ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0270.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Samaritans; Ancient Judaism; Rabbinic Literature; Talmud; Midrash
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:47:26 CEST)
Samaritans as a group within the ranges of ancient ‘Judaisms’ are often mentioned in Talmud and Midrash. As comparable social-religious entities, they are regarded ambivalently by the Rabbis. First, they were viewed as Jews, but from the end of the Tannaitic times, and especially after the Bar Kokhba revolt, they were perceived as non-Jews, not reliable about different fields of Halakhic concern. Rabbinic writings reflect on this change in attitude and describe a long ongoing conflict and a growing anti-Samaritan attitude. The article analyzes several dialogues between rabbis and Samaritans transmitted in the Midrash on the book of Genesis, Bereshit Rabbah. In four larger sections, the famous Rabbi Me’ir is depicted as the counterpart of certain Samaritans. The analyses of these discussions try to show how rabbinic texts avoid any direct exegetical dispute over particular verses of the Torah, but point to other hermeneutical levels of discourse and rejection of Samaritan claims. These texts thus reflect a remarkable understanding of some Samaritan convictions, and they demonstrate how rabbis denounced Samaritanism and refuted their counterparts. The Rabbi Me’ir dialogues thus are an impressive literary witness to the final stages of the parting of ways of these diverging religious streams.
Mon, 10 May 2021
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0153.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Shoah, Christology, post-Shoah Christology, religious pluralism, witness, genocide
Online: 10 May 2021 (09:50:57 CEST)
Post-Shoah Christology is embedded in the unique relationship of Jews and Christians, especially Jesus’ Jewishness and the Jewish roots of Christianity, as well as Christian moral failures towards Jews before and during the Shoah. Essential for contemporary Christianity, a vibrant post-Shoah Christology confronts three main challenges, each demanding a different response. The first challenge is the reality that soon there will be no more first-generation witnesses to the Final Solution. Such is an inevitable challenge that has to be faced and prepared for. Religious pluralism is the second challenge, and includes a number of related threads, yet should ultimately be embraced. The third challenge is the (inevitable?) loss of memory, passion, and urgency, a willful forgetfulness by Christians towards the importance of the Jewish-Christian relationship, and especially, Christian failure in the Shoah. This challenge demands robust refutation and ongoing struggle. Before addressing these challenges, I will first further define and highlight the need for a post-Shoah Christology and will conclude this article with three general and three concrete hopes for a viable post-Shoah Christology.
Sat, 22 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0491.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: folk beliefs; ancestor worshiping belief; spiritual life; beliefs and religion life; Vietnamese people; Vietnam today
Online: 22 August 2020 (05:03:32 CEST)
In all forms of folk beliefs, ancestor worship is a universal traditional belief form of the Vietnamese people. As a Vietnamese people, “everyone worships their ancestors, everyone worships their parents and grandparent”. Ancestor worship is a common belief in the whole country. It is a belief that expresses the deeply humanistic spirit of the Vietnamese people and has great values in human life. So, what is the nature of ancestor worship? What is the values of ancestor worship in life? And in the context of globalization, how has this the belief changed? This study focuses on analyzing the above contents, thereby highlighting the value of this belief in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people; to point out the positive and negative changes of this belief in the current period; from that, take the right measures to bring into play the positive and limit the negative side of those changes in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people.
Thu, 5 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0092.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Heritage of Buddhism; religious heritage; tangible cultural heritage; intangible cultural heritage; Vietnam
Online: 5 March 2020 (12:16:31 CET)
In history and the present, Buddhism holds an important position in the spiritual life of Vietnamese people. For about two thousand years of existence and development with the Vietnamese people, Buddhism has left many valuable (tangible and intangible) heritage, has contributed a significant part in creating the cultural values of the nation. This research focuses on analyzing how did Buddhism creates heritages, how that Buddhism religion heritage becomes the cultural heritage of the Vietnamese people, the values that Buddhism religious heritage contributed to the culture of Vietnam.
