REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0295.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: stormwater drainage; urban flood; urban drainage management; food disaster management
Online: 15 October 2020 (12:05:44 CEST)
Stormwater drainage and urban flooding are the popular issues in policy agendas and academia. Although the research on these title increases steadily an integrated review on stormwater drainage and urban flood with a focus on pluvial flooding has yet to be produced. This paper presents a critical review on stormwater drainage and urban flood based on 78 selected journal papers published over the period of 1990 to 2018. The review focus on pluvial flooding to relate urban stormwater drainage management and urban flood disaster management and to show the links between the two. The methods taken to manage urban stormwater drainage and urban flooding as well as the complexity of achieving a comprehensive urban flood disaster management are evaluated and discussed. To better understand the concepts behind urban flood and improve the urban flood risk management strategies, recommendation of future research directions are also provided.
Sun, 13 September 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0288.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: digitization; 3D modeling; drawings; Renaissance; Leonardo da Vinci; Manuscript B; parametric
Online: 13 September 2020 (15:21:56 CEST)
Among many other themes, Leonardo da Vinci’s Manuscript B contains several drawings of centrally planned churches, some of which are represented using a plan view paired with a bird’s-eye view. The use of a bird’s-eye instead of an elevation represents an innovative depiction technique, which allows to combine the immediacy of the perspective view with the measurability of the façades, and therefore to describe the three-dimensionality of the buildings. To understand the reasons behind the use of this original technique, the edifices’ shape and classify them we decided to use 3D digital reconstruction techniques, for their ability to avoid misunderstandings in the reconstruction process and in the results. This article describes the method to create the digital models of sixteen churches. A Visual programming language (VPL) script was used as 3D base for modelling the churches achieved from a classification code expressing the aggregative rules of the churches. Then, the geometric process for the construction of the plan and its relationship with the elevation measures was studied for each church. Finally, this information was used for the completion of the 3D models, distinguishing more output variants each time there was an inconsistency between plan and perspective view, a variability of one architectural element or an uncertainty.
Tue, 4 August 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0081.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: air pollution; particulate; PM2.5; open market; pedestrian traffic
Online: 4 August 2020 (08:20:44 CEST)
Market air quality is very important to the economic lives of the people which is rarely researched, however, market activities particularly pedestrian traffic releases particulates which is detrimental to the health of the users and stakeholders. Thermo scientific MIE pDR-1500 particulate was used to monitor the quality of air within the market for eight (8) weeks, air pollutant of concern is PM2.5. ten (10) sample points were located in the market which covers ten (10) sample points for pedestrian traffic to represent the entire market environment spectrum. The analysis of PM2.5 measured daily during dry and wet season shows a clear seasonal variation of this particular pollutant as elevated concentration was measured during the dry season than the wet season. The assessment of PM2.5 concentration shows exceedances of the standards stated by WHO and NAAQS during the dry season which ranges from 47.9 μg/m3- 231.88 μg/m3 in the morning and 65.17 μg/m3- 1806.33 μg/m3 in the afternoon. From the findings, pedestrian traffic contributes immensely to air pollution in an open market, with this elevated concentration, prolonged exposure is highly detrimental to health. This study creates awareness to the pedestrians in an open market about air pollution and informs policy changes.
Wed, 22 July 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0501.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: thermal bridge; modeling and dynamic analysis; system identification
Online: 22 July 2020 (06:10:36 CEST)
It is challenging to apply heat flow through a thermal bridge, which requires the analysis of 2D or 3D heat transfer to building energy simulation(BES). Research on the dynamic analysis of thermal bridges has been underway for many years, but their utilization remains low in BESs. This paper proposes a thermal bridge modeling and a dynamic analysis method that can be easily applied to BESs. The main idea begins with an analogy of the steady-state analysis of thermal bridges. As with steady-state analysis, the proposed method first divides the thermal bridge into a clear wall, where the heat flow is uniform, and the sections that are not the clear wall (the thermal bridge part). For the clear wall part, the method used in existing BESs is applied and analyzed. The thermal bridge part (TB part) is modeled with the linear time-invariant system (LTI system) and the system identification process is performed to find the transfer function. Then, the heat flow is obtained via a linear combination of the two parts. This method is validated by comparing the step, sinusoidal and annual outdoor temperature response of the finite differential method(FDM) simulation. When the thermal bridge was modeled as a third-order model, the root mean square error(RMSE) of annual heat flow with the FDM solution of heat flow through the entire wall was about 0.1W.
