ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0332.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: anxiety; psychological health; public health; COVID-19
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:21:47 CEST)
The epidemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19) has brought many changes to people's life. This study aims to analysis Chinese people's psychological change and life after quarantining Wuhan and explore the influencing factors. Based on data from a web-survey after quarantining Wuhan (N=3268), the principal-component-analysis (PCA), multiple-linear-regression (MLR), propensity-score-matching (PSM) were used to explore the psychological change of people in China and the influencing factors. 83.3% of the respondents said that the impact of the epidemic on their life had increased after quarantining Wuhan. A considerable proportion of people's anxiety increased, being reflected in negative emotion, behavioral response and physiological response. The proportion of people who said their anxiety had increased in Wuhan was higher than that in other regions (p <0.05). The anxiety of people who were in medical isolation increased less than those who were not (p <0.05). All three aspects of people’s anxiety were positively related with time of medical isolation and degree of the attention on the epidemic (p＜0.05) except the effect of attention degree on the physiological response (p＝0.06). The measure of medical isolation at home should be advocated. Yet people should reduce the concern for the epidemic while paying attention to self-protection.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: screening; dementia; intellectual disability; early-onset; neuropsychology
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:01:34 CEST)
Background and Aims: Screening and assessment of cognitive changes in adults with Intellectual Disabilities, mainly Down Syndrome (DS), is crucial to offer appropriate services to their needs. We present a systematic review of the existing instruments assessing dementia, aiming to support researchers and clinicians’ best practice. Methods: Searches were carried out in the databases Web of Science; PubMed; PsycINFO in March 2019 and updated in May 2020. Studies were selected and examined if they: (1) focused on assessing age-related cognitive changes in person with ID; (2) included adults and/or older adults; (3) included scales and batteries for cognitive assessment. Results: Forty-eight cross-sectional studies and twenty-six longitudinal studies were selected representing a total sample of 5,851 participants (4,089 DS and 1,801 with other ID). In those studies, we found 38 scales, questionnaires, and inventories, and 14 batteries for assessing cognitive and behavioural changes in adults with DS and other ID. Conclusion: The most used instrument completed by an informant or carer was the Dementia Questionnaire for Learning Disabilities (DLD), and its previous versions. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the instruments and outline recommendations for future use.
Tue, 13 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0272.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Gender Differences; Tic disorder; Selective Mutism; Trichotillomania; Autism Spectrum Disorder; Aggression
Online: 13 October 2020 (10:45:13 CEST)
Gender differences have been documented in the prevalence of psychological symptoms. Tic disorders and ASD are more common in male clinical samples, while selective mutism and trichotillomania are more common in female clinical samples. In a review of 84 published case studies of Japanese children, this study explores gender differences in the prevalence of four categories of symptoms and expressions made in therapy for tics, selective mutism, trichotillomania, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Case studies were evaluated using both qualitative coding and statistical analysis. The findings were mostly consistent with epidemiological surveys and empirical research on adults. The gender differences in symptom prevalence and their expression can be summarized as differences in more direct aggression for boys versus indirect aggression for girls. The objective and progress in the therapy are to control impulsive energy for boys and to express energy for girls.
Mon, 12 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0197.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic freedom; free speech; censorship; free inquiry; thought suppression
Online: 12 October 2020 (10:07:22 CEST)
This paper explores the suppression of ideas within academic scholarship by academics, either by self-suppression or because of the efforts of other academics. Legal, moral, and social issues distinguishing freedom of speech, freedom of inquiry, and academic freedom are reviewed. How these freedoms and protections can come into tension is then explored by an analysis of denunciation mobs who exercise their legal free speech rights to call for punishing scholars who express ideas they disapprove of and condemn. When successful, these efforts, which constitute legally protected speech, will suppress certain ideas. Real-world examples over the past five years of academics who have been sanctioned or terminated for scholarship targeted by a denunciation mob are then explored.
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: multimodal experiment; multisensory experiment; automatic device integration; open-source; PsychoPy; Unity; Virtual Reality (VR); Lab Streaming Layer; LabRecorder; LabRecorderCLI; Windows command line (cmd.exe)
Online: 12 October 2020 (07:06:28 CEST)
The human mind is multimodal. Yet most behavioral studies rely on century-old measures of behavior—task accuracy and latency (response time). Multimodal and multisensory analysis of human behavior creates a better understanding of how the mind works. The problem is that designing and implementing these experiments is technically complex and costly. This paper introduces versatile and economical means of developing multimodal-multisensory human experiments. We provide an experimental design framework that automatically integrates and synchronizes measures including electroencephalogram (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), eye-tracking, virtual reality (VR), body movement, mouse/cursor motion and response time. Unlike proprietary systems (e.g., iMotions), our system is free and open-source; it integrates PsychoPy, Unity and Lab Streaming Layer (LSL). The system embeds LSL inside PsychoPy/Unity for the synchronization of multiple sensory signals—gaze motion, electroencephalogram (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), mouse/cursor movement, and body motion—with low-cost consumer-grade devices in a simple behavioral task designed by PsychoPy and a virtual reality environment designed by Unity. This tutorial shows a step-by-step process by which a complex multimodal-multisensory experiment can be designed and implemented in a few hours. When conducting the experiment, all of the data synchronization and recoding of the data to disk will be done automatically.
Thu, 8 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0178.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; pandemics; quarantine; psychological distress; cross-sectional studies
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:14:13 CEST)
Mass crises are disruptive to people's mental health. The study aimed to explore mental distress during COVID-19 quarantine in a sample of university workers in Brazil. The survey included sets of questions about demographics, health, and support, an open question about major concerns, and the Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM), a measure of mental distress. 407 professionals participated in the study: mean age of 40 years (SD = 11.2), mostly female (67.8%), married (64.8%) and fulfilling social distancing to avoid COVID-19 infection (99%). Using the Consensual Qualitative Research for simple qualitative data (CQR-M) the main areas of concern were grouped into six domains, as follows: Work, Health, Isolation, Personal life and routine, Social environment, and Future. Many responses were multiple. They form categories indicating specific concerns within these domains. Quantitative data were analyzed by identifying the simple effects of potential predictors of mental distress. The results indicated medium effects of help with household chores, psychiatric treatment, age and physical exercise. Having someone available to listen was the only variable with a large effect in reducing mental suffering. The hybrid approach showed that the psychological experience during the pandemic is quite multifaceted and complex pointing new clues for public mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0166.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Health Belief Model; risk perception; behavioral intentions; lead contamination; mining
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:15:26 CEST)
Understanding the strength of the associations between perceived risk and individuals’ behavioral intentions to protect their health is important for determining appropriate risk communication strategies in communities impacted by lead contamination. We conducted a survey within communities of northern Idaho, USA (n = 306) near a Superfund megasite with legacy mining contamination. We empirically test a theoretical model based on the Health Belief Model. Survey respondents had higher intentions to practice health protective behaviors when they perceived the risk of lead contamination as severe, recognized the benefits of health protective behaviors, and considered the risks of lead contamination. Women reported higher behavioral intentions than men, but age and mining affiliation did not have an association. Survey comments indicated that perceptions about the long-term environmental remediation in the region influenced risk perceptions. Understanding risk perceptions, behavioral intentions, and related factors can aid public health agencies in tailoring risk communication for increasing protective behaviors in mining-impacted communities internationally.
Wed, 7 October 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0150.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mental health services; climate change; disasters; trauma; prevention treatment
Online: 7 October 2020 (09:22:41 CEST)
This review examines from a services perspective strategies for preparedness and response to mental health impacts of three types of climate-related events: 1) acute climate-related events such as hurricanes, floods and wildfires, 2) sub-acute or long-term changes in the environment such as drought and heat stress; and 3) the existential threat of long-lasting changes, including higher temperatures, rising sea levels and a permanently altered and potentially uninhabitable physical environment. Strategies for acute events include development and implementation of guidelines and interventions for monitoring and treating adverse mental health outcomes and strengthening individual and community resilience, training of non-mental health professionals for services delivery, and the mapping of available resources and locations of at-risk populations. Additional strategies for sub-acute changes include advocacy for mitigation policies and programs and adaptation of guidelines and interventions to address the secondary impacts of sub-acute events such as economic loss, threats to livelihood, health and well-being, population and family displacement, environmental degradation and collective violence. Strategies for long-lasting changes include implementation of evidence-based risk communication interventions that address the existential threat of climate change, promoting the mental health benefits of environmental conservation, and promoting positive mental health impacts of climate change.
