ARTICLE Download: 4| View: 29| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0211.v1
Online: 18 October 2019 (08:57:53 CEST)
The purpose of the study was to explore older adults’ views and perceptions of psychotherapy in Cyprus. A total of 25 older adults, aged between 65- 89 participated in semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis identified three main themes: Familiar term/Unfamiliar process; existential crises during this stage; and the issue of stigma. Participants indicated a basic understanding of what psychotherapy entails, but did not associate psychotherapy with serious mental illness. Participants identified a number of existential issues that are potentially major life stressors for an elderly person and referred to the historical stigma that has an impact on their own perceptions about psychotherapy. However, participants seemed to view their ability to overcome psychological difficulties on their own, as a proof of personal strength. Psychologists and other health professionals also need to be mindful of how they describe psychological concepts and treatment as older adults may not understand what they are being told or may be afraid of what treatment involves based on historical context. This study highlights the importance of using strategies that have the potential to empower this population in order to proactively attend to their mental health including community-based education and national mental health campaigns.
Thu, 3 October 2019
ARTICLE Download: 34| View: 158| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0037.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: affective events; work engagement; sensitization-satiation effects; job demands-resources model; experience sampling; growth curve modeling
Online: 3 October 2019 (04:37:58 CEST)
Although work events can be regarded as pivotal elements of organizational life, only a few studies have examined how positive and negative events relate to and combine to affect work engagement over time. Theory suggests that to better understand how current events affect work engagement (WE), we have to account for recent events that have preceded these current events. We present competing theoretical views on how recent and current work events may affect employees (e.g., getting used to a high frequency of negative events or becoming more sensitive to negative events). Although the occurrence of events implies discrete changes in the experience of work, prior research has not considered whether work events actually accumulate to sustained mid-term changes in WE. To address these gaps in the literature, we conducted a week-level longitudinal study across a period of 15 consecutive weeks among 135 employees, which yielded 849 weekly observations. While positive events were associated with higher levels of WE within the same week, negative events were not. Our results support neither satiation nor sensitization processes. However, high frequencies of negative events in the preceding week amplified the beneficial effects of positive events on WE in the current week. Growth curve analyses show that the benefits of positive events accumulate to sustain high levels of WE. WE dissipates in the absence of continuous experience of positive events. Our study adds a temporal component and informs research that has taken a feature-oriented perspective on the dynamic interplay of job demands and resources.
Wed, 18 September 2019
ARTICLE Download: 24| View: 139| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0208.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical robotics; wearable force-sensor systems; grip-force profiling; surgical expertise; robot-assisted surgery training
Online: 18 September 2019 (13:07:40 CEST)
STRAS (Single access Transluminal Robotic Assistant for Surgeons) is a flexible robotic system based on the Anubis® platform of Karl Storz for application to intra-luminal surgical procedures. It consists of three cable-driven systems, one endoscope serving as guide and two inserted instruments. The flexible and bendable instruments have three degrees of freedom and can be teleoperated by a single user via two specially designed master interfaces. In this research, a pair of specific sensor gloves, which ergonomically fit to the master handles of the system was designed and the forces applied by one expert and one novice user during system-specific task execution in a simulator task (4-step-pick-and-drop) were compared. The results show that user expertise is not only reflected by shorter task execution times but also, more importantly, by specific differences in handgrip force profiles for specific sensor locations on anatomically relevant parts of the fingers and hand controlling the surgical instruments of the robotic master/slave system.
Mon, 1 July 2019
ARTICLE Download: 48| View: 114| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0022.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: values theory; security; trust; dynamic relationship
Online: 1 July 2019 (15:36:45 CEST)
The study of values at European and global level has gained momentum along with the theory of values launched by Schwartz. Values are dormant, hidden, unobservable and impossible to measure directly. They exist somewhere within the human being, manifested by different attitudes, depending on their degree of generality. The paradigm of basic human values implies shared universal values that are encountered in cultures all over the world. The theory of values designed by Schwartz has refined the pool of 19 basic individual values representing principles in individuals and group, further describing the dynamic relationships among them. This study presents practical evidence of the dynamics between individual values, the dynamics theorized by Schwartz in 2012. Following the development of an online questionnaire made up of 46 items with online responses options on a Lickert scale from 1 to 6, where 1 represents less important and 6 represent very important, 220 young people from Western Romania voluntarily responded. By testing the hypothesis assuming the dynamic relationship between the two values through multiple regression analysis, the results demonstrate that in Model 1, which involves a linear relationship, health explains 42% of the variance in security with a F =161,215 significant at p <.01. In Model 2, which involves a curvilinear relationship, health explains 50% of the variance in security version with a F = 35,336 significant at p <.01. The incremental prediction optimization of 8% added by including the squared security accounts for the curve in the regression line, indicating the existence of a curvilinear relationship between security and health. The dynamic relationship demonstrates that upper limit and lower limit aspects of security, significantly influence the health value in a negative way. Normal levels of security trigger a high level of prioritization of health value. The implications of this type of relationship are discussed in explaining the value phenomenon at individual level. The study shows limits due to the selected sample, focusing exclusively on young people with higher education from the Western region of Romania. This sample was the target group of "The National Identity of Romanian Youth" project which designed this research.