Thu, 12 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0207.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: tomb; religious heritage; cultural heritage; Sheikh Zahed Gilani; indigenous architecture; dome
Online: 12 March 2020 (09:16:57 CET)
Tombs and mausoleums as a cultural-religious heritage have a key role in attracting cultural tourists, as a result, they have been of great interest to researchers and academics in recent years. This paper argues the tomb of Sheikh Zahed Gilani, who was once a great mystic and is reputable due to his influence on the formation of the Safavid dynasty. Through a qualitative evaluation, this paper assesses the history, indigenous architecture, brick decorations and the significant geometry of Sheikh Zahed’ tomb. The results indicate that the dome has eight diverse geometric levels with dissimilar decorations, which is a unique design in the region. The paper also investigates the construction inscriptions and preservation projects to better comprehend the history of the tomb. Examination and understanding the characteristics of this monument alongside assessing the typology in comparison to other historical buildings can support the development of a local structure of the tomb as well as the geometric dome in similar climates.
Fri, 6 March 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0105.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: High-Rise Building; Wind Comfort; Building Arrangement; Pedestrian Level; CFD; Tehran
Online: 6 March 2020 (04:35:48 CET)
High-Rise buildings with their particular features can affects on surrounding environment and makes new microclimates. In the windy conditions, the spaces that are between building blocks changes to passages and affects on the wind velocity, intensity and it’s other parameters.The importance of this effect is different in each level of building height. The Pedestrian-Level is the lowest and one of important areas. Markets, playgrounds and pedestrian access had located in this area and any unwanted microclimate changes like high velocity and turbulence in this level can makes discomfort and dangerous condition for residents. So this research tries to consider the pedestrian- level wind comfort in some High-Rise building complexes arrangement that had located in Tehran district 22 with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling and reaching to a suitable arrangement pattern. It had collected the required data through field study and librarian databases and then compared them with standard guidelines and analyzed them by comparative comparison method. As a result a linear arrangement that placed crossover to wind direction for providing wind comfort and preventing wind danger is been suggested in this region.
Mon, 27 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0319.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: monocular depth cues; luminance contrast; colour; visual arts; image plane; human perception; brain; 3D structure; figure-ground; Gestalt Theory
Online: 27 January 2020 (01:54:27 CET)
Victor Vasarely’s (1906-1997) important legacy to the study of human perception is brought to the forefront and discussed. A large part of his impressive work conveys the appearance of striking three-dimensional shapes and structures in a large-scale pictorial plane. Current perception science explains such effects by invoking brain mechanisms for the processing of monocular (2D) depth cues. Here in this study, we illustrate and explain the local effects of 2D color and contrast cues on the perceptual organization in terms of figure-ground assignments, i.e. which local surfaces are likely to be seen as “nearer” or “bigger” in the image plane. Paired configurations are embedded in a larger, structurally ambivalent pictorial context inspired by some of Vasarely’s creations. The figure-ground effects these configurations produce reveal a significant correlation between perceptual solutions for “nearer” and “bigger” when no other monocular depth cues are given in the image. In consistency with previous findings on similar, albeit simpler visual displays, a specific color may compete with luminance contrast in resolving the planar ambiguity of a complex pattern context. Vasarely intuitively understood, and successfully exploited, this kind of subtle context effect in his art, well before empirical investigations had set out to study and explain their genesis in terms of information processing by the visual brain.