Thu, 1 October 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0009.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: visual search; vision loss; incidental learning; macular degeneration; fovea
Online: 1 October 2020 (09:12:00 CEST)
Foveal vision loss has been shown to reduce efficient visual search guidance due to contextual cueing by incidentally learned contexts. However, previous studies used artificial (T among L-shape) search paradigms that prevent the memorization of a target in a semantically meaningful scene. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in real-life scenes that allow explicit memory of target locations in semantically rich scenes. In contrast to the contextual cueing deficits in artificial scenes, contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) did not differ from age-matched normal-sighted controls. We discuss this in the context of visuospatial working memory demands for which both eye-movement control in the presence of central vision loss and for memory-guided search may compete. Memory-guided search in semantically rich scenes may depend less on visuospatial working memory than search in abstract displays, potentially explaining intact contextual cueing in the former but not the latter. In a practical sense, our findings may indicate that Patients with AMD are less deficient than expected after previous lab experiments. This shows the usefulness of realistic stimuli in experimental clinical research.
Tue, 29 September 2020
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0711.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: oral hygiene; hand hygiene; adolescents; Caribbean
Online: 29 September 2020 (12:49:06 CEST)
The study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral hygiene (OH) and hand hygiene (HH) behaviour among school adolescents in three Caribbean countries. In all, 7,476 school adolescents (median age 14 years), from Dominican Republic, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago responded the cross-sectional “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2016-2017. The prevalence poor OH (tooth brushing <2 times/day) was 16.9%, poor HH (not always before meals) was 68.2%, poor HH (not always after toilet) was 28.4% and poor HH (not always with soap) was 52.7%. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, current cannabis use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health and low parental support increased the odds for poor OH. Rarely or sometimes experiencing hunger, trouble from alcohol use, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, poor mental health, and low parental support were associated with poor HH (before meals, and/or after toilet, and/or with soap). The survey showed poor OH and HH behaviour practices. Several sociodemographic factors, health risk behaviours, poor mental health and low parental support were found associated with poor OH and/or HH behaviour that can assist with tailoring OH and HH health promotion.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0710.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: psychological distress; determinants; adolescents; Bhutan
Online: 29 September 2020 (12:47:53 CEST)
The goal of the study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress (=PD) among adolescent school children in Bhutan. Nationally representative cross-sectional data were analysed from 7,576 adolescents (16 years median age) that took part in the “2016 Bhutan Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS).” PD was assessed with a 2-item screening measure (BMC Psychiatry. DOI: 10.1186/s12888-020-02888-3). Results indicate that the prevalence of PD was 15.8%, 12.8% among males and 18.4% among females. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, female sex, having no close friends, older age, bullying victimization, infrequently physically attacked, parental emotional neglect, parents never check home work, passive smoking trouble from alcohol use, ever had sex, high sedentary behaviour and having sustained a single or multiple serious injuries (past year) were associated with PD. In addition, adequate fruit and vegetable consumptions was protective against PD. Almost one in six students reported PD and several associated factors were identified which can aid prevention and control strategies.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0700.v1
Online: 29 September 2020 (09:11:09 CEST)
The study aimed to assess the prevalence and its correlates of infrequent and frequent bullying victimization (=BV) among school-going adolescents in five “Association of Southeast Asian Nations” (ASEAN) member states. The cross-sectional sample comprised 33,184 school adolescents (14.6 years mean age) from five ASEAN countries of the “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2015. Results indicate that 30.6% of participants reported any past-month BV, 33.9% in boys and 27.5 in girls, ranging from 11.8% in Laos to 48.7% in the Philippines. In the adjusted multinomial logistic regression analysis, students from the Philippines and Thailand, experience of hunger, sedentary behaviour, attending physical education classes, being underweight, being overweight or obese, ever amphetamine use, physically assaulted, school truancy, participation in a physical fight, injury, low peer support and psychological distress were associated with BV. Almost one in three adolescents were bullied and several associated variables were identified which can assist in targeting the strategies of intervention.
Sun, 13 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0305.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: user characteristics; home medical devices; usability
Online: 13 September 2020 (23:58:42 CEST)
The Smart Angel connected medical device allows ambulatory surgery patients to monitor their health by taking their own blood pressure and oxygen levels and by answering a health questionnaire from home. This preventive device must necessarily be "usable" by patients with different profiles. The objective of this article is, therefore, to better understand the links between certain characteristics of potential patients and usability. We conducted an experimental study involving thirty-six participants, investigating the effects of four patient characteristics (i.e. age, education, technophilia and health literacy) on usability measured in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. The results show a moderate correlation between age, health literacy and usability. However, there is a weak correlation between technophilia and usability and no relationship between the level of education and usability. This study provides theoretical insights into the effects of user characteristics by means of personas in usability (ISO 9241-11).
Sat, 12 September 2020
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mindfulness; mindfulness-based stress reduction; mindfulness-based stroke recovery; stroke recovery; social support for stroke survivors; medical education; stroke rehabilitation
Online: 12 September 2020 (11:29:22 CEST)
Decades of research suggest that Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) training supports a greater capacity to live with chronic medical conditions and contributes to lowering stress levels. This paper introduces a model for a Mindfulness-Based Recovery from Stroke (MBRfS) for promoting stroke recovery, informed by the lived experience of the author (a stroke survivor and certified MBSR instructor), the research literature regarding MBSR training, and the specific challenges of stroke recovery. Four themes emerged from the autoethnographic analysis that informed the proposed model: Readiness to accept the stroke event and the acquired brain injury; Navigating uncertainties of stroke recovery with awareness and self-responsibility for outcomes; Trusting the inherent wisdom of the body as a stroke recovery “teacher”; and Increased capacity to integrate complex emotions with self-compassion, and a sense of wholeness. A four component MBRfS model is offered, which consists of an integration amongst a modified MBSR framework, emergent attitudinal themes, and insights from the autoethnographic vignettes. The MBRfS model offers a path for providing participants with a supportive experience within stroke recovery. Recommendations and suggestions for future studies are offered to support the development of MBRfS for stroke survivors and their caregivers, as well as contributing to health care providers.
Thu, 10 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0226.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: leadership; pride; authentic pride; hubristic pride; task satisfaction; group cohesion; leader satisfaction
Online: 10 September 2020 (07:46:40 CEST)
Studies of discrete pride in the workplace are both few and on the rise. We examined what has, to date, been yet unstudied: the impact that a leader’s expressions of authentic and hubristic pride can have on the followers at that moment, and on their feelings about their task, leader, and group. Students working in groups building Lego structures rated their perceived leader regarding expressions of pride, both authentic and hubristic. Students who perceived the leader as expressing more authentic pride rated the task, group (satisfaction and cohesion), and leader more positively; while the reverse was generally true for perceptions of expressions of hubristic pride. We found these effects both at the individual level, and at the group level. We also predicted and found moderation for the type of task worked on, creative or detailed. Implications abound for leader emotional labor and emotion management.
Mon, 7 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0157.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: innovative; inclusive leadership behaviour; work engagement; innovative workplace behaviour
Online: 7 September 2020 (05:16:55 CEST)
(1) Background: Work creativity, manifested in innovative workplace behaviour (IWB) and employee work engagement, is fundamental to maintain firms’ sustainability and competitiveness. In this regard, this study aims at investigating the supporting effect of innovative leadership on IWB and employee engagement through maximising employee vigour, dedication and absorption. (2) Methods: The study data were collected from questionnaires administered to 150 respondents working in mobile phone companies in southern and central Iraq. The statistical analyses were conducted through the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) and Smart PLS. In analysing the measurement model and testing the proposed hypotheses, the study results revealed that inclusive leadership and work engagement were intimately connected to IWB; (3) Results: Work engagement played a mediating role between inclusive leadership and IWB. The questionnaire data indicated that inclusive leadership behaviours, such as openness, accessibility and availability, motivated the subordinates to be engaged in IWB.; and (4) Conclusions: To promote IWB, company leaders then need to effectively engage their followers by taking pride and satisfaction in employee output, which might aid employee workplace and IWB engagement.