Wed, 5 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0060.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious confrontation; religious submission; Biblical political theology
Online: 5 December 2018 (04:09:59 CET)
The book of Job presents a unique and detailed contrastive study of two fundamental and fundamentally opposed religious personae: Job, on the one hand, and the collective image of his friends on the other. It is a normative dispute about the religion’s most basic norm of disposition. How is one to respond to inexplicable disaster when one believes one is blameless? What is the religiously appropriate response to catastrophe? To confront God’s judgment as did Job, or to submissively surrender to it, as his four friends insist he should? Is one supposed to question divine justice when deemed to be wanting, as did Job, or to suppress any thought to the contrary and deem it to be just, come what may? Rather than expound (once again) upon the theological implications of the Job dispute, this paper focuses on its theological-political dimensions, and its looming and vivid, yet largely overlooked presence in the Hebrew Bible’s master narrative; and more specifically, on the marked, if inevitable antinomian nature of the Jobian side to the divide.
Tue, 4 December 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0051.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: tourism, travel, halal tourism, Islamic tourism, Islamic teachings, Sharia
Online: 4 December 2018 (10:05:44 CET)
A quick scan of the available literature on the subject of halal tourism reveals that many scholars and laypersons alike misconceive this concept. Whereas some suggest that halal tourism occurs whenever a Muslim individual travels somewhere, others retort that only pilgrimages by Muslim travelers regarded as halal tourism. More careful research of the literature shows that the truth is somewhere in between, as none of the above definitions is correct. Overall, it is this lack of clarity that has prompted an additional inquiry into the essence of halal tourism. This essay is a modest academic endeavor to ascertain what halal tourism is and what ideologies lie at its foundation. To answer these questions, the author employs the literature review research methodology, scrutinizing number sources. Ultimately, this essay has established that halal tourism not confined to religious pilgrimages alone. Indeed, halal tourism occurs whenever a Muslim individual travels for religion, business or leisure and uses only those services and facilities that conform to the teachings of Islam.
Mon, 19 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0419.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Orientalism; postcolonialism; Islamic Studies; Islam; representation; Muslims; history
Online: 19 November 2018 (05:28:54 CET)
This paper undertakes a critical analysis and evaluates the recent developments in the study of Islam and how it has gone beyond Orientalism; as Martin and Ernst remark in the preface and acknowledgements of Rethinking Islamic Studies: from Orientalism to Cosmopolitanism that the last three decades—after the publication of Orientalism in 1978—“has been a liberating experience for us as scholars initially trained in narrowly textual ‘Orientalist’ approaches, as we have been forced by circumstance to address many issues of contemporary political and social relevance.” However, I will also acknowledge the alternate perspective that these developments may not have gone beyond Said’s Orientalism, but have rather reinforced and maintained - and have “decidedly worsened”—the very ideas Said introduced in Orientalism because of issues such as: Islamic fundamentalism and the aftermath of 9/11, and how the study of Islam has been influenced by these issues in modern times thus returning to the Orientalist approach. I will look at the history of Orientalism in the study of Islam, then the emergence of space for self-representation, and then I will look at the current study of Islam. Esposito argues that Orientalism has taken a new form, and no longer romanticizes the Middle East as having sandy deserts where genies, thieves and evil sorcerers vied after scantily clad princesses amid a backdrop of white palaces and peasant-ridden streets, as presented in the film ‘Aladdin’.
Wed, 7 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0149.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Confidence tests, dictations, Jesus Christ, Maria Valtorta, mystics, punctuation marks, readability index, sentences, semantic index, syntactic index, text characters, Virgin Mary, visions, words, word interval.
Online: 7 November 2018 (09:06:01 CET)
We have studied the very large amount of literary works written by the Italian mystic Maria Valtorta to assess similarities and differences in her writings because she claims that most of them are due to mystical visions. We have used mathematical and statistical tools developed for specifically studying deep linguistic aspects of texts. The general trend indicates that the literary works explicitly attributable to Maria Valtorta differ significantly from her other literary works, that she claims are attributable to the alleged characters Jesus and Mary. Mathematically, they seem to have been written by different authors. The comparison with the Italian literature is very striking. A single author, namely Maria Valtorta, seems to be able to write texts so diverse to cover the entire mathematical range (suitable defined) of the Italian literature of seven centuries.