Fri, 28 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 97| View: 235| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0298.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: rumination; psychological detachment; perseverative cognition; work reflection; vitality; burnout; thriving; work engagement; employee well-being; mental health
Online: 28 June 2019 (12:09:30 CEST)
In the literature on occupational stress and recovery from work several facets of thinking about work in off-job time have been conceptualized. However, research on the focal concepts is currently rather disintegrated. In this study we take a closer look at the five most established concepts, namely (1) psychological detachment, (2) affective rumination, (3) problem-solving pondering, (4) positive work reflection, and (5) negative work reflection. More specifically, we scrutinized (1) whether the five facets of work-related rumination are empirically distinct, (2) whether they yield differential associations with different facets of employee well-being (burnout, work engagement, thriving, satisfaction with life, and flourishing), and (3) to what extent the five facets can be distinguished from and relate to conceptually similar constructs, such as irritation, worry, and neuroticism. We applied structural equation modeling techniques to cross-sectional survey data from 474 employees. Our results provide evidence that (1) the five facets of work-related rumination are highly related, yet empirically distinct, (2) that each facet contributes uniquely to explain variance in certain aspects of employee well-being, and (3) that they are distinct from related concepts, albeit there is a high overlap between (lower levels of) psychological detachment and cognitive irritation. Our study contributes to clarify the structure of work-related rumination and extends the nomological network around different types of thinking about work in off-job time and employee well-being.
Wed, 19 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 57| View: 245| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0172.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: chronobiology; shiftwork; insomnia; cognitive behavioral therapy, telepsychiatry; occupational health
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:05:50 CEST)
In western societies about one in six employees works in shifts. Shiftwork is associated with a number of poor somatic and psychological health outcomes, especially sleep issues. Higher rates of absenteeism and accidents in the workplace are possible consequences. Still, prevention programs and treatment options that are specifically tailored to shift workers’ needs are rare. We devised a 4-week online sleep intervention (n = 21) and compared treatment outcomes to our outpatient treatment for shift workers (n = 12). Measures included the WHO-5, ISI, and ESS scales as well as sleep diaries. Shift workers reported worse symptoms of insomnia than other participants. Results show significant average increases in sleep efficiency (+ 7%) and total sleep time (+ 25 min.), as well as significant improvements regarding insomnia symptoms and wellbeing in the online sample. Rates of improvement did not differ between the online and outpatient samples. Sleep disorders affect a relevant part of the working population, especially shift workers. Online approaches to treatment of these issues seem feasible and effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed.
Tue, 18 June 2019
ARTICLE Download: 45| View: 171| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0172.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: chronobiology; shiftwork; insomnia; cognitive behavioral therapy, telepsychiatry; occupational health
Online: 18 June 2019 (10:40:21 CEST)
In western societies about one in six employees works in shifts. Shiftwork is associated with a number of poor somatic and psychological health outcomes, especially sleep issues. Higher rates of absenteeism and accidents in the workplace are possible consequences. Still, prevention programs and treatment options that are specifically tailored to shift workers’ needs are rare. We devised a 4-week online sleep intervention (n = 21) and compared treatment outcomes to our outpatient treatment for shift workers (n = 12). Measures included the WHO-5. ISI, and ESS scales as well as sleep protocols. Shift workers reported worse symptoms of insomnia than other participants. Results show significant average increases in sleep efficiency (+ 7%) and total sleep time (+ 25 min.), as well as significant improvements regarding insomnia symptoms and wellbeing in the online sample. Rates of improvement did not differ between the online and outpatient samples. Sleep disorders affect a relevant part of the working population, especially shift workers. Online approaches to treatment of these issues seem feasible and effective. Randomized controlled trials are needed.
