27 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0081.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: resilience, land management, wildfire, Mediterranean dry forest
Online: 27 July 2016 (10:01:44 CEST)
Wildfires have always been a part of the history of Mediterranean forests. However, forest regeneration after a wildfire is not certain. It depends on many factors, some of which may be influenced by land management activities. Failure of regeneration will cause a regime shift in the ecosystem, reducing the provision of ecosystem services and ultimately leading to desertification. How can we increase Mediterranean forests’ resilience to fire? To answer this question, we did a literature review, investigating chains of processes that allow forests to regenerate (which we label “regeneration mechanisms”), and assessed the impact of selected management practices documented in the WOCAT database on the regeneration mechanisms. We identified three distinct regeneration mechanisms that enable Mediterranean forests to recover, as well as the time frame before and after a fire in which they are at work, and factors that can hinder or support resilience. The three regeneration mechanisms enabling a forest to regenerate after a fire consist of regeneration (1) from a seed bank; (2) from resprouting individuals; and (3) from unburned plants that escaped the fire. Management practices were grouped into four categories: (1) fuel breaks, (2) fuel management, (3) afforestation, and (4) mulching. We assessed how and under what conditions land management modifies the ecosystem’s resilience. The results show that land management influences resilience by interacting with resilience mechanisms before and after the fire, and not just by modifying the fire regime. Our analysis demonstrates a need for adaptive – i.e. context- and time-specific – management strategies.
Thu, 24 October 2019