Wed, 2 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0027.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nurses; coping; mood; fatigue; burnout; ecological momentary assessment; lagged effects; accumulated effects; stress
Online: 2 September 2020 (05:17:18 CEST)
Nurses experience significant stress and emotional exhaustion, leading to burnout and fatigue. This study assessed how the nurses’ mood and fatigue evolves during their shifts, and the lagged and accumulated factors that influence these phenomena. A two-level design with repeated measures was applied to a sample of 113 nurses, performing an ecological momentary assessment of different parameters and multilevel longitudinal two-level modelling of the data. Accordingly, mood appeared to be explained by effort, by the negative lagged effect of reward and by accumulated effort, each following a quadratic trend, and it was influenced by previously executing a direct care task. By contrast, fatigue was explained by the current and lagged effect of effort, by the lagged effect of reward and by accumulated effort, again following quadratic trends. Fatigue was also associated with direct care, and the prior effect of documentation and communication tasks. Mood was also explained by problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, indicative of negative mood, and by support-seeking and refusal coping strategies. Hence, mood and fatigue do not depend on a single factor like workload but rather, on the evolution and distribution of tasks, as well as on the stress during a shift and how it is handled.
Fri, 7 August 2020
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0190.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: psychotherapy; mental health; self-management; intervention; art therapy; bonsai
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:30:07 CEST)
Objective: The study investigated the benefit of practicing the art of bonsai and the well-being of practitioners. The art promotes relaxation, focus and art therapy that can have personal and emotional value in a self-help setting. When the bonsai tree is used as a healing object, it may improve the ability of the bonsai practitioner to adapt to adverse and stressful life events, such as the present global COVID-19 pandemic. Method: International bonsai artists (n = 255) participated in a study that examined the effect their bonsai had on their mental well-being. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with bonsai artists answering the question: “How has bonsai helped you?”. Results: Most participants acknowledged that being able to take care of their bonsais affected their mood in a positive manner. Discussion: Although the participants did not report overall improved mental health, participants expressed an improvement in their mood when being able to work on a bonsai tree. Conclusion: These findings are significant in that it can be useful in as a preventative and restorative manner in the mental well-being of people who practice the art.
Mon, 3 August 2020
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; digital literacy; academic meetings; private Facebook groups; Zoom; 4Cs; health-related group; landscape of truth; narrative research
Online: 3 August 2020 (08:38:41 CEST)
Late January 2020, COVID-19 unexpectedly imposed world-wide limitations on daily life. Deemed a pandemic mid-March 2020, lockdowns were imposed for an indefinite period, including at academic institutions. Consequently, interest in digital literacy—an on-going and increasing concern of academic institutions in the 21st century—exponentially heightened. Continuing meetings of academic groups now necessitated online communication. In the almost overnight closure of all non-essential services, academic units at one post-secondary institution expeditiously selected Zoom—a popular video conferencing application—as the preferred platform for meetings until social distancing was lifted. In contrast to this widely accepted use of Zoom for scheduled meetings, one unique health-related group at the institution, tailored to the 4Cs of 21st century learning of critical thought, communication, cooperation and creativity, found social networking through a private Facebook group a more appropriate and satisfying group experience than likely possible with the Zoom app. Pros and cons of both online platforms are presented along with when each choice is warranted. In promoting digital literacy as the primary goal in online communication for academic meetings, private Facebook groups hold promise for collaborative online academic meetings with similar features to this health-related group.
Wed, 15 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0335.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: volunteers; self-efficacy; optimism; empathy; psychological well-being; subjective well-being; incremental contribution
Online: 15 July 2020 (11:54:51 CEST)
Optimism and self-efficacy have been associated with psychological health. Empathy has also been found to promote positive functioning and to have a unique role in community health volunteering. This study investigated whether self-efficacy and optimism were associated with psychological and subjective well-being in a group of healthcare volunteers and whether empathy added incrementally to these associations. A sample of 160 Italian clown doctors volunteering in various hospitals completed self-report measures of self-efficacy, optimism, empathy, psychological well-being, and subjective well-being. Results indicated that self-efficacy and optimism were associated with both outcomes and that aspects of empathy, such as others’ perspective-taking and personal distress for others’ difficulties, incrementally added to these associations, although with opposite effects. The present study adds to previous research on the role of self-efficacy, optimism, and empathy for community health volunteers’ psychological health and offers suggestions regarding the training of this type of volunteer.
Wed, 3 June 2020
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; hand washing; hygiene; behaviour change; communications
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:12:23 CEST)
Whilst large-scale changes in population behaviour are required to reduce the transmission of the SARS-COV-2 virus, the emergency context is not conducive to the sort of careful communications planning that would normally be required to meet such a task. Rapid strategic communications planning in a pandemic by governments is, however, possible and necessary. Steps include setting up a dedicated communications task force, mobilising partners and resources, developing a creative brief and theory of change and overseeing the creation, testing, roll out and revision of content. In this short guide we argue that a minimum of strategic planning can be undertaken rapidly, and that good use can be made of simple principles of behaviour change, even during pandemics. Our aim here is to provide a blueprint that governments and their partners, especially in low-income settings, can follow to design, coordinate and resource national communications efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic immediately and for the longer term.
Sun, 3 May 2020
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0042.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; hand washing; hygiene; behaviour change; communications
Online: 3 May 2020 (09:05:38 CEST)
Whilst large-scale changes in population behaviour are required to reduce the transmission of the SARS-COV-2 pandemic virus, the emergency context is not conducive to the sort of careful communications planning that would normally be required to meet such a task. Rapid strategic communications planning in a pandemic by governments is, however, possible and necessary. Steps include setting up a dedicated communications task force, mobilising partners and resources, developing a creative brief and theory of change and overseeing the creation, testing, roll out and revision of content. In this short guide we argue that a minimum of strategic planning can be undertaken rapidly, and that good use can be made of simple principles of behaviour change, even during pandemics. Our aim here is to provide a blueprint that governments and their partners, especially in low-income settings, can follow to design, coordinate and resource national communications efforts to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.
Fri, 3 April 2020
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0028.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: brain organoids; stem cells; brain in a vat
Online: 3 April 2020 (08:14:18 CEST)
Along just over a century of research we moved from learning how to cultivate tissues in a dish to grasping the concepts for creating an entire brain in a vat. As we approach the divisive moment in which we can first detect signs of awareness in such artificially developed organoids, we need to lay foundation for what lays ahead. It is crucial that ethical, legal and moral implications of organoid research are clear and that boundaries are set to separate scientific progress from human life preservation. The largest obstacle may be the definition of consciousness itself, which has arguably been historically neglected by philosophy, psychology and neurosciences at large. One reason may be the difficulties posed by the underlying qualities of awareness, such as its subjective and heterogeneous nature. Another reason may lie on the possibly that consciousness is an overarching emergent property of our brain. For the time being, one can see brain organoids as philosophical zombies, physical analogues of the human brain which mimic sentient human reactions but lack experiential properties of sensation (a.k.a. qualia).
Tue, 3 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0040.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescents; emotional sphere; ethnic-related peculiarities; North
Online: 3 March 2020 (11:33:20 CET)
The combined ecological, geophysical, climatic, and social factors of the Northeast of Russia influence the organism from the early childhood being too intense for the functional systems. The purpose of the research is to study the emotional characteristics of adolescents of different ethnic groups in the northeast of Russia. Presented in the paper are results of the study that covered 826 adolescents (445 females and 381 males) at the age of 15–17, different by ethnic origin. We used standard methods of psycho-diagnostics. Our study has showed that the formation of the adolescents’ emotional sphere in the North is undoubtedly influenced not only by the climatic and socio-economic environmental factors but also by ethnic features. There are intergroup differences in the aggressiveness profile of older adolescents living in the remote settlement vs. the regional center. It is shown that high school students in the remote settlement of Evensk, compared to their peers in Magadan, regardless of gender and ethnicity, are characterized by more pronounced hostile and auto-aggressive reactions. In adolescents of the Aboriginal population, as compared with their age mate Caucasians, the indicators of impairment in the field of Neuro Psychic Adaptation, Situational and Personal Anxiety, and Social Frustration are significantly more pronounced.