Mon, 22 April 2019
ARTICLE Download: 82| View: 141| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0241.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: motivation; well-being; self-steem; psychology; sport
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:29:23 CEST)
The work shows a single case intervention based on the motivational coaching model the “Cantón’s Giraffe”, theoretically and experimentally proven in a 20-years-old dancesport practitioner, who considered improving her execution with her dance partner. Methodological triangulation was used , combining a test-retest quantitative measure (Using Ryff Psychological Wellbeing Scales; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Questionnaire and an ad-hoc instrument for the motivational force assessment) and subjective analysis of the responses from the interviews conducted. A three-phase intervention protocol was used : identification, intervention, and follow-up. The results show an improvement in reevaluation scores, an increase in the subjective evaluation, and participant satisfaction and perceived resources raised at the end of the intervention. These results are in line with previous similar studies.
Tue, 12 February 2019
ARTICLE Download: 134| View: 629| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0107.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: hangover; alcohol; internet; attention; executive function; working memory
Online: 12 February 2019 (17:24:43 CET)
Studies into the cognitive effects of alcohol have been mixed. They also present methodological challenges, often relying on self-report of alcohol consumption leading to hangover. The current study used BAC (obtained via breathalyser) and self-reported drinking behavior during a night out and related these to hangover severity and cognitive function measured over the internet in the same subjects the following morning. Volunteers were breathalysed and interviewed as they left a central entertainment district of an Australian state capital. They were provided with a unique identifier and, the following morning, logged on to a website. This included an online version of the Alcohol Hangover Severity Scale (AHSS), and number and type of drinks consumed the previous night and the eTMT-B - a validated, online analogue of the Trail Making Test B of executive function and working memory. Hangover severity was significantly correlated with one measure only, namely the previous night’s BAC (r = .228, p = .019). Completion time on the eTMT-B was significantly correlated with hangover severity ( r = .245, p = .012), previous night’s BAC (r = .197, p = .041) and time spent dinking (r = .376, p < .001). These findings confirm that alcohol hangover negatively affects cognitive functioning and that poorer working memory and executive performance correlates with hangover severity. The results also support the utility of using online measures in hangover research.
Mon, 19 November 2018
REVIEW Download: 86| View: 81| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0474.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: migrant workers; expatriates; workplace; physical health; umbrella review; organizational psychology; occupational health
Online: 19 November 2018 (17:20:19 CET)
Migrants are mainly employed in "3D Jobs" dirty, dangerous, difficult, characterized by monotony, intense rhythms, in sectors at higher risk as construction, heavy industry, agriculture. Aim of this study is to elaborate a systematic review, in order to identify the main occupational risks and occupational diseases of this category. Research included articles published from 2013 to 2018 on the major online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Scopus), using a combination of some keywords (migrant workers, expatriates, physical health, diseases, illnesses, travel, travelers, work and occupational). The online search indicated 1.109 references. We excluded 977 studies, because unrelated to physical health and 64 due to duplication. They were analyzed 68 articles, including 6 reviews and 62 original article. The main risk emerged are to developing infectious diseases, metabolic cardiovascular diseases and to manifesting a lower quality of life, in particular due to difficulties in accessing local health services. It will be crucial to implement the role of occupational medicine in order to introduce multilevel interventions designed to prevent work-related injuries and illnesses and to promote healthier working environments.
ARTICLE Download: 84| View: 68| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0414.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: nursing values; burnout; hardy personality; work-life balance; nursing stress; co-counselling; critical realism; nurse education; nurse-patient ratios
Online: 19 November 2018 (04:21:47 CET)
This initial report of a longitudinal study of 192 English hospital nurses has measured Nursing Values (the 6Cs of nursing); Personality, Self-Esteem and Depression; Burnout Potential; Work-Life Balance Stress; ‘Hardy Personality’; and Intention to Leave Nursing. Correlational, component and cluster analysis identifies four groups: “The Soldiers” (N = 79) , with medium scores on most measures, who bravely ‘soldier on’ in their nursing roles, in the face of numerous financial cuts to the National Health Service, and worsening nurse-patient ratios; “Cheerful Professionals” (N = 54), coping successfully with nursing roles, and a variety of challenges, in upwardly mobile careers; “High Achievers” (N = 39), senior nurses with strong profiles of a ‘hardy personality’, and commitment to fundamental nursing values; “Highly Stressed, Potential Leavers” (N = 20), with indicators of significant psychological distress, and difficulty in coping with nursing role challenges. We propose a model of co-counselling and social support for this distressed group, by nurses who are coping more successfully with multiple challenges. We discuss the role of nurse educators in fostering nursing values, and developing and supporting ‘hardy personality’ and emotional resilience in recruits to nursing. This study is framed within the disciplinary approach of Critical Realism, which identifies the value basis for research and dialogue in developing strategies for social change.