Thu, 9 January 2020
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0083.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Chinese ancient architecture; bracket set; tile work; regularized reconstruction; parametric; algorithm modeling; Grasshopper; HBIM; built heritage
Online: 9 January 2020 (11:57:24 CET)
By the study of the pattern book Ying Zao Fa Shi (building regulations of Song Dynasty, 1103 AD), while analyzing the combining and dimensioning rule of timber framework and tile work, a model self-generating program has been compiled for the first time. The operating framework has been firstly defined, while solving the issues of clustering principle, connecting method, output classification, etc. with the detailed description of algorithm theory. Taking the corner bracket set and nine-ridge roof for example, after the compilation and debug by Grasshopper, according to various input parameters, various models have been generated automatically by the plugin, proving the velocity and the veracity of the algorithm.
Wed, 20 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0183.v2
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: informal settlement; sustainable neighborhood; approaches; district 13 of Kabul city Afghanistan
Online: 20 November 2019 (11:20:52 CET)
Abstract: Afghanistan witnessed rapid urbanization in recent decades due to the post-war recovery process. When the war ended in 2001 by fall of Taliban regime, most Afghans refugees returned to urban areas of Afghanistan, especially in Kabul city. Moreover, the rapid urbanization, migration from rural areas, and population growth impacted on Kabul city with the manifestation of informal settlement. The residents of informal settlements suffer social and economic exclusion from the benefit and opportunity of an urban environment. Furthermore, the residents of informal settlements experience disadvantages by geographical marginalization, shortage of basic infrastructure, improper governance framework, vulnerability into the effect of poor environment, and natural disasters. With all the above, the problems of informal settlements are considered enormous challenges for informal residents. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the proper approaches to addressing informal settlement problems in District 13 of Kabul city. To reach the aim of the research, the interview and questionnaires survey used as an instrument in data collection. Consequently, the finding of this paper indicates that through the resident’s preferences, government capacity, and District 13 physical condition there are three approaches which can be implemented and adopted for improvement of informal settlement in District 13 of Kabul city, which is settlement upgrading as the first option, the land readjustment as the second option and urban redevelopment as the last option.
Fri, 15 November 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0183.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: informal settlement; sustainable neighborhood; approaches; district 13 of Kabul city Afghanistan.
Online: 15 November 2019 (16:53:02 CET)
Afghanistan witnessed rapid urbanization in recent decades due to the post-war recovery process. When the war ended in 2001 by fall of Taliban regime, most Afghans refugees returned to urban areas of Afghanistan, especially in Kabul city. Moreover, the rapid urbanization, migration from rural areas, and population growth impacted on Kabul city with the manifestation of informal settlement. It is acknowledged that the residents of informal settlements suffer social, spatial, and economic exclusion from the benefit and opportunity of an urban environment. Furthermore, the residents of informal settlements experience disadvantages by geographical marginalization, shortage of basic infrastructure, improper governance framework, vulnerability into the effect of poor environment, and natural disaster. With all the above, the problems of informal settlements are considered challenges for and informal residents. Thus, it is a dire need to tackle and overcome problems of informal settlements. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the most proper approaches to addressing informal settlement problems in District13 of Kabul city. In order to reach this aim, interviews and a questionnaire survey have been conducted with government officials and local inhabitants. And the finding of this paper indicates that through the resident’s preferences, government capacity, and District 13 physical condition there are three approaches which can be implemented and adopted for improvement of informal settlement in District 13 of Kabul city, which is settlement upgrading as the first option, the land readjustment as the second option and urban redevelopment as the last option.
Thu, 3 October 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0036.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: housing; Santiago de Chile; internal rate of return; net present value; affordability; profitability index
Online: 3 October 2019 (04:26:56 CEST)
Chile faces a serious crisis on housing affordability given that most of the population is unable to secure a house. While housing prices between 2008 increased by 70.96%, wages only increased by 20.43%. This article presents the analysis of the housing prices configuration for the main district in the country: Santiago Centro. The assessment focuses on verticalised housing buildings constructed between 2015 and 2019. The article develops an exploratory study on the price of housing in the city of Santiago de Chile, to generate a diagnosis to identify the role played by expectations of profitability when configuring that price. Based on the information generated, we seek to contribute to the discussion on public policies that advance towards the development of affordable housing for households in central communes with high urban value, as is the case of Santiago Centro. We hypothesize that profitability expectations of real estate developers play a key role in the housing prices and an adjustment in the profit ratios may increase the affordability keeping the housing market over profitable rates. The research is relevant due to the lack of data transparency in the Chilean housing market, where access to investment costs, land values, yields and house price formation are not part of the public discussion, even though this implies that many households are facing severe difficulties in paying for access to decent housing.