Sun, 16 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0212.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: font; spatial periodicity; discomfort; reading speed; autocorrelation; Fourier amplitude spectrum
Online: 16 February 2020 (04:47:43 CET)
The speed with which text can be read is determined in part by the spatial regularity and similarity of vertical letter strokes as assessed by the height of the first peak in the horizontal autocorrelation of the text. The height of this peak was determined for two passages in 20 fonts. The peak was unaffected by the size of the text or its content but was influenced by the font design. Sans serif fonts usually had a lower peak than serif fonts because the presence of serifs resulted in a more even spacing of letter strokes. There were small effects of justification and font- dependent effects of font expansion and compression. The visual comfort of images can be estimated from the extent to which the Fourier amplitude spectrum conforms to 1/f. Students were asked to adjust iBooks to obtain their preferred settings of font and layout. The preference was predicted by the extent to which the Fourier amplitude spectrum approximated 1/f, which in turn was jointly affected by the design of the font, its weight and the ratio of x-height to line separation. The above algorithms can be usefully applied to any orthography to estimate likely speed and comfort of reading.
Mon, 3 February 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0016.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: patient engagement; consumer health; recommendation; consensus conference; guidelines; health services research
Online: 3 February 2020 (05:31:43 CET)
Patient engagement is receiving a growing attention in the healthcare context. However, although worldwide healthcare stakeholders agree that patient engagement is a priority for quality and effective care, no shared recommendations on how to promote patient engagement are currently available. Based on these premises, a Consensus Conference (CC) was promoted to address four main issues: What is the definition of Patient Engagement? How measuring Patient Engagement? What are the most recommended methodologies and the tools to promote Patient Engagement? What is the role of new technologies in promoting of Patient Engagement? The consensus was obtained through an iterative process that began with a systematic synthesis of the available literature in each domain followed by plenary expert discussions. This CC - including the systematic analysis of internationals scientific evidences (2749 sources across the major international scientific databases) together with experiences of a multi-disciplinary consortium of investigators and key stakeholders - attempted to provide the first evidence-based Expert Consensus Statement for the promotion of Patient Engagement in chronic care. These recommendations should be envisaged as inspirational principles to promote a real eco-system of engagement and might orient health services research and interventions.
Tue, 28 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0336.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: health literacy; patient health engagement model; Health Care Climate Questionnaire; patient autonomy; PHE-s; Patient Health Engagement Scale; health communication; patient centered communication; patient engagement
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:29:43 CET)
Individuals with low health literacy (HL) are known to have poorer health outcomes and to have higher mortality rates compared to individuals with higher HL: hence, the improvement of HL is a key outcome in modern healthcare systems. Healthcare providers are therefore asked to support patients’ literacy skills by encouraging the implementation of autonomy-supportive patient centered communication (PCC), which in turn requires the enhancement of patient engagement. Our main hypothesis is that the well-known relationship between autonomy-supportive PCC and HL is mediated by patient engagement which is known to play a role in HL promotion and that is related to PCC as well. The purpose of this study was to formulate a hypothetical structural equation model (SEM) linking PCC to patient engagement and HL. A cross-sectional survey design was employed involving 1007 Italian chronic patients. The hypothetical model was tested using SEM to verify the hypothesized mediation of patient engagement between PCC and HL. Results show that the theoretical model has a good fit indexes and that patient engagement fully mediates the relationship between PCC and HL. This finding suggests healthcare systems to implement a new paradigm where patients are supported to play an autonomous role in their own healthcare.
Sun, 12 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0137.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: adolescent; behavior; cognition; mobile phone
Online: 12 January 2020 (18:15:25 CET)
Excessive cell phone use contributes to distracted driving, may increase risk for automobile accidents, and a minority of mobile phone users exhibit behaviors consistent with technological addiction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cell phone beliefs and behaviors could be changed by a brief educational encounter. The Theory of Reasoned Action provided a lens for viewing attitudes and behavior. A one-week pre-post design with a thirty-day follow-up was used with participants (N = 215, 67.0% female, age = 20.0 + 1.6) assigned to a peer led intervention or comparison groups. The intervention included cell-phone educational materials. A short index of cell phone behavior was developed which showed good internal consistency with a Cronbach’s alpha of .81. The intervention group “agreed” or “strongly-agreed” more than the comparison group on five of the seven areas of cell phone beliefs and behaviors ( p < 0.05, item Cohen’s d = .32 to .47, total d = .50) at one-week following receipt of informational materials. We conclude that attitudes and behaviors regarding cell phones are malleable and susceptible to change in young-adults following a brief psychoeducational intervention.
Mon, 9 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0116.v1
Online: 9 December 2019 (04:05:48 CET)
Many accidents, such as those involving collisions or trips, appear to involve failures of vision; but the association between accident risk and vision as conventionally assessed, is weak or absent. We addressed this conundrum by embracing the distinction inspired by neuroscientific research, between vision for perception and vision for action. A dual-process perspective predicts that accident vulnerability will be associated more strongly with vision for action than vision for perception. Older and younger adults, with relatively high and relatively low self-reported accident vulnerability (Accident Proneness Questionnaire), completed three behavioural assessments targeting: vision for perception (Freiburg Visual Acuity Test); vision for action (Vision for Action Test - VAT); and the ability to perform physical actions involving balance, walking and standing (Short Physical Performance Battery). Accident vulnerability was not associated with visual acuity or with performance of physical actions; but was associated with VAT performance. VAT assesses the ability to link visual input with a specific action –launching a saccadic eye movement as rapidly as possible, in response to shapes presented in peripheral vision. The predictive relationship between VAT performance and accident vulnerability was independent of age, visual acuity and physical performance scores. Applied implications of these findings are considered.
Mon, 2 December 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0005.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: motivational mechanism; labor interests; personnel selection; adaptation and training; the structure of interests
Online: 2 December 2019 (04:46:36 CET)
The issue of actualization of labor interests as a motivational driver and one of the sources of labor productivity is little-studied in applied and organizational psychology. The study given in the paper fills some “blanks” of this problem. The leading approach to research is the motivational system proposed on the basis of theoretical analysis and the developed psychological model of labor interests. Using the methods of a special survey, questioning and interview guides, the analysis and comparative assessment of the labor interests of 50 candidates for the service manager position (entertainment and restaurant industry field) was conducted; as well as of 45 employees in this industry aged 18 to 25. The main results of the paper show the connection of labor interests with the company's personnel management system, namely with the processes of selection, adaptation, and training. It was revealed that the candidates selected for the service manager position were of primary group interest and financial incentive was secondary. At the same time, financial incentive contributed to the successful passage of the adaptation period. Occupational interests of employees depended on their education and job specifics. Career interests were influenced by the time spent with the company. The recommendations necessary for employers to create the conditions corresponding to the leading labor interests of employees were substantiated.
Fri, 18 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0211.v1
Online: 18 October 2019 (08:57:53 CEST)
The purpose of the study was to explore older adults’ views and perceptions of psychotherapy in Cyprus. A total of 25 older adults, aged between 65- 89 participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis identified three main themes: Familiar term/Unfamiliar process; existential crises during this stage; and the issue of stigma. Participants indicated a basic understanding of what psychotherapy entails, but did not associate psychotherapy with serious mental illness. Participants identified a number of existential issues that are potentially major life stressors for an elderly person and referred to the historical stigma that has an impact on their own perceptions about psychotherapy. However, participants seemed to view their ability to overcome psychological difficulties on their own, as a proof of personal strength. Psychologists and other health professionals also need to be mindful of how they describe psychological concepts and treatment as older adults may not understand what they are being told or may be afraid of what treatment involves based on historical context. This study highlights the importance of using strategies that have the potential to empower this population in order to proactively attend to their mental health including community-based education and national mental health campaigns.