Fri, 2 November 2018
REVIEW Download: 130| View: 142| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0029.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: food marketing; sex/gender; personalization; customization; nutrition
Online: 2 November 2018 (07:00:20 CET)
In recent years, food and drink marketers have become increasingly interested in the question of whether there are any meaningful sex/gender differences in the world of taste/flavour perception. However, it turns out that while there are a large number of individual differences in the experience of food/drink, few, if any, fall neatly along sex/gender lines. As such, the marketers of food and drink need to tread very carefully when it comes to marketing food or beverage products specifically at men, or more usually, women. All too often, the brands entering this space soon find their attempts branded crass and/or sexist. Adopting a stealthy or implicit gender-based product development strategy is therefore perhaps more likely to succeed than the explicit targeting of food/beverage-related products in what is undoubtedly a highly-politicized area. That said, the one area where the public appear willing to accept products that are explicitly targeted at men or women is in the case of nutritional foods/supplements.
Wed, 17 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 104| View: 69| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0379.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: surgical simulator training; individual performance trend; speed-accuracy function; automatic detection; performance feed-back
Online: 17 October 2018 (08:40:08 CEST)
Simulator training for image-guided surgical interventions may benefit from artificial intelligence systems that control the evolution of task skills in terms of time and precision of a trainee's performance on the basis of fully automatic feed-back systems. At the earliest stages of training, novice trainees frequently focus on getting faster at the task, and may thereby compromise the optimal evolution of the precision of their performance. For automatically guiding them towards attaining an optimal speed-accuracy trade-off, an effective control system for the reinforcement/correction of strategies must be able to exploit the right individual performance criteria in the right way, reliably detect individual performance trends at any given moment in time, and alert the trainee, as early as necessary, when to slow down and focus on precision, or when to focus on getting faster. This article addresses several aspects of this challenge for speed-accuracy controlled simulator training before any training on specific surgical tasks or clinical models should be envisaged. Analyses of individual learning curves from the simulator training sessions of novices and benchmark performance data of one expert surgeon, who had no specific training in the simulator task, validate the suggested approach.
Wed, 10 October 2018
ARTICLE Download: 155| View: 266| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0219.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Bayesian networks; self determined motivation; competitive anxiety; Entropy reduction.
Online: 10 October 2018 (11:48:18 CEST)
This study is framed on the Information Theory as a constructive criterion to generate probabilistic distributions –through the elaboration of Bayesian Networks- and to reduce the uncertainty in the occurrence and relationship between two key psychological variables associated with the sports’ performance: Self-Determined Motivation and Competitive Anxiety. We analyzed 674 universitary students/athletes who competed in the 2017 Universitary Games (Universiade) in México, from 44 universities, with an average age of 21 years old (SD = 2.07), and with a sportive experience of 8.61 years of average (SD = 5.15). Methods: Regarding the data analysis, first of all a CHAID algorithm was carried out for to know the independence links among variables, and then two Bayesian networks (BN) were elaborated. The validation of the BN revealed AUC values ranging from 0.5 to 0.92. Subsequently, various instantations were carried out with hypothetical values applied to the “bottom” variables. Results showed two probability trees that have Extrinisic Motivation and Amotivation at the top, while the anxiety/activation due to the worry for performance was at the bottom of probabilities. The instantiations carried out support the existence of these probabilistic relationships, demonstrating the little influence on the competition anxiety generated by the intrinsic motivation. In conclusion, the reduction of the uncertainty made up by the restricted BN may aloe to re-introduce Information Theory principles in psychosocial studies, allowing authors to obtain useful probabilities values upon target psychological variables related with sportive performance.
Thu, 30 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 97| View: 142| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0594.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: cheating behavior, cheating during exam, 2nd medical laboratory
Online: 30 August 2018 (13:46:11 CEST)
Cheating during examination is now day serious problem spatially in Ethiopia where many students sit in one class to exam. When cheating occurs in medical schools, it has serious consequences for human life, social values, and the economy. Even though, cheating on exams has existed in any department, with unknown reason, prevalence of cheater among 2nd year laboratory students were high. So that assessing factors and improving cheating behavior of the students are mandatory to create competitive graduated students. To identify factors and to improve cheating behavior action research study design was conducted among 2nd year medical laboratory student. Criterion sampling technique was used to selects sixteen cheater students among 2nd year laboratory students. To gather necessary data, we used focus group discussions, individual interview, open-ended questionnaire and observation and collected information by using hand writing notes. During exam different cheating methods used by students like using a system of signals, writing on hands, desks and copy the other students answer. While the compelling reasons for cheating were like hard courses, hard exams, time pressure and fear of failure. To improve cheating behavior of the student’s different action strategies were taken like prepared exam by using code, arrangement sitting style during exam and sit with brainy students during class, reading and discussion. Most students were trying to done exam by themselves but their results are not good as previously. So that, we need more future action plan to avoid cheating behavior of the students. During, the next action plan we will be taken the remaining main action strategies and action evaluation we will be expected 50% of participants will be avoided their cheater behavior and done exam independently without forced by the environment.