Thu, 19 September 2019
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: beauty; life; scaling law; adaptation; differentiation; organic world view
Online: 19 September 2019 (04:12:01 CEST)
As Christopher Alexander conceived and defined through his life’s work – The Nature of Order – wholeness is a recursive structure that recurs in space and matter and is reflected in human minds and cognition. Based on the definition of wholeness, a mathematical model of wholeness, together with its topological representation, has been developed, and it is able to address not only why a structure is beautiful, but also how much beauty the structure has. Given the circumstance, this paper is attempted to argue for the wholeness as the scientific foundation of sustainable urban design and planning, with the help of the mathematical model and topological representation. We start by introducing the wholeness as a mathematical structure of physical space that pervasively exists in our surroundings, along with two fundamental laws – scaling law and Tobler’s law – that underlie the 15 properties for characterizing and making living structures. We argue that urban design and planning can be considered to be wholeness-extending processes, guided by two design principles of differentiation and adaptation, to transform a space – in a piecemeal fashion – into a living or more living structure. We further discuss several other urban design theories and how they can be justified by and placed within the theory of wholeness. With the wholeness as the scientific foundation, urban design can turn into a rigorous science with creation of living structures as the primary aim.
Fri, 26 July 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0302.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: land tenure in Mexico; ejido system; land expropriation; gated-communities; San Andrés Cholula; Ocoyucan
Online: 26 July 2019 (16:40:05 CEST)
The ejido system in Mexico based on communal land was transformed for private ownership due to neoliberal trends during 1990. This research describes the evolution of Mexican land policies that changed the ejido system into private development to answer why land tenure change is shaping urban growth. To demonstrate this, municipalities of San Andrés Cholula and Ocoyucan were selected as a case study. Within this context, we evaluated how much ejido land is being urbanized due to real estate market forces and what type of urbanization model is created. These two areas represent different development scales: S.A. Cholula where its ejidos were expropriated as part of a regional urban development plan; and Ocoyucan where its ejidos and rural land were reached by private developers without local planning. To analyze both municipalities, historical satellite images from Google Earth were used with GRASS GIS 7.4 and corrected with QGIS 2.18. We found that privatization of ejidos fragmented and segregated the rural world for the construction of massive gated-communities. Therefore, a disturbing land tenure change occurred during the last 30 years, hence this research questions the role of local authorities in permitting land use change without regulations or local planning. The resulting urbanization model is a private sector development that isolates rural communities in their own territories, for which we provide recommendations.
Mon, 18 February 2019
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0138.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Raul Lino, architecture, city, circumstance, modernity, continuity
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:54:25 CET)
Over a period of nearly one hundred years, Raul Lino da Silva (1879-1974) experienced the profound political, social and economic changes that marked the twentieth century in Portugal. Having been born during the Constitutional Monarchy (1822-1910), he lived through the First Republic (1910-1926), the Military Dictatorship (1926-1933) and the Second Republic, or Estado Novo (New State, 1933-1974), and died shortly after the Carnation Revolution of 25 April 1974, at the dawning of the Third Republic. Raul Lino was the architect who published the most in Portugal, having become known through his advocacy of the “Campanha da casa portuguesa” (“Portuguese house campaign”), which provoked a great deal of controversy among his peers. He is less known for the transversal quality of his synthesis between architecture, the decorative arts and territory, and its underlying affirmation of an idea of the city, which we conjecture from a diagonal reading of his theoretical and plastic narrative. We limit the analysis to the first half of the 20th century, concentrating on ten case studies, that encompass architectural projects, urbanistic plans and reports. The above expound the broad conception which he defended in the same year as was held the First National Architecture Congress (1948), whose proposals ratified in Portugal the orthodoxy established in 1933 by the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM). Quoting Aristotle Raul Lino conceived the city as the locus of happiness, shaping the possibilities of consensus between tradition and modernity by means of architecture, which is both envelope and stage for our collective existence. In fact, Raul Lino anticipated themes to be found in the narratives of authors like Aldo Rossi (1966), Paul Virilio (2004, 2009) or Peter Zumthor (2006), and his thought proves particularly relevant and timely in the present day.