Thu, 3 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0037.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: affective events; work engagement; sensitization-satiation effects; job demands-resources model; experience sampling; growth curve modeling
Online: 3 October 2019 (04:37:58 CEST)
Although work events can be regarded as pivotal elements of organizational life, only a few studies have examined how positive and negative events relate to and combine to affect work engagement over time. Theory suggests that to better understand how current events affect work engagement (WE), we have to account for recent events that have preceded these current events. We present competing theoretical views on how recent and current work events may affect employees (e.g., getting used to a high frequency of negative events or becoming more sensitive to negative events). Although the occurrence of events implies discrete changes in the experience of work, prior research has not considered whether work events actually accumulate to sustained mid-term changes in WE. To address these gaps in the literature, we conducted a week-level longitudinal study across a period of 15 consecutive weeks among 135 employees, which yielded 849 weekly observations. While positive events were associated with higher levels of WE within the same week, negative events were not. Our results support neither satiation nor sensitization processes. However, high frequencies of negative events in the preceding week amplified the beneficial effects of positive events on WE in the current week. Growth curve analyses show that the benefits of positive events accumulate to sustain high levels of WE. WE dissipates in the absence of continuous experience of positive events. Our study adds a temporal component and informs research that has taken a feature-oriented perspective on the dynamic interplay of job demands and resources.
Wed, 18 September 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0208.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical robotics; wearable force-sensor systems; grip-force profiling; surgical expertise; robot-assisted surgery training
Online: 18 September 2019 (13:07:40 CEST)
STRAS (Single access Transluminal Robotic Assistant for Surgeons) is a flexible robotic system based on the Anubis® platform of Karl Storz for application to intra-luminal surgical procedures. It consists of three cable-driven systems, one endoscope serving as guide and two inserted instruments. The flexible and bendable instruments have three degrees of freedom and can be teleoperated by a single user via two specially designed master interfaces. In this research, a pair of specific sensor gloves, which ergonomically fit to the master handles of the system was designed and the forces applied by one expert and one novice user during system-specific task execution in a simulator task (4-step-pick-and-drop) were compared. The results show that user expertise is not only reflected by shorter task execution times but also, more importantly, by specific differences in handgrip force profiles for specific sensor locations on anatomically relevant parts of the fingers and hand controlling the surgical instruments of the robotic master/slave system.
Mon, 1 July 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0022.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: values theory; security; trust; dynamic relationship
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:36:45 CEST)
The study of values at European and global level has gained momentum along with the theory of values launched by Schwartz. Values are dormant, hidden, unobservable and impossible to measure directly. They exist somewhere within the human being, manifested by different attitudes, depending on their degree of generality. The paradigm of basic human values implies shared universal values that are encountered in cultures all over the world. The theory of values designed by Schwartz has refined the pool of 19 basic individual values representing principles in individuals and group, further describing the dynamic relationships among them. This study presents practical evidence of the dynamics between individual values, the dynamics theorized by Schwartz in 2012. Following the development of an online questionnaire made up of 46 items with online responses options on a Lickert scale from 1 to 6, where 1 represents less important and 6 represent very important, 220 young people from Western Romania voluntarily responded. By testing the hypothesis assuming the dynamic relationship between the two values through multiple regression analysis, the results demonstrate that in Model 1, which involves a linear relationship, health explains 42% of the variance in security with a F =161,215 significant at p <.01. In Model 2, which involves a curvilinear relationship, health explains 50% of the variance in security version with a F = 35,336 significant at p <.01. The incremental prediction optimization of 8% added by including the squared security accounts for the curve in the regression line, indicating the existence of a curvilinear relationship between security and health. The dynamic relationship demonstrates that upper limit and lower limit aspects of security, significantly influence the health value in a negative way. Normal levels of security trigger a high level of prioritization of health value. The implications of this type of relationship are discussed in explaining the value phenomenon at individual level. The study shows limits due to the selected sample, focusing exclusively on young people with higher education from the Western region of Romania. This sample was the target group of "The National Identity of Romanian Youth" project which designed this research.
Fri, 28 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0298.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: rumination; psychological detachment; perseverative cognition; work reflection; vitality; burnout; thriving; work engagement; employee well-being; mental health
Online: 28 June 2019 (12:09:30 CEST)
In the literature on occupational stress and recovery from work several facets of thinking about work in off-job time have been conceptualized. However, research on the focal concepts is currently rather disintegrated. In this study we take a closer look at the five most established concepts, namely (1) psychological detachment, (2) affective rumination, (3) problem-solving pondering, (4) positive work reflection, and (5) negative work reflection. More specifically, we scrutinized (1) whether the five facets of work-related rumination are empirically distinct, (2) whether they yield differential associations with different facets of employee well-being (burnout, work engagement, thriving, satisfaction with life, and flourishing), and (3) to what extent the five facets can be distinguished from and relate to conceptually similar constructs, such as irritation, worry, and neuroticism. We applied structural equation modeling techniques to cross-sectional survey data from 474 employees. Our results provide evidence that (1) the five facets of work-related rumination are highly related, yet empirically distinct, (2) that each facet contributes uniquely to explain variance in certain aspects of employee well-being, and (3) that they are distinct from related concepts, albeit there is a high overlap between (lower levels of) psychological detachment and cognitive irritation. Our study contributes to clarify the structure of work-related rumination and extends the nomological network around different types of thinking about work in off-job time and employee well-being.
Wed, 19 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0172.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: chronobiology; shiftwork; insomnia; cognitive behavioral therapy, telepsychiatry; occupational health
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:05:50 CEST)
In western societies about one in six employees works in shifts. Shiftwork is associated with a number of poor somatic and psychological health outcomes, especially sleep issues. Higher rates of absenteeism and accidents in the workplace are possible consequences. Still, prevention programs and treatment options that are specifically tailored to shift workers’ needs are rare. We devised a 4-week online sleep intervention (n = 21) and compared treatment outcomes to our outpatient treatment for shift workers (n = 12). Measures included the WHO-5, ISI, and ESS scales as well as sleep diaries. Shift workers reported worse symptoms of insomnia than other participants. Results show significant average increases in sleep efficiency (+ 7%) and total sleep time (+ 25 min.), as well as significant improvements regarding insomnia symptoms and wellbeing in the online sample. Rates of improvement did not differ between the online and outpatient samples. Sleep disorders affect a relevant part of the working population, especially shift workers. Online approaches to treatment of these issues seem feasible and effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed.
Tue, 18 June 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0172.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: chronobiology; shiftwork; insomnia; cognitive behavioral therapy, telepsychiatry; occupational health
Online: 18 June 2019 (10:40:21 CEST)
In western societies about one in six employees works in shifts. Shiftwork is associated with a number of poor somatic and psychological health outcomes, especially sleep issues. Higher rates of absenteeism and accidents in the workplace are possible consequences. Still, prevention programs and treatment options that are specifically tailored to shift workers’ needs are rare. We devised a 4-week online sleep intervention (n = 21) and compared treatment outcomes to our outpatient treatment for shift workers (n = 12). Measures included the WHO-5. ISI, and ESS scales as well as sleep protocols. Shift workers reported worse symptoms of insomnia than other participants. Results show significant average increases in sleep efficiency (+ 7%) and total sleep time (+ 25 min.), as well as significant improvements regarding insomnia symptoms and wellbeing in the online sample. Rates of improvement did not differ between the online and outpatient samples. Sleep disorders affect a relevant part of the working population, especially shift workers. Online approaches to treatment of these issues seem feasible and effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed.
Mon, 22 April 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0241.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: motivation; well-being; self-steem; psychology; sport
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:29:23 CEST)
The work shows a single case intervention based on the motivational coaching model the “Cantón’s Giraffe”, theoretically and experimentally proven in a 20-years-old dancesport practitioner, who considered improving her execution with her dance partner. Methodological triangulation was used , combining a test-retest quantitative measure (Using Ryff Psychological Wellbeing Scales; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and an ad-hoc instrument for the motivational force assessment) and subjective analysis of the responses from the interviews conducted. A three-phase intervention protocol was used : identification, intervention, and follow-up. The results show an improvement in reevaluation scores, an increase in the subjective evaluation, and participant satisfaction and perceived resources raised at the end of the intervention. These results are in line with previous similar studies.