Thu, 23 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 1634| View: 293| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0418.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: academic stress; psychological and physical well-being; adolescence; secondary education; validity; reliability; gender and age differences
Online: 23 August 2018 (15:32:43 CEST)
This study presents the validation process of the Questionnaire on Academic Stress in Secondary Education –QASSE-, designed to assess the wide variety of school sources and situations related to academic stress in adolescence, and their relationship with students’ physical and psychological well-being. Participants were 860 Spanish high school students (52.9% girls) with an average age of 14.62 years (SD = 1.8). Through a cross-validation process, EFA and CFA supported QASSE multifactorial structure with four first-order factors -academic overload, interaction with classmates, family pressure, and future-oriented perspective- and a second-order factor of academic stress, showing a significant and intense relationship with adolescents’ psychological and physical well-being. Results also highlight the effects of the gender*educational level interaction on the students’ stress, with girls showing higher levels of stress in the transition courses between educational phases (sophomore and junior years). The QASSE demonstrates good validity and reliability, showing potential for both research and educational application. The results show the high impact of the QASSE dimensions on psychological and physical well-being in adolescence, highlighting its special usefulness for designing and adjusting educational prevention and intervention actions in this area to the students’ specific characteristics and needs
Wed, 15 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 248| View: 200| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0273.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: satiety; oral processing; lubrication; mastication; snack; appetite; chewing; food intake
Online: 15 August 2018 (14:59:00 CEST)
As overeating, overweight and obesity remain public health concerns, it is crucial to design satiety-enhancing foods that suppress appetite and lower snack intake. Existing research identifies oro-sensory targets to promote satiation and satiety within the “satiety cascade” yet it remains unclear as to whether it is ‘chewing’ or ‘oral lubrication’ that might amplify satiation signals.Here we have combined techniques from experimental psychology, food material science and mechanical engineering to measure the role of chewing and lubrication using novel, model foods as preloads on subjective appetite and intake of a salty snack. Three mint flavoured hydrogels were engineered to vary in their texture (fracture stress) and lubrication (inverse of friction coefficient) properties, and a control group received a mint tea. Results showed that snack intake was suppressed by 32% after eating the low chewing/high lubricating preload as compared to the high chewing/low lubricating preload (p<0.05). No other significant effects were found for snack intake. Hunger ratings decreased from t1 to t3 (p<0.05), however differences between conditions were subtle and not significant. Thus, this proof-of-concept study demonstrates that manipulating oral lubrication is a promising new construct to reduce snack intake that merits future research in the oro-sensory satiety domain.
Thu, 9 August 2018
ARTICLE Download: 252| View: 203| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0199.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: disability, exercise, health promotion, framework, theory
Online: 9 August 2018 (21:01:43 CEST)
Lack of physical activity participation for adults with a disability remain a large public health concern. For those with existing, or newly acquired disability, increased sedentary behavior stemming from physical impairments often results in the development of secondary chronic health conditions (e.g., obesity or osteoarthritis) which leads to participation restrictions within major life roles. Without intervention these secondary conditions further increase physical impairment which, in turn, sets these populations up for continuous negative health trajectories over their remaining lifespan. Physical activity can attenuate the development of secondary health conditions and optimize health outcomes within these populations. However, those with disability often do not possess the necessary physical capacity to maintain physically active lifestyles. Therefore, exercise programs specifically designed to increase physical functioning have been identified as a necessary intermediate step to reduce physical limitations prior to adoption of physically active lifestyles. Adoption of exercise program participation remains a difficult task for both the general population and those with disability alike. Based on current rates of physical inactivity, it is clear that traditional health behavior change models do not adequately address the complexity of this issue. This paper highlights some of the limitations within the current health behavior change models as they relate to exercise behavior. Additionally, a novel conceptual framework is presented for the intent of its incorporation within research and health promotion interventions targeting exercise behavior within disability populations.