Thu, 8 November 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0200.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Historical district; Sustainable development; Tourist satisfaction; Insadong, South Korea
Online: 8 November 2018 (10:22:52 CET)
How to achieve sustainable development and protection of historical district is a worthwhile research topic. As a vital way to update urban space, tourism development in historical district is an effective solution to redistribute urban functions and increase urban vitality. This paper takes the Insadong in South Korea as a case to carry out the evaluation of tourist satisfaction in historical districts. The research finds that: 1) The tourist satisfaction evaluation of Insadong includes 6 dimensions in total, namely “Embodiment of historical elements”, “The blend of tradition and modernity”, Industry distribution and type", "Consumer demand", "Street layout and function", "Landscaping". The most satisfying for tourists is "Landscaping", and the most dissatisfying is "Street layout and function". 2) “The blend of tradition and modernity” has the highest weight while “Industry distribution and type” has the lowest one in the analysis of influencing factors on overall satisfaction. 3) The analysis of the common factor weight and the common factor satisfaction shows that “The blend of tradition and modernity” and “Street layout and function” are the parts that need to be improved. “Consumer demand” also has a lot of room for promotion. The research results will benefit to enhance the tourist experiences of historical district and provide theoretical basis and practical experience reference for effective protection and sustainable development of historical district.
Tue, 30 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0699.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: smart material systems; augmented material; creative practices; fashion design; smart experience; smart aesthetics; technology
Online: 30 October 2018 (04:03:43 CET)
During the last decade, smart materials have increasingly impacted on several niches, among which that of one-off/limited edition experimental fashion. Thanks to their performativity, due to the implementation of Smart Materials Systems, they have reached indeed catwalks as well as museums and galleries. As boundaries between what-is-art and what traditionally was not supposed to be art are now turning into osmotic membranes, zooming on how smart materials are highly contributing to outline the new creative landscape can provide with interesting and compelling issues. Introducing three different areas of experimental fashion, named Multi-sensory dresses, Empathic dresses, and Bio-smart dresses and accessories, respectively covering the world of in-Lab experiments and design collaborations in relation to the application of advanced smart materials systems, the article discuss some of the implications in term of Design Thinking and Design Aesthetics.
Thu, 18 October 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0403.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: cultural sustainability, housing, spatial planning, resort village, Behruz Çinici
Online: 18 October 2018 (06:01:33 CEST)
This study aims to open a discussion on the concept “cultural sustainability” in architectural design. We asked the question if spatial planning has a role in cultural sustainability and in which terms cultural sustainability could be considered or discussed in design process. We started with a presupposition of an example which achieved cultural sustainability in time. We exemplified a holiday resort village designed in 1970 and is still in use with inconsiderable transformations. As being a social engineering was a necessity for the architects, Altuğ and Behruz Çinici , it can be said that their design approach was to achieve a sustainable living considering the financial, ecological, environmental and cultural dimensions. Behruz Çinici and his wife Altuğ Çinici are influential and proclaimed architects of their time. For understanding Çinici’s design concepts, we first looked at his inspiration sources as he verbalized in his conferences. After studying on their village projects, we suggested four spatial concepts for reading the projects from the perspective of cultural sustainability. We analyzed their three resort villages designed in the same decade through the criteria we have suggested. In evaluation; the distinguished features of Çinici’s resort projects are discussed in relation with the concept cultural sustainability. In conclusion, we intended to open a discussion for the criteria we proposed for cultural sustainability in spatial planning and put the importance of cultural practices for housing policies for regional identity in global world.