Tue, 12 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0107.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: hangover; alcohol; internet; attention; executive function; working memory
Online: 12 February 2019 (17:24:43 CET)
Studies into the cognitive effects of alcohol have been mixed. They also present methodological challenges, often relying on self-report of alcohol consumption leading to hangover. The current study used BAC (obtained via breathalyser) and self-reported drinking behavior during a night out and related these to hangover severity and cognitive function measured over the internet in the same subjects the following morning. Volunteers were breathalysed and interviewed as they left a central entertainment district of an Australian state capital. They were provided with a unique identifier and, the following morning, logged on to a website. This included an online version of the Alcohol Hangover Severity Scale (AHSS), and number and type of drinks consumed the previous night and the eTMT-B - a validated, online analogue of the Trail Making Test B of executive function and working memory. Hangover severity was significantly correlated with one measure only, namely the previous night’s BAC (r = .228, p = .019). Completion time on the eTMT-B was significantly correlated with hangover severity ( r = .245, p = .012), previous night’s BAC (r = .197, p = .041) and time spent dinking (r = .376, p < .001). These findings confirm that alcohol hangover negatively affects cognitive functioning and that poorer working memory and executive performance correlates with hangover severity. The results also support the utility of using online measures in hangover research.
Mon, 19 November 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0474.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: migrant workers; expatriates; workplace; physical health; umbrella review; organizational psychology; occupational health
Online: 19 November 2018 (17:20:19 CET)
Migrants are mainly employed in "3D Jobs" dirty, dangerous, difficult, characterized by monotony, intense rhythms, in sectors at higher risk as construction, heavy industry, agriculture. Aim of this study is to elaborate a systematic review, in order to identify the main occupational risks and occupational diseases of this category. Research included articles published from 2013 to 2018 on the major online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus), using a combination of some keywords (migrant workers, expatriates, physical health, diseases, illnesses, travel, travelers, work and occupational). The online search indicated 1.109 references. We excluded 977 studies, because unrelated to physical health and 64 due to duplication. They were analyzed 68 articles, including 6 reviews and 62 original article. The main risk emerged are to developing infectious diseases, metabolic cardiovascular diseases and to manifesting a lower quality of life, in particular due to difficulties in accessing local health services. It will be crucial to implement the role of occupational medicine in order to introduce multilevel interventions designed to prevent work-related injuries and illnesses and to promote healthier working environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0414.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nursing values; burnout; hardy personality; work-life balance; nursing stress; co-counselling; critical realism; nurse education; nurse-patient ratios
Online: 19 November 2018 (04:21:47 CET)
This initial report of a longitudinal study of 192 English hospital nurses has measured Nursing Values (the 6Cs of nursing); Personality, Self-Esteem and Depression; Burnout Potential; Work-Life Balance Stress; ‘Hardy Personality’; and Intention to Leave Nursing. Correlational, component and cluster analysis identifies four groups: “The Soldiers” (N = 79) , with medium scores on most measures, who bravely ‘soldier on’ in their nursing roles, in the face of numerous financial cuts to the National Health Service, and worsening nurse-patient ratios; “Cheerful Professionals” (N = 54), coping successfully with nursing roles, and a variety of challenges, in upwardly mobile careers; “High Achievers” (N = 39), senior nurses with strong profiles of a ‘hardy personality’, and commitment to fundamental nursing values; “Highly Stressed, Potential Leavers” (N = 20), with indicators of significant psychological distress, and difficulty in coping with nursing role challenges. We propose a model of co-counselling and social support for this distressed group, by nurses who are coping more successfully with multiple challenges. We discuss the role of nurse educators in fostering nursing values, and developing and supporting ‘hardy personality’ and emotional resilience in recruits to nursing. This study is framed within the disciplinary approach of Critical Realism, which identifies the value basis for research and dialogue in developing strategies for social change.
Fri, 2 November 2018
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0029.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; personalization; customization; nutrition
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:00:20 CET)
In recent years, food and drink marketers have become increasingly interested in the question of whether there are any meaningful sex/gender differences in the world of taste/flavour perception. However, it turns out that while there are a large number of individual differences in the experience of food/drink, few, if any, fall neatly along sex/gender lines. As such, the marketers of food and drink need to tread very carefully when it comes to marketing food or beverage products specifically at men, or more usually, women. All too often, the brands entering this space soon find their attempts branded crass and/or sexist. Adopting a stealthy or implicit gender-based product development strategy is therefore perhaps more likely to succeed than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area. That said, the one area where the public appear willing to accept products that are explicitly targeted at men or women is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements.
Wed, 17 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0379.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical simulator training; individual performance trend; speed-accuracy function; automatic detection; performance feed-back
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:40:08 CEST)
Simulator training for image-guided surgical interventions may benefit from artificial intelligence systems that control the evolution of task skills in terms of time and precision of a trainee's performance on the basis of fully automatic feed-back systems. At the earliest stages of training, novice trainees frequently focus on getting faster at the task, and may thereby compromise the optimal evolution of the precision of their performance. For automatically guiding them towards attaining an optimal speed-accuracy trade-off, an effective control system for the reinforcement/correction of strategies must be able to exploit the right individual performance criteria in the right way, reliably detect individual performance trends at any given moment in time, and alert the trainee, as early as necessary, when to slow down and focus on precision, or when to focus on getting faster. This article addresses several aspects of this challenge for speed-accuracy controlled simulator training before any training on specific surgical tasks or clinical models should be envisaged. Analyses of individual learning curves from the simulator training sessions of novices and benchmark performance data of one expert surgeon, who had no specific training in the simulator task, validate the suggested approach.
Wed, 10 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0219.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Bayesian networks; self determined motivation; competitive anxiety; Entropy reduction.
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:48:18 CEST)
This study is framed on the Information Theory as a constructive criterion to generate probabilistic distributions –through the elaboration of Bayesian Networks- and to reduce the uncertainty in the occurrence and relationship between two key psychological variables associated with the sports’ performance: Self-Determined Motivation and Competitive Anxiety. We analyzed 674 universitary students/athletes who competed in the 2017 Universitary Games (Universiade) in México, from 44 universities, with an average age of 21 years old (SD = 2.07), and with a sportive experience of 8.61 years of average (SD = 5.15). Methods: Regarding the data analysis, first of all a CHAID algorithm was carried out for to know the independence links among variables, and then two Bayesian networks (BN) were elaborated. The validation of the BN revealed AUC values ranging from 0.5 to 0.92. Subsequently, various instantations were carried out with hypothetical values applied to the “bottom” variables. Results showed two probability trees that have Extrinisic Motivation and Amotivation at the top, while the anxiety/activation due to the worry for performance was at the bottom of probabilities. The instantiations carried out support the existence of these probabilistic relationships, demonstrating the little influence on the competition anxiety generated by the intrinsic motivation. In conclusion, the reduction of the uncertainty made up by the restricted BN may aloe to re-introduce Information Theory principles in psychosocial studies, allowing authors to obtain useful probabilities values upon target psychological variables related with sportive performance.
Thu, 30 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0594.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: cheating behavior, cheating during exam, 2nd medical laboratory
Online: 30 August 2018 (13:46:11 CEST)
Cheating during examination is now day serious problem spatially in Ethiopia where many students sit in one class to exam. When cheating occurs in medical schools, it has serious consequences for human life, social values, and the economy. Even though, cheating on exams has existed in any department, with unknown reason, prevalence of cheater among 2nd year laboratory students were high. So that assessing factors and improving cheating behavior of the students are mandatory to create competitive graduated students. To identify factors and to improve cheating behavior action research study design was conducted among 2nd year medical laboratory student. Criterion sampling technique was used to selects sixteen cheater students among 2nd year laboratory students. To gather necessary data, we used focus group discussions, individual interview, open-ended questionnaire and observation and collected information by using hand writing notes. During exam different cheating methods used by students like using a system of signals, writing on hands, desks and copy the other students answer. While the compelling reasons for cheating were like hard courses, hard exams, time pressure and fear of failure. To improve cheating behavior of the student’s different action strategies were taken like prepared exam by using code, arrangement sitting style during exam and sit with brainy students during class, reading and discussion. Most students were trying to done exam by themselves but their results are not good as previously. So that, we need more future action plan to avoid cheating behavior of the students. During, the next action plan we will be taken the remaining main action strategies and action evaluation we will be expected 50% of participants will be avoided their cheater behavior and done exam independently without forced by the environment.