Fri, 12 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0265.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: inclusion; worldview education; universal design for learning; learning in the presence of the other; reflexive inclusion
Online: 12 October 2018 (11:25:02 CEST)
In the context of the increasing migration into Germany that has taken place in recent years and German efforts to establish an inclusive school system, which enables learners from different religious, ethnic, language and social backgrounds with and without disabilities to participate, religious education has become a key topic for interdisciplinary discourse between theology, philosophy, and pedagogy in German schools. The following questions are of special interest: How can we manage diversity in inclusive classroom settings in general, and specifically: how can we do so with regard to worldview diversity? Does worldview diversity in schools exist, and if so, how can we recognize it in its plurality and complexity? How can we acknowledge different worldviews in the context of a changing inclusive school system? In this article, we would like to present the theoretical foundation, the research setting and the first findings of our ongoing pilot studies of worldview education at an inclusive German school. The experiments are part of a larger project context that is also described. The case study presented in this article, in which innovative language and machine learning technology was used for data analysis, illustrates the potential of inclusive methods and didactic concepts such as Universal Design for Learning , Learning in the Presence of the Other [2,3] and Reflexive Inclusion  for inclusive worldview education in the context of a religiously pluralized and secularized society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0252.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: miracles; battlefield; Rachel the matriarch; Israel defense forces; typology
Online: 12 October 2018 (04:44:37 CEST)
Battlefield miracle stories are not rare. This paper suggests a typology of battlefield miracles. From this perspective it asks what sort of miracles can we expect to see in battle and when can we expect to see them? After presenting the main points of discussion regarding miracles, it proposes a range of categories for military miracles (miracles as acts that violate nature versus miracles as everyday acts; those involving the divine versus occurrences not requiring the presence of a heavenly emissary; acts of benevolence versus acts with no such intent; having a clear purpose versus acts where there is disagreement regarding interpretation). After discussing these categories, the articles uses Operation Cast Lead (December 2008–January 2009) as a case study to test the typology suggested above. Since this field is underdeveloped, this paper sets out to initiate a conversation on battlefield miracles, with hope that future studies will build upon it.
Mon, 8 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0149.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Leadership, Women, Women Clergy, Black, Religion and Gender.
Online: 8 October 2018 (13:57:05 CEST)
Despite the increase of seminary training, Black clergywomen continuously undergo subjugation, degradation, and humiliation in ministry leadership due to gender and race bias (Leslie, 2013) by clergymen. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that examined the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership and how these clergywomen ascribed meaning to their experiences. The two primary research questions were, “What are the experiences of Black clergywomen regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” and “How do Black clergywomen attribute meaning to their experiences regarding obstacles in ministry leadership?” The results of the study indicated that bias of gender and inequality exists among clergymen; however, the Black clergywomen learned to embrace the experiences and learned from them. The conclusion of this article includes a discussion regarding practical implications of the education of clergy; and the re-evaluation of the perception of Black clergywomen and their experiences. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the experiences of Black clergywomen pertaining to challenges in clergy leadership and to explore how Black clergywomen attributed meaning to their experiences regarding challenges in ministry leadership.