Tue, 25 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0482.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Geological Astroikos; Astroikos; Space Architecture; Planetary Architecture; Architecture; Geological Habitats; Habitats;
Online: 25 September 2018 (09:21:41 CEST)
To establish a human colony in a planetary body different from the terrestrial one, will entail to join those factors that can favour the good development of life in that place. However, which of these possible parameters can be categorized as essential when referring to the creation of a shelter for a long stay? Human beings, willing to abandon their natural environment in order to open new extra-terrestrial settlements for present and future generations, have to stay long hours cloistered in a volume built in a quite hostile environment a priori. They deserve to find a habitat which not only makes them feel protected, with the tranquillity and comfort that entails, but also provides an environment capable to transmit desire to live and be. Astroikos. Term whose suffix Oikos ("house", in Greek) defines in classical antiquity the set of goods and people that constituted the basic unit of society, allows us to identify the new planetary habitat as the possible refuge of a multidisciplinary team of astronauts aiming at colonizing other worlds. This would be based on four fundamental pillars: 1. The humanization of Space Architecture. 2. The possibility of the use of indigenous materials, resources and natural geological structures, as well as the recycling of elements of space vehicles. 3. Self-construction. 4. Security.
Mon, 17 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0296.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: design patterns; urban design; problem-solving; creativity; urban design education; teamwork
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:01:27 CEST)
Urban design is a complex problem-solving activity that commonly requires the aid of a variety of methods to support the process and enhance the quality of the outcomes. How to help designers with adequate methods to deal with ill-defined urban problems constitutes a major challenge in the urban design domain. In this regard, the use of urban design patterns is considered as a method that can contribute to urban design problem-solving. However, this tool was never investigated to understand its role in the task-related activities that take place during the design process by designers working in team, and its effect on the creativity of the final design outcome as perceived by urban designers and students. Therefore, an empirical research based on a controlled experiment was carried out to explore the aid provided by design patterns during the conceptual stages of the process. The study contributed to gain a better insight into the main design activities derived from the use of patterns as problem-solving tools, and to unveil their contribution to urban design. Implications for design practice and design education are discussed.
Thu, 13 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0232.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: concrete; construction history; Iceland; Reykjavík; Guðmundur Hannesson
Online: 13 September 2018 (10:11:59 CEST)
The quick modernisation of Iceland, that rapidly took place from the first decades of the 20th century onwards, did not only bring fishing trawlers and cars into the country. Among all the techniques of modernity, concrete [steinsteypa] was to become the key material that changed the built landscape of the island and was soon adopted by the first Icelandic architects, such as Rögnvaldur Ólafsson (1874–1914) and Guðjón Samúelsson (1887–1950). Interestingly, the main supporter of this material was Guðmundur Hannesson (1866–1946), a medical doctor and town planner who wrote several articles and even a guidebook published in 1921 and titled Steinsteypa. Leiðarvísir fyrir alþýðu og viðvaninga [Concrete. Guidebook for Common People and Beginners]. In a country that was seeking an architectural self-representation, he understood the technical and formal possibilities that concrete could offer: he claimed, “people [...] were trying to change, to build out of a new material with a new form” (Guðmundur Hannesson 1926, 14). This essay aims thus to retrace the rhetoric of Guðmundur Hannesson and his role in writing an Icelandic chapter of the history of concrete, from its early stage of unmodern trial-and-error to the definition of a modern Icelandic architecture.
Mon, 3 September 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0013.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green infrastructure; riparian restoration; green corridor; drainageway; urban valley; stormwater management; flooding; arid landscape; sustainability; urban ecosystem
Online: 3 September 2018 (07:57:32 CEST)
This paper describes the feasibility and probable benefits associated with greening the Tahliah Channel, a concrete drainage channel that was originally built to relieve urban flooding in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. It includes an estimation of irrigation needs for channel greening based on a standardized planting specification. The study also demonstrates alternative strategies for meeting the required irrigation demand, including water harvesting and graywater reuse on a residential scale. The study shows that greening Tahliah Channel is possible relying mainly on graywater reuse from the surrounding buildings. Also, the study shows that rainwater harvesting is not a reliable source for irrigation. Rather, it can cover only part of the irrigation needs (6%) and so can be used as a secondary supporting source. The positive results of this case study will be of interest to those in arid countries who are looking to upgrade and replace traditional, single function drainage infrastructure with more sustainable, green infrastructure systems. More specifically, the objectives of the study are consistent with the goals of the Saudi government’s ongoing initiative that advocates for more resilient and sustainable cities. (Vision 2030 year).