Thu, 23 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0418.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic stress; psychological and physical well-being; adolescence; secondary education; validity; reliability; gender and age differences
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:32:43 CEST)
This study presents the validation process of the Questionnaire on Academic Stress in Secondary Education –QASSE-, designed to assess the wide variety of school sources and situations related to academic stress in adolescence, and their relationship with students’ physical and psychological well-being. Participants were 860 Spanish high school students (52.9% girls) with an average age of 14.62 years (SD = 1.8). Through a cross-validation process, EFA and CFA supported QASSE multifactorial structure with four first-order factors -academic overload, interaction with classmates, family pressure, and future-oriented perspective- and a second-order factor of academic stress, showing a significant and intense relationship with adolescents’ psychological and physical well-being. Results also highlight the effects of the gender*educational level interaction on the students’ stress, with girls showing higher levels of stress in the transition courses between educational phases (sophomore and junior years). The QASSE demonstrates good validity and reliability, showing potential for both research and educational application. The results show the high impact of the QASSE dimensions on psychological and physical well-being in adolescence, highlighting its special usefulness for designing and adjusting educational prevention and intervention actions in this area to the students’ specific characteristics and needs
Wed, 15 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0273.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: satiety; oral processing; lubrication; mastication; snack; appetite; chewing; food intake
Online: 15 August 2018 (14:59:00 CEST)
As overeating, overweight and obesity remain public health concerns, it is crucial to design satiety-enhancing foods that suppress appetite and lower snack intake. Existing research identifies oro-sensory targets to promote satiation and satiety within the “satiety cascade” yet it remains unclear as to whether it is ‘chewing’ or ‘oral lubrication’ that might amplify satiation signals.Here we have combined techniques from experimental psychology, food material science and mechanical engineering to measure the role of chewing and lubrication using novel, model foods as preloads on subjective appetite and intake of a salty snack. Three mint flavoured hydrogels were engineered to vary in their texture (fracture stress) and lubrication (inverse of friction coefficient) properties, and a control group received a mint tea. Results showed that snack intake was suppressed by 32% after eating the low chewing/high lubricating preload as compared to the high chewing/low lubricating preload (p<0.05). No other significant effects were found for snack intake. Hunger ratings decreased from t1 to t3 (p<0.05), however differences between conditions were subtle and not significant. Thus, this proof-of-concept study demonstrates that manipulating oral lubrication is a promising new construct to reduce snack intake that merits future research in the oro-sensory satiety domain.
Thu, 9 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0199.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: disability, exercise, health promotion, framework, theory
Online: 9 August 2018 (21:01:43 CEST)
Lack of physical activity participation for adults with a disability remain a large public health concern. For those with existing, or newly acquired disability, increased sedentary behavior stemming from physical impairments often results in the development of secondary chronic health conditions (e.g., obesity or osteoarthritis) which leads to participation restrictions within major life roles. Without intervention these secondary conditions further increase physical impairment which, in turn, sets these populations up for continuous negative health trajectories over their remaining lifespan. Physical activity can attenuate the development of secondary health conditions and optimize health outcomes within these populations. However, those with disability often do not possess the necessary physical capacity to maintain physically active lifestyles. Therefore, exercise programs specifically designed to increase physical functioning have been identified as a necessary intermediate step to reduce physical limitations prior to adoption of physically active lifestyles. Adoption of exercise program participation remains a difficult task for both the general population and those with disability alike. Based on current rates of physical inactivity, it is clear that traditional health behavior change models do not adequately address the complexity of this issue. This paper highlights some of the limitations within the current health behavior change models as they relate to exercise behavior. Additionally, a novel conceptual framework is presented for the intent of its incorporation within research and health promotion interventions targeting exercise behavior within disability populations.
Mon, 23 April 2018
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0299.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: action-specific perception; dynamic perception; high jump; psychological stress
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:59:28 CEST)
The effects of psychological pressure on perceiving the height of a jump bar just before starting a high jump run was investigated. University students (N = 14) training for a high jump event performed 15 trials (3 practice, 6 pressure, and 6 non-pressure) in counterbalanced order in their daily practice environment. The height of the bar was judged as significantly higher on pressure trials compared to non-pressure trials. A regression analysis indicated that participants who reported increased subjective perceived pressure tended to judge the bar to be higher. There was no significant difference between pressure and non-pressure trials for the performance index, defined as the success rate. This study provides the first evidence that environmental perceptions prior to executing a motor task under pressure may make performance of the task appear to be more difficult.
Tue, 6 March 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0042.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: cognitive bias; organizational bias; decision options; risk; catastrophic, organizational accidents; human error; hierarchy; culture; policy; procedures
Online: 6 March 2018 (05:21:28 CET)
This paper examines cognitive biases which affect the ability of decision makers to make rational decisions in an organizational context. The motivation for this analysis begins with the observation of catastrophic accidents caused by human error but in an organizational context. This paper expands on the concept of cognitive bias to define organizational biases which are the factors that affect decisions in an organizational context. The paper distinguishes between organizational biases, which are the focus of this paper, and individual biases, which are biases experienced by individuals but may have organizational consequences. The purpose of this paper is to identify methods to mitigate the risks of organizational accidents, accidents which involve many people operating at different levels of an organization. The methodology is to identify those decisions that would address the specific organizational biases. The focus of this paper is the decisions for mitigating the risks associated with decisions in an organizational context. Results are shown for seven organizational biases, six specific case studies, and four decision options. This paper concludes that organizational biases are intrinsically different from individual biases and that these differences lead to different decision options from those that mitigate individual biases; however, they may exist concurrently.
Mon, 22 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0194.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: cyclists; bicycle users; risky behaviors; human factors; infrastructure; self-reported road crashes; road safety
Online: 22 January 2018 (04:56:56 CET)
The increasing number of registered road crashes involving cyclists during the last decade, and the high proportion of road crashes resulting in severe injuries and fatalities among cyclists constitutes a global issue for community health, urban development, and sustainability. Nowadays, the incidence of many risk factors for road crashes of cyclists remains largely unexplained. Given the importance of this issue, the present study has been conducted with the aim of determining relationships between infrastructural, human factors and safety outcomes of cyclists. Objectives: This study aimed, first, to examine the relationship between key infrastructural and human factors present in cycling, bicycle-user characteristics, and their self-reported experience with road crashes. And second, to determine whether a set of key infrastructural and human factors may predict their self-reported road crashes. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a total of 1064 cyclists (38.8% women, 61.2% men; M = 32.8 years of age) from 20 different countries across Europe, South America and North America, participated in an online survey composed of four sections: demographic data and cycling-related factors, human factors, perceptions on infrastructural factors, and road crashes suffered. Results: The results of this study showed significant associations between human factors, infrastructural conditions and self-reported road crashes. Also, a logistic regression model found that self-reported road crashes of cyclists could be predicted through variables such as age, riding intensity, risky behaviors, and problematic user/infrastructure interactions. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that self-reported road crashes of cyclists are influenced by features related to the user and their interaction with infrastructural characteristics of the road.
Mon, 15 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0127.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease; Psychosocial Safety Climate; Demand-Control; Effort-Reward Imbalance; Epidemiology; Psychosocial Risks
Online: 15 January 2018 (16:58:20 CET)
Abstract: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the most prevalent disease worldwide, which has been linked to work stress because of poor job design as explained by the Job Demand-Control (JDC) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. In this paper we explore for the first time relative impact of a specific aspect of organisational climate, Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC), on any CVD including angina, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and stroke. We used two waves of interview data from Australia, with an average lag of 5 years (excluding baseline CVD, final n = 1223). Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the prospective associations between PSC at baseline on incident CVD at follow-up. It was found that participants in low PSC environments were 59% more likely to develop new CVD than those in high PSC environments. Logistic regression showed that PSC at baseline predicts lower CVD risk at follow-up (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00), and this risk remained unchanged even after joint adjustment for measures of ERI and JDC. These results suggest that PSC is an independent risk factor for CVD in Australia. Beyond job design this study implicates organisational climate and prevailing management values regarding worker psychological health as the genesis of CVD.