Wed, 3 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0040.v1
Online: 3 October 2018 (11:27:53 CEST)
The presentation utilizes the sensibility of technoetic aesthetics in order to demonstrate an interpretive study of imagery issuing from contemporary cultural and technological innovative products and events, such as Blade Runner 2049 and SpaceX Starman, the Tesla Roadster launch. It refers in particular to the theme of horse, horseman, and rider depicted explicitly or implied through aesthetic metaphors. These images seem to conjure current apocalyptic and revelatory meanings as well as amplify a sense of collective longings for transcendence
Wed, 25 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0484.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Security; Education; Public Theology; Islam; Global Jihadism
Online: 25 July 2018 (12:58:28 CEST)
The article mounts an argument for public theology as an appropriate if not vital adjunct to contemporary education’s addressing of security issues in light of current world events with indisputable religious and arguably quasi-theological foundations. It will briefly expound on the history of thought that has marginalized theology as a public discipline and then move to justify the counter view that the discipline, at least in the form of public theology, has potential to address matters of such public concern in a unique and helpful way. The article will culminate with an exploration of Global Jihadism as a case study that illustrates the usefulness of public theology in understanding it better and so allowing for a response with potential to be more informed and security-assured than is commonly effected.
Mon, 16 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0284.v1
Online: 16 July 2018 (12:22:54 CEST)
Sexual Issues played a significant role in Judaism’s engagement with its Greco-Roman world. This paper will examine that engagement in the Hellenistic Greco-Roman era to the end of the first century CE. In part sexual issues were a key element of demarcation between Jews and the wider community, alongside such matters as circumcision, food laws, sabbath keeping and idolatry. Jewish writers, such as Philo of Alexandria, make much of the alleged sexual profligacy of their Gentile contemporaries, not least in association with wild drunken parties, same-sex relations and pederasty. Jews, including the emerging Christian movement, claimed the moral high ground. In part, however, matters of sexuality were also areas where intercultural influence is evident, such as in the shift in Jewish tradition from polygyny to monogyny, but also in the way Jewish and Christian writers adapted the suspicion and sometimes rejection of passions characteristic of some popular philosophies of their day, seeing them as allies in their moral crusade.
Wed, 4 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0074.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Islamic Education; Pesantren; Indonesia; madrasah; moderate Islam
Online: 4 July 2018 (14:36:35 CEST)
Muslim school is an important element of education in Indonesia. The school has been in place long time before Indonesia’s independence in 1945. The school educates Indonesian Muslim children to understand and practice religion, and simultaneously, promotes the sense of nationalism. Thanks to Muslim schools, Indonesian Muslims are recognized as being moderate (Hefner, 2000). In the last few years, however, the moderate nature of Indonesian Islam is challenged by the spirit of conservative Islam (Van Bruinessen, 2013). Issues such as Islam and democracy, Islam and modern state, Muslim and non-Muslim relation, and rights of citizen that have been resolved and agreed upon are being reinstated. As Hefner (2007) argues that there is a relationship between politics and education, especially religious education, it is important to see the relationship between schools and the changing society. The question is how the current conservative trend in Indonesian Islam is occurring at schools. This paper explores how the curriculum of (Islamic) religious education potentially contribute toward the development of Indonesian conservative Islam, and how religious education teachers view sensitive issues concerning conservative Islam. To answer the questions, analysis of religious education’s curricula and interviewing experts serve as the primary method of data collection. Four religious education teachers from different provinces of Indonesia were interviewed to reveal their opinions on various religion-related issues. This paper discusses how Islamic education in Indonesia has been designed to present moderate Islam, but at the same time faces a number of challenges that try to turn religious education into a conservative one.
Tue, 15 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0208.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Nondual Kashmir Śaivism; apoha; information theory; structuralism; pragmatic semiotics
Online: 15 May 2018 (07:51:35 CEST)
This paper builds upon my earlier studies, in interpreting interculturally how the Kashmiri nondual Śaiva thinkers, Upaladeva (c. 900-950 CE) and Abhinavagupta (c. 950-1020 CE), in their Pratyabhijñā philosophical theology respond to and reinterpret the Buddhist semantic theory of reference as the exclusion of the inapplicable (anyāpoha). It engages the issues in the Pratyabhijñā debate with the Buddhists, with the interrelations of Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver’s theory of Information, de Saussurean structuralist semiotics and Peircean pragmatic semiotics.