Mon, 23 April 2018
COMMUNICATION Download: 182| View: 267| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0299.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: action-specific perception; dynamic perception; high jump; psychological stress
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:59:28 CEST)
The effects of psychological pressure on perceiving the height of a jump bar just before starting a high jump run was investigated. University students (N = 14) training for a high jump event performed 15 trials (3 practice, 6 pressure, and 6 non-pressure) in counterbalanced order in their daily practice environment. The height of the bar was judged as significantly higher on pressure trials compared to non-pressure trials. A regression analysis indicated that participants who reported increased subjective perceived pressure tended to judge the bar to be higher. There was no significant difference between pressure and non-pressure trials for the performance index, defined as the success rate. This study provides the first evidence that environmental perceptions prior to executing a motor task under pressure may make performance of the task appear to be more difficult.
Tue, 6 March 2018
ARTICLE Download: 349| View: 424| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0042.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: cognitive bias; organizational bias; decision options; risk; catastrophic, organizational accidents; human error; hierarchy; culture; policy; procedures
Online: 6 March 2018 (05:21:28 CET)
This paper examines cognitive biases which affect the ability of decision makers to make rational decisions in an organizational context. The motivation for this analysis begins with the observation of catastrophic accidents caused by human error but in an organizational context. This paper expands on the concept of cognitive bias to define organizational biases which are the factors that affect decisions in an organizational context. The paper distinguishes between organizational biases, which are the focus of this paper, and individual biases, which are biases experienced by individuals but may have organizational consequences. The purpose of this paper is to identify methods to mitigate the risks of organizational accidents, accidents which involve many people operating at different levels of an organization. The methodology is to identify those decisions that would address the specific organizational biases. The focus of this paper is the decisions for mitigating the risks associated with decisions in an organizational context. Results are shown for seven organizational biases, six specific case studies, and four decision options. This paper concludes that organizational biases are intrinsically different from individual biases and that these differences lead to different decision options from those that mitigate individual biases; however, they may exist concurrently.
Mon, 22 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 250| View: 433| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0194.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: cyclists; bicycle users; risky behaviors; human factors; infrastructure; self-reported road crashes; road safety
Online: 22 January 2018 (04:56:56 CET)
The increasing number of registered road crashes involving cyclists during the last decade, and the high proportion of road crashes resulting in severe injuries and fatalities among cyclists constitutes a global issue for community health, urban development, and sustainability. Nowadays, the incidence of many risk factors for road crashes of cyclists remains largely unexplained. Given the importance of this issue, the present study has been conducted with the aim of determining relationships between infrastructural, human factors and safety outcomes of cyclists. Objectives: This study aimed, first, to examine the relationship between key infrastructural and human factors present in cycling, bicycle-user characteristics, and their self-reported experience with road crashes. And second, to determine whether a set of key infrastructural and human factors may predict their self-reported road crashes. Methods: For this cross-sectional study, a total of 1064 cyclists (38.8% women, 61.2% men; M = 32.8 years of age) from 20 different countries across Europe, South America and North America, participated in an online survey composed of four sections: demographic data and cycling-related factors, human factors, perceptions on infrastructural factors, and road crashes suffered. Results: The results of this study showed significant associations between human factors, infrastructural conditions and self-reported road crashes. Also, a logistic regression model found that self-reported road crashes of cyclists could be predicted through variables such as age, riding intensity, risky behaviors, and problematic user/infrastructure interactions. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that self-reported road crashes of cyclists are influenced by features related to the user and their interaction with infrastructural characteristics of the road.
Mon, 15 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 485| View: 439| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0127.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease; Psychosocial Safety Climate; Demand-Control; Effort-Reward Imbalance; Epidemiology; Psychosocial Risks
Online: 15 January 2018 (16:58:20 CET)
Abstract: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) is the most prevalent disease worldwide, which has been linked to work stress because of poor job design as explained by the Job Demand-Control (JDC) and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) models. In this paper we explore for the first time relative impact of a specific aspect of organisational climate, Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC), on any CVD including angina, myocardial infarction, hypertension, and stroke. We used two waves of interview data from Australia, with an average lag of 5 years (excluding baseline CVD, final n = 1223). Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the prospective associations between PSC at baseline on incident CVD at follow-up. It was found that participants in low PSC environments were 59% more likely to develop new CVD than those in high PSC environments. Logistic regression showed that PSC at baseline predicts lower CVD risk at follow-up (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.00), and this risk remained unchanged even after joint adjustment for measures of ERI and JDC. These results suggest that PSC is an independent risk factor for CVD in Australia. Beyond job design this study implicates organisational climate and prevailing management values regarding worker psychological health as the genesis of CVD.