Mon, 8 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0050.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: collaboration; social norms theory; emotional intelligence; quality of life; goal orientation; prosocial; internet education
Online: 8 January 2018 (08:49:59 CET)
This article assumes that collaborators who adopt a positive-sum, prosocial perspective can build trust-based relationships, which is equivalent to collaborative ability (CA). To improve a collaborator’s CA, we anticipated that content based upon a model of positive-sum collaboration, founded upon ancestral behaviours presented as social norms, might alter a zero-sum, proself, collaborator’s perspective. However, we also postulated that learner’s willingness to engage in positive-sum content may rely on pre-existing prosociality. Intervention participant’s prosociality was assessed via self-assessment of their emotional intelligence (EQ), quality of life (QoL), and goal orientation (GO). Learner’s engagement in online content was assessed by the three stage reached: examine website front matter; examine website content; learn website content. Tukey’s multiple comparison showed a statistically significant difference between stages one and three, in the mean of respondent’s self-assessed QoL. This suggests that participants who wished to learn content had, on average, higher quality of life, and potentially therefore greater prosociality. In general, these findings support a claim that any intervention designed to increase individual prosociality may need to consider the target population’s reticence to engage.
Wed, 20 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0144.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: art education; 20th century art movements; preferences of arts; pupils
Online: 20 December 2017 (10:12:22 CET)
The research presented here aims to determine how art education influences pupils' preferences for 20th-century art movements. The research was conducted on a sample of 200 pupils (N = 200) of an early school age in grade schools in Split, Croatia. We conducted an educational experiment throughout an entire school year, which included three types of intervention: observing works of art from the 20th century, introducing works of art using a puppet, and the pupils' art activities/artwork based on the 20th-century art movements. The results show that the model of art education is an important factor in changing pupils' preferences for 20th-century art movements. The students reacted positively to each kind of education, in the sense of a wider acceptance of 20th-century art (abstract, fauvism, cubism, pop art, and surrealism). The type of education did not much influence preferences when it came to classical art and visual works without artistic value. We concluded that puppets and independent creative work should be used more often in art education.
Fri, 15 December 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0103.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Crisis Resource Management; obstetric hemorrhage; non-technical skills; High Fidelity Simulation; delivery room
Online: 15 December 2017 (08:54:25 CET)
Human factors are the most relevant issues contributing to adverse events in obstetrics. Specific training of Crisis Resource Management (CRM) skills (i.e., problem solving and team management, resource allocation, awareness of environment, and dynamic decision-making) are now widespread and are often based on High Fidelity Simulation. In order to be used as a guideline in simulated scenarios, they need to be translated into specific and observable behavioral markers. To this purpose, we developed a set of observable behaviors related to the main elements of CRM in the delivery room. The observational tool was then adopted in a two-days seminar on obstetric hemorrhage where teams working in obstetric wards of six Italian hospitals took part to simulations. The tool was used as guide for the Io and as a peer-to-peer feedback. It was then rated for its usefulness in facilitating the reflection upon one’s own behavior, its ease of use, and its usefulness for the peer-to-peer feedback. The ratings were highly positive, around 4 in a 5-point scale. The CRM observational tool is therefore a useful, quick and easy solution to facilitate the debriefing, the peer-to-peer feedback and, most of all, the transfer of safe behavior from simulation to everyday practice.
Fri, 15 September 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0065.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: embodiment; CBT; interpersonal synchrony; therapeutic alliance; emotional regulation; emotional field; emotional mastery
Online: 15 September 2017 (11:37:32 CEST)
The Embodied Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ECBT) approach for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings is presented. The model integrates cognitive behavioral theory, neuroscience and embodied cognition. ECBT draws from evidence of bidirectional effects between modes of bottom up (sensori-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes in psychotherapy. The paper first describes the dominance of the traditional mentalistic view of cognition and its limitations. Evidence for the embodied model of cognition and emotion is reviewed whilst highlighting its advantages as a complimentary process model to deepen and broaden talking therapies. An overview is given of the switch (e.g., the technique of balancing) between top-down and bottom-up orientation in the ECBT model as well as a clear description of the method for emotional regulation, acceptance of unwanted emotions and emotional mastery. ECBT builds on and extends the unconscious processes of the ‘Interpersonal Synchrony’ (IS) model identified by Koole and Tschacher , to enhance the therapeutic alliance for emotional co-regulation. A new idea is proposed that both embraces and extends the IS model: embodiment techniques of imitation and movement synchronization in the Emotional Field of our method be used in a conscious way to speed up the calming effects of co-regulation and the client’s self-regulatory capacity. The paper ends with an outline of the criteria needed to become an embodied therapist. A case study is given highlighting these aspects.
Wed, 14 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0065.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: DAPTQ; adaptive personality; psychometric properties; HEXACO; psychopathic personality traits; confirmatory factor analysis; test-retest validity
Online: 14 June 2017 (07:47:55 CEST)
Multiple studies reported a negative relationship between the Honesty-Humility factor of the HEXACO model and psychopathy. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), which was developed to assess adaptive traits known to be related to psychopathic traits, has previously demonstrate positive relationships with all factors of the Big Five Model, at the exception of a negative relationship with neuroticism. The current study aims to validate the previously reported association between the DAPTQ and the five major components of the personality, while also examining its relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor as defined by the HEXACO model. The results (N = 171) support the good internal consistency, two weeks test-retest validity and inter-correlation of the DAPTQ. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis further supports the nine-factor model of the DAPTQ. When compared to the HEXACO, the DAPTQ did not display any relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor, nor the Agreeableness and Openness factors, but kept its similar association to Emotionality, Extroversion, and Conscientiousness as initially reported in its development phase. Overall, the results support the discriminant validity of the DAPTQ to assess adaptive traits related to the psychopathic personality without overlapping with psychopathic personality traits. Results are discussed in terms of implications and further improvements to validate the DAPTQ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0063.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire; French translation; France; Canada; psychometrics
Online: 14 June 2017 (06:36:48 CEST)
This study presents a French translation and validation of the Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), an instrument for assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. Bilingual (French and English) individuals from France and Canada (N = 141, 52% in France, Mage = 29.73, SD = 9.09) completed both versions of the DAPTQ (French and English), alongside measurements of perceived stress, trait anxiety, authentic leadership and creativity. Correlation between the DAPTQ total and subscales across versions showed strong associations (r = .84 to .96). The DAPTQ – French version also demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .87), convergent validity, and concurrent validity. These findings support the cross-cultural equivalence of the DAPTQ and therefore its effectiveness as a valid assessment method of adaptive traits.
Wed, 10 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0106.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: packaging; beer; image mold; packaging weight; taste
Online: 10 August 2016 (09:04:27 CEST)
People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask whether this perceived difference is reliable across consumers; And, if so, whether it is purely a psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception), or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process) and the contents. We conducted two experiments in order to address these important questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a beer in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (i.e., a between-participants experimental design was used) and the participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and their estimate of the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh). Nevertheless, those who evaluated the bottled beer rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer that had been served from a can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served to a new group of participants blind (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material). The participants in this control study (N = 29) were asked which beer they preferred or else could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of preference was obtained under such conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of differences in packaging weight (between tin and glass), and/or prior associations of quality with specific packaging materials/formats (what some have chosen to call ‘image molds’) are discussed.
Tue, 12 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0022.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; eHealth; Technology Acceptance, Smart Health, User Diversity, Serious Games for Healthcare
Online: 12 July 2016 (09:39:31 CEST)
Based on the demographic shift and the related challenges resulting from the growing number of elderly and persons with chronic diseases, the idea of smart home that supports its inhabitants in the daily life, gains importance. The purpose of this paper was to examine in a prototypic Ambient Assisted Living environment if users after interaction with different health-supporting applications intend to use such in the future. Two experimental studies exemplary show possible applications of home-integrated technology that can support, assist and accompany the target group in different contexts, and examine to what extent participants are willing to future use such sophisticated technology at home. The results show that people in general, but especially the old and chronically ill ones are quite fascinated of health-supporting ambient technology and the majority intends to use such ambient assistance in the future (study I). Moreover, serious games for healthcare are shown as a hedonic use of technology in smart homes that have a great potential to retain or improve the physical health, mobility and the overall well-being of the inhabitants (study II). The article provides two examples of ambient technology to leverage the demographic change and presents important user factors for facilitating high user acceptance.
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