Mon, 15 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0059.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: multi-faith spaces; secularisation; multi-faith paradigm; unaffiliated; multi-belief
Online: 15 January 2018 (08:24:56 CET)
Multi-Faith Spaces (MFS) are a relatively recent invention that quickly gained in significance. On the one hand, they offer a convenient solution for satisfying needs of people with diverse beliefs in the institutional context of hospitals, schools, airports, etc. On the other hand, as Andrew Crompton pointed out, they are politically significant because the multi-faith paradigm “is replacing Christianity as the face of public religion in Europe” (2012, p. 493). Due to their ideological entanglement, MFS are often used as the means to promote either a more privatised version of religion, or a certain denominational preference. Two distinct designs are used to achieve these means: negative in the case of the former, and positive in the latter. Neither is without problems, and neither adequately fulfils its primary purpose of serving diverse groups of believers. Both, however, seem to follow the biases and main problems of secularism. In this paper, I analyse recent developments of MFS to detail their main problems and answer the question, whether the MFS, and the underlying Multi-Faith Paradigm, can be classified as a continuation of secularism.
Mon, 8 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0059.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: multi-faith spaces; secularisation; multi-faith paradigm; unaffiliated; multi-belief
Online: 8 January 2018 (09:56:57 CET)
The Multi-Faith Spaces (MFS) are a relatively new invention, and yet they quickly gained in significance. On one hand, they are a convenient solution for satisfying needs of people having diverse beliefs in the institutional context of places such as hospitals, schools, airports and the like. On the other hand, as Andrew Crompton pointed out, they are politically significant because the multi-faith paradigm “is replacing Christianity as the face of public religion in Europe” as successor of secularism (2012, p. 493). Due to their ideological entanglement, however, they are often used as the means to promote either a more privatised version of religion, or a certain denominational preference. Two diverse kinds of design are used to achieve these means: negative in the case of the former, and positive for the latter. Neither is without problems, and neither adequately fulfils their primary purpose of serving diverse groups of believers. Both, however, seem to follow the biases and main problems of secularism. In this paper, I analyse recent developments of the MFS to detail their main problems and answer the question, whether the MFS, and the underlying Multi-Faith Paradigm, can be classified as a continuation of secularism.
Mon, 20 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0123.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Protestantism; Protestant Churches; post-Soviet Russia; ethnic groups; national intelligentsia; native peoples; social activity
Online: 20 November 2017 (08:10:47 CET)
This paper considers two types of Protestant ethnic groups of some areas of Urals and Western Siberia. The first type consist of representatives of members of different ethnic groups consisting of well-educated professionals, incorporated into industrial society and associated with the intellectualism of Protestantism. The second type is represented by the indigenous peoples of the Polar Urals and Western Siberia, who use the Protestant religious organizations as tool for restoring life-sustaining elements of the native peoples’ traditional economy. I employed the inductive approach and the comparison method; during the fieldwork I used ethnographic participant observations, sociological structured interviews and closed-ended questionnaires. The empirical data have been collected in the Southern, Middle and Polar Urals and Western Siberia.
Fri, 20 October 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0138.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: preservation; environment; quran; issues; Malaysia
Online: 20 October 2017 (10:11:16 CEST)
Currently, various issues on environment have been discussed, whether the importance, destruction or ways to prevent the destruction of the environment. This paper will explore the issue from the conventional viewpoint as well as from the Islamic perspective. Destruction of the environment in recent times has worsened due to the uncontrolled exploitation of natural resources by human beings in order to generate profits. In view of the increasing technological development in Malaysia presently, this matter should not have occurred because the citizens intellectual abilities can be considered advanced. In other words, these people should be able to weigh between positive and negative consequences of voraciously exploiting natural resources. However, the greed that engulfs some of these people has obscured their view from grasping the future consequences of their acts. Based on the Islamic perspective in which the Quran is the ultimate reference, destruction of the environment can actually be prevented if every individual is aware of his or her trustworthiness or responsibility as His caliphate in this universe. Nevertheless, is there any specific verse in the Quran which explains about preservation of the environment? Can lessons from the Quran provide solutions to the environmental crises in Malaysia? This study provides explanations to the questions based on literature surveys and content analyses. By interpreting some selected verses that relate to preservation of the environment, findings from the discussions have identified that the Quranic verses are valuable resources for the sustainability of the environment.