Mon, 8 January 2018
ARTICLE Download: 335| View: 355| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0050.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: collaboration; social norms theory; emotional intelligence; quality of life; goal orientation; prosocial; internet education
Online: 8 January 2018 (08:49:59 CET)
This article assumes that collaborators who adopt a positive-sum, prosocial perspective can build trust-based relationships, which is equivalent to collaborative ability (CA). To improve a collaborator’s CA, we anticipated that content based upon a model of positive-sum collaboration, founded upon ancestral behaviours presented as social norms, might alter a zero-sum, proself, collaborator’s perspective. However, we also postulated that learner’s willingness to engage in positive-sum content may rely on pre-existing prosociality. Intervention participant’s prosociality was assessed via self-assessment of their emotional intelligence (EQ), quality of life (QoL), and goal orientation (GO). Learner’s engagement in online content was assessed by the three stage reached: examine website front matter; examine website content; learn website content. Tukey’s multiple comparison showed a statistically significant difference between stages one and three, in the mean of respondent’s self-assessed QoL. This suggests that participants who wished to learn content had, on average, higher quality of life, and potentially therefore greater prosociality. In general, these findings support a claim that any intervention designed to increase individual prosociality may need to consider the target population’s reticence to engage.
Wed, 20 December 2017
ARTICLE Download: 468| View: 343| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0144.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: art education; 20th century art movements; preferences of arts; pupils
Online: 20 December 2017 (10:12:22 CET)
The research presented here aims to determine how art education influences pupils' preferences for 20th-century art movements. The research was conducted on a sample of 200 pupils (N = 200) of an early school age in grade schools in Split, Croatia. We conducted an educational experiment throughout an entire school year, which included three types of intervention: observing works of art from the 20th century, introducing works of art using a puppet, and the pupils' art activities/artwork based on the 20th-century art movements. The results show that the model of art education is an important factor in changing pupils' preferences for 20th-century art movements. The students reacted positively to each kind of education, in the sense of a wider acceptance of 20th-century art (abstract, fauvism, cubism, pop art, and surrealism). The type of education did not much influence preferences when it came to classical art and visual works without artistic value. We concluded that puppets and independent creative work should be used more often in art education.
Fri, 15 December 2017
ARTICLE Download: 426| View: 381| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0103.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Crisis Resource Management; obstetric hemorrhage; non-technical skills; High Fidelity Simulation; delivery room
Online: 15 December 2017 (08:54:25 CET)
Human factors are the most relevant issues contributing to adverse events in obstetrics. Specific training of Crisis Resource Management (CRM) skills (i.e., problem solving and team management, resource allocation, awareness of environment, and dynamic decision-making) are now widespread and are often based on High Fidelity Simulation. In order to be used as a guideline in simulated scenarios, they need to be translated into specific and observable behavioral markers. To this purpose, we developed a set of observable behaviors related to the main elements of CRM in the delivery room. The observational tool was then adopted in a two-days seminar on obstetric hemorrhage where teams working in obstetric wards of six Italian hospitals took part to simulations. The tool was used as guide for the Io and as a peer-to-peer feedback. It was then rated for its usefulness in facilitating the reflection upon one’s own behavior, its ease of use, and its usefulness for the peer-to-peer feedback. The ratings were highly positive, around 4 in a 5-point scale. The CRM observational tool is therefore a useful, quick and easy solution to facilitate the debriefing, the peer-to-peer feedback and, most of all, the transfer of safe behavior from simulation to everyday practice.
Fri, 15 September 2017
ARTICLE Download: 841| View: 555| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0065.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: embodiment; CBT; interpersonal synchrony; therapeutic alliance; emotional regulation; emotional field; emotional mastery
Online: 15 September 2017 (11:37:32 CEST)
The Embodied Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ECBT) approach for the treatment of emotional disorders in clinical settings is presented. The model integrates cognitive behavioral theory, neuroscience and embodied cognition. ECBT draws from evidence of bidirectional effects between modes of bottom up (sensori-motor simulations giving rise to important basis of knowledge) and top down (abstract mental representations of knowledge) processes in psychotherapy. The paper first describes the dominance of the traditional mentalistic view of cognition and its limitations. Evidence for the embodied model of cognition and emotion is reviewed whilst highlighting its advantages as a complimentary process model to deepen and broaden talking therapies. An overview is given of the switch (e.g., the technique of balancing) between top-down and bottom-up orientation in the ECBT model as well as a clear description of the method for emotional regulation, acceptance of unwanted emotions and emotional mastery. ECBT builds on and extends the unconscious processes of the ‘Interpersonal Synchrony’ (IS) model identified by Koole and Tschacher , to enhance the therapeutic alliance for emotional co-regulation. A new idea is proposed that both embraces and extends the IS model: embodiment techniques of imitation and movement synchronization in the Emotional Field of our method be used in a conscious way to speed up the calming effects of co-regulation and the client’s self-regulatory capacity. The paper ends with an outline of the criteria needed to become an embodied therapist. A case study is given highlighting these aspects.