Fri, 21 July 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0061.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: scientific materialism; genetics; reincarnation; soul; religions; science; Buddhism
Online: 21 July 2017 (05:18:59 CEST)
Scientific materialism is the largely unquestioned basis for modern science's understanding of life. It also holds enormous sway beyond science and thus has increasingly marginalized religious perspectives. Yet it is easy to find behavioral phenomena from the accepted literature that seriously challenge materialism. A number of these phenomena are very suggestive of reincarnation. The larger test for science's paradigm, though, as well as for any potential general import from reincarnation - is the DNA (or genetics)-based model of heredity. If that conception-beget, DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)-carried model can be confirmed at the individual level then in a very substantial way we would be confirmed as material-only creatures. In particular, can behavioral genetics and personal genomics confirm their DNA-based presumptions? During the last decade enormous efforts have been made to find the DNA origins for a number of health and behavioral tendencies. These efforts have been an "absolutely beyond belief" failure and it is here that the scientific vision faces its biggest challenge. The common premodern reincarnation understanding, on the other hand, fits well on a number of specific conundrums and offers a broad coherence across this unfolding missing heritability mystery. For people trying to make sense of a religious perspective or simply questioning materialism, you should be looking at the missing heritability problem.
Fri, 16 June 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0076.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Cameroon; terrorism; religion; Islam; Boko Haram; Christian churches; peace
Online: 16 June 2017 (05:13:32 CEST)
The spillover of the terrorist activities of Boko Haram, a Nigerian jihadi group, into Cameroon’s northern region has resulted in security challenges and humanitarian activity opportunities for Christian churches. The insurgents have attacked and destroyed churches, abducted Christians, worsened Muslim-Christian relations, and caused a humanitarian crisis. Aggregately, these ensuing phenomena have adversely affected Christian churches in this region, triggering an aura of responses: coping strategies, humanitarian work among refugees, and inter-faith dialogue. These responses are predicated on Christianity’s potential as a resource for peace, compassion, and love. In this study we emphasize the role of Christian churches in dealing with the Boko Haram insurgency. It opens up with a contextualization of Boko Haram in Cameroon’s north. This is followed by an examination of the brutality meted out on Christians and church property. The final section is an examination of the spiritual, humanitarian and relief services provided by Christian churches. The paper argues that although Christian churches have suffered at the hands of Boko Haram insurgents, they have engaged in various beneficial responses underpinned by the Christian values of peace and love.
Fri, 19 May 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0147.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: domestic violence; religion; families; women; abuse; theology; language
Online: 19 May 2017 (09:56:02 CEST)
Carol Winkelmann, in her book ‘The Language of Battered Women’ describes not only the fact that domestic abuse is almost a daily occurrence in the lives of many women but that the language of religion and faith is often used by women in attempts to explain, understand and cope with such abuse . While religious belief and domestic violence may seem contradictory in terms of religious values of faith, virtue and love, research demonstrates that domestic violence in religious families and amidst religious congregations is prevalent. In fact, religious beliefs and practices are often embedded in cultural contexts and thus perpetuate patriarchal notions of dominance, power and submission. Abused Christian women, for example, are more likely to seek help from (male) ministers and others in positions of authority in their local church communities and are equally more likely to remain in or return to unsafe relationships, citing their religious beliefs to support their avoidance of ‘family break-ups’ because of abuse. What, then, is the response of ministers and church authorities to domestic abuse in their congregations? Despite recent calls for the training of pastors and other religious leaders in an understanding of domestic violence and in the recognition of appropriate, helpful responses, the language of some Christian churches can be seen to foster notions of submission so that women and pastors alike can appear confused concerning the experience of abuse. Religious congregations, while acting in love to help the poor and needy, for example, often fail to recognise domestic abuse amongst their own members and, indeed, such a topic can remain taboo in some church communities. Women, in turning to their pastors or other Christian leaders for help, can be silenced by the language of the religion itself, so that the role of wives and mothers may be seen to be submissive and the ‘keeper of the home’; to leave an abusive