Wed, 14 June 2017
ARTICLE Download: 1431| View: 661| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0065.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: DAPTQ; adaptive personality; psychometric properties; HEXACO; psychopathic personality traits; confirmatory factor analysis; test-retest validity
Online: 14 June 2017 (07:47:55 CEST)
Multiple studies reported a negative relationship between the Honesty-Humility factor of the HEXACO model and psychopathy. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), which was developed to assess adaptive traits known to be related to psychopathic traits, has previously demonstrate positive relationships with all factors of the Big Five Model, at the exception of a negative relationship with neuroticism. The current study aims to validate the previously reported association between the DAPTQ and the five major components of the personality, while also examining its relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor as defined by the HEXACO model. The results (N = 171) support the good internal consistency, two weeks test-retest validity and inter-correlation of the DAPTQ. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis further supports the nine-factor model of the DAPTQ. When compared to the HEXACO, the DAPTQ did not display any relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor, nor the Agreeableness and Openness factors, but kept its similar association to Emotionality, Extroversion, and Conscientiousness as initially reported in its development phase. Overall, the results support the discriminant validity of the DAPTQ to assess adaptive traits related to the psychopathic personality without overlapping with psychopathic personality traits. Results are discussed in terms of implications and further improvements to validate the DAPTQ.
ARTICLE Download: 565| View: 591| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0063.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire; French translation; France; Canada; psychometrics
Online: 14 June 2017 (06:36:48 CEST)
This study presents a French translation and validation of the Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), an instrument for assessing adaptive traits known to correlate with the psychopathic personality. Bilingual (French and English) individuals from France and Canada (N = 141, 52% in France, Mage = 29.73, SD = 9.09) completed both versions of the DAPTQ (French and English), alongside measurements of perceived stress, trait anxiety, authentic leadership and creativity. Correlation between the DAPTQ total and subscales across versions showed strong associations (r = .84 to .96). The DAPTQ – French version also demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .87), convergent validity, and concurrent validity. These findings support the cross-cultural equivalence of the DAPTQ and therefore its effectiveness as a valid assessment method of adaptive traits.
Wed, 10 August 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1485| View: 1495| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0106.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: packaging; beer; image mold; packaging weight; taste
Online: 10 August 2016 (09:04:27 CEST)
People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask whether this perceived difference is reliable across consumers; And, if so, whether it is purely a psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception), or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process) and the contents. We conducted two experiments in order to address these important questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a beer in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (i.e., a between-participants experimental design was used) and the participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and their estimate of the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh). Nevertheless, those who evaluated the bottled beer rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer that had been served from a can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served to a new group of participants blind (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material). The participants in this control study (N = 29) were asked which beer they preferred or else could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of preference was obtained under such conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of differences in packaging weight (between tin and glass), and/or prior associations of quality with specific packaging materials/formats (what some have chosen to call ‘image molds’) are discussed.
Tue, 12 July 2016
ARTICLE Download: 1101| View: 1398| Comments: 0 | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0022.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Ambient Assisted Living; eHealth; Technology Acceptance, Smart Health, User Diversity, Serious Games for Healthcare
Online: 12 July 2016 (09:39:31 CEST)
Based on the demographic shift and the related challenges resulting from the growing number of elderly and persons with chronic diseases, the idea of smart home that supports its inhabitants in the daily life, gains importance. The purpose of this paper was to examine in a prototypic Ambient Assisted Living environment if users after interaction with different health-supporting applications intend to use such in the future. Two experimental studies exemplary show possible applications of home-integrated technology that can support, assist and accompany the target group in different contexts, and examine to what extent participants are willing to future use such sophisticated technology at home. The results show that people in general, but especially the old and chronically ill ones are quite fascinated of health-supporting ambient technology and the majority intends to use such ambient assistance in the future (study I). Moreover, serious games for healthcare are shown as a hedonic use of technology in smart homes that have a great potential to retain or improve the physical health, mobility and the overall well-being of the inhabitants (study II). The article provides two examples of ambient technology to leverage the demographic change and presents important user factors for facilitating high user acceptance.