relationship may thus ‘break-up’ a home and imply failure of the woman to understand her role and fulfil her ‘maternal vocation’. On the other hand, religious beliefs offer victims of domestic violence both hope and comfort. Religious practices, such as prayer, liturgies and corporal (physical) works of mercy, can provide solace and practical assistance for women who suffer abuse. Domestic violence in religious congregations can be addressed within the context of the faith itself, with an emphasis on love and respect, helping women to understand their dignity with avenues of help so that the women can remove themselves and their children from abusive relationships, and the religious congregation and its leaders can call the partners to accountability. This paper seeks to outline a picture of domestic violence in religious congregations, specifically Christian church communities, by drawing on current research in the Western world. It then describes the language of some religious congregations that perpetuates domestic violence, with emphasis on contemporary studies in religious belief and domestic abuse. Finally, the paper makes some suggestions on how religious belief and practice can, in contrast to perpetuating abuse through norms, serve to assist women as victims of domestic violence, and how the connections between domestic violence and religious language or belief can be severed.
Tue, 18 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0111.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: technology; ontology; will; mastery; Hannah Arendt; George Grant; Iris Murdoch
Online: 18 April 2017 (11:48:02 CEST)
One purported benefit of technology is that it gives humans greater control over how they live their lives. Various technologies are used to protect humans from what are perceived to be the capricious whims of indifferent natural forces. Additionally, technology is used to create circumstances and opportunities that are believed to be preferable because they are more subject to human control. In large measure, the lives of late moderns are effectively constructed and asserted as artifacts of what they will themselves to be. This control is seen prominently at the beginning and end of life. Technology is employed to overcome infertility, prevent illness, disability, and undesirable traits, to select desirable traits and increasingly enhance them. At the end of life, late moderns have a far greater range of options at their disposal than past generations: they can choose to delay death, control pain, or end their lives at the time and with the means of their choosing. The greater control that technology offers helps humans to survive and even flourish, but it comes at a price. One such cost is that it tends to reduce humans to being little more than a will confined within a body. The body is thereby effectively perceived to be an impediment to the will that should be overcome. Is this troubling? Yes. I argue that the purported control technology offers often serves as a distraction or blind spot that may prevent humans from understanding and consenting to their good. In making this argument I draw upon the Christian doctrine of the incarnation as a way of disclosing the creaturely good of finitude against which the will should conform rather than attempting to overcome. I also draw upon Iris Murdoch’s and Simone Weil’s concept of “unselfing” as a way of conforming the will with this good. I revisit issues related to the beginning and end of life to draw-out some of the implications of my argument.
Thu, 11 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0126.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: development; methods; oral preaching; written preaching; Dakwah; innovation
Online: 11 August 2016 (11:07:45 CEST)
Musabaqah Tilawatil Qurân (MTQ/Al Quran Reciting Competition) is often regarded as a big and important momentum for the process of Islamic preaching in Indonesia. It has even become a tradition for Indonesian people, although Al-Quran reciting is a common activity and a universal phenomenon in the Islamic world. In the MTQ event, the participants compete at various fields, including Tilawah (the art of reciting Al-Quran), Fahmil Qurân (comprehension of Al-Quran contents), and hifzul Qurân (memorization of Al-Quran verses). In 2003, a new field was initiated in the MTQ competition; i.e Musabaqah Makalah Ilmiah Al-Qurân (M2IQ/Al-Qurân Academic Writing Competition). Since its first exhibition on the 2003 Regional MTQ in West Java Province, and later on the 2008 National MTQ, the M2IQ, which is based on written-preach (dakwah bilkitabah), is considered as an innovation of preaching method in Indonesia. Islamic preaching (dakwah) in Indonesia has always been leaning heavily on the oral-preaching (dakwah bilisan) method, as represented by other fields contested in an MTQ. This development warrants a comprehensive study to understand what considerations underlying the emergence of M2IQ, how the process is, and what contributions it provides to the development of Islamic preaching in Indonesia. This study utilizes analytic-descriptive approach to discover the phenomenon. The findings indicate that M2IQ has accentuated the intellectual aspect of MTQ. In addition, M2IQ widens the spectrum of Al-Qurân preaching in Indonesia; opening a new chapter of Islamic preaching (dakwah) in the country.
Sat, 6 August 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0057.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Translation, musyakalah, linguistic style, holy Quran, and Arabic language
Online: 6 August 2016 (04:35:45 CEST)
Musyakalah is one of the Arabic linguistic styles included under the category of majaz. This style is commonly used in Al-Quran. The Indonesian translation of Al-Quran is a case where many of the figures of speech are translated literally, thereby causing serious semantic problems. Thus, the research problem of this is formulated with the following questions: 1) How many musyakalah ayahs are there in Al-Quran?; 2) How are the musyakalah ayahs translated, literally (harfiyya) or interpretatively (tafsiriyya)?; 3) How many ayahs are translated literally and how many are translated interpretatively?; and 4) Which translated musyakalah ayahs have the potential to raise semantic and theological problems? The corpus in this research consists of all musyakalah ayahs in Al-Quran and their translation to Indonesian published by the Department of Religious Affairs of Indonesia. The research adopted a descriptive-semantic method. The findings of this research are: 1) There are only eleven ayahs in Al-Quran using musyakalah style, namely: Alhasyr ayah 19, Ali Imran ayah 54, Annaml ayah 50, Alanfal ayah 30, Asysyura ayah 40, Albaqarah ayah 15, Almaidah 116, Aljatsiah ayah 34, Attaubah ayah 79, Annisa ayah 142, and Albaqarah 194; 2) The musyakalah ayahs translated literally are: Aljatsiah 34, Almaidah 116, Asysura 40, Annaml 50, and Alhasyr 19, whereas the musyakalah ayahs translated interpretatively are Albaqarah 194, Annisa 142, Attaubah 79, Albaqarah 15, Alanfal 30, and Ali Imran 54; 3) Of the eleven musyakalah ayahs, only Alhasyr ayah 19 that is translated correctly and does not have the potential of creating misinterpretation. Meanwhile, the interpretation of the other four ayahs can potentially cause misinterpretation or are against the basic principles of Islam. The six remaining ayahs are translated interpretatively and thus do not have the potential to be misinterpreted; 4) The findings suggest that musyakalah ayahs are more appropriately translated interpretatively. Therefore, the following is recommended: 1) Considering the different characteristics of Arabic and Indonesian languages, studies on Al-Quran translation into Indonesian should continuously be carried out; 2) In order to avoid misinterpretation, it is better that the translation of musyakalah ayahs uses tafsiriyya (interpretative) approach; 3) The harfiyya (literal) and tafsiriyya (interpretative) approaches should be developed for other styles beside musyakalah..
Mon, 18 July 2016
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0055.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: religious, children, Reading books, school, Iran
Online: 18 July 2016 (10:48:05 CEST)
Transmission of values and religious concepts to children is one of the most important issues in the third millennium and it has drawn varied and different views among experts and scholars in the world. Research specialized in religious literature for children and adolescents create new capacities in the presentation of religious concepts to the group. Plans have been considered to transfer values and religious concepts in the curricula of primary school children in the group in Iran. It is one of the topics that the authors note to the introduction of the minutiae of religion in the first three elementary grades. In this study, the collection and analysis methods providing content related to the minutiae of religion in reading books the first till third sections of the years 2013-2015. In addition, the plan includes aspects of other branches of religion in these books on information collected from text books that collected and classified. The result is that "definitely good and forbidding the evil" and "prayer" have the highest frequency of applications in the selected books. Further branches made of branches of religion in these books, represents the values of religious, moral and social as well.
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