Thu, 30 August 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0524.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Alvar Aalto, Modernism, Paimio Sanatorium, Finland, Bruno Latour, actor-network theory, history of technology, history of architecture
Online: 30 August 2018 (10:47:12 CEST)
Alvar Aalto created innovative architecture in his breakthrough work, Paimio Sanatorium, located in Southwestern Finland and designed between 1928 and 1933. The technological systems in construction, such as the concrete frame, electricity, air conditioning, and lifts, developed rapidly in the interwar period and Aalto drew influences from the culturally radical modernistic discourse around the CIAM organisation and felt that architecture should respond to the demands of the age. Architecture is an applied form of art, and symbolic expression in architecture is a system with its logic. As a contrast, a building is a technological system and forms a framework within which to solve practical problems. Thus, as a technological system, the building is both material and social, during its construction and after. The theoretical underpinning for the study was the actor-network theory developed since the 1980s by the French sociologist Bruno Latour. This study clearly showed the importance of a collaborative effort in a building project. The most famous architectural solutions for Paimio Sanatorium, a demanding institutional building project, came into being in circumstances where the architect-innovator, Aalto, managed to create a viable and robust hybrid that merged collective competence with material factors.
Wed, 4 July 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0073.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: emotions; planning; participation; digital participation; physiological sensors; galvanic skin response; GSR; stress levels; emotional layer; urban; city
Online: 4 July 2018 (11:53:17 CEST)
Although our emotional connection with the physical urban setting is often valued, it is rarely recognised or used as a resource to understand future actions in city planning. Yet, despite the importance of emotion, citizens’ emotions are typically seen as difficult to quantify and individualistic, even though knowledge about people’s response to space could help planners understand people’s behaviours and learn about how citizens use and live in the city. The study explores the relationship between the physical space and emotions through identifying the links between stress levels, and specific features of the urban environment. This study aims to show the potential of integrating the use of galvanic skin response (GSR) within urban spatial analysis and city planning, in order to address the relationship between emotions and urban spaces. This method involved participants using a (GSR) device linked to location data to measure participant’s emotional responses along a walking route in a city centre environment. Findings show correlations between characteristics of environment and stress levels, as well as how specific features of the city spaces such as road crossing create stress ‘hotspots’. We suggest that the data obtained could contribute to citizens creating their own information layer - an emotional layer- that could inform urban planning decision-making. The implications of this application of this method as an approach to public participation in urban planning are also discussed.
Mon, 25 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0372.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: delta project; university living lab; ecological corridor
Online: 25 June 2018 (07:59:08 CEST)
The University of Guayaquil, which shares the same name as the city where it is located, faces the challenge of transforming its image for the XXI century. It was deemed necessary to identify details about the urban evolution of the historic link with the city, in relation to the changes produced by the project’s siting and its direct area of influence. The goal is to integrate the main university campus within a framework which guarantees sustainability and allows innovation in the living lab. To achieve this, the action research method was applied, focused on participation and the logic framework. For the diagnosis, proposal, and management model, integrated working groups were organized with internal users such as professors, students, and university authorities, and external actors such as residents, the local business community, Guayaquil city council, and the Governorate of Guayas. As result of the diagnosis, six different analysis dimensions were established which correspond to the new urban agenda for the future campus: compactness, inclusiveness, resilience, sustainability, safety and participation. As a proposal, the urban design integrates the analysis dimensions whose financing and execution are given by the Town Hall, at the same time the Governorate integrates the campus with its network of community police headquarters.
Tue, 5 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: sustainability; urban planning; parametric model; informal settlements; GIS
Online: 5 June 2018 (12:56:11 CEST)
The non-existence of a land ownership database in most of the developing countries moves the inhabitants to the occupation of public lands. Some of this situation are the origin to areas of informal housing, commerce and agriculture and in the end into new informal settlements. Informal settlements become a serious problem in developing countries. The most common typology of informal settlements is that they are the population settled in public lands without any infrastructures and against the administrator's will. Thought this action the result in an uncontrolled land occupation process that promotes new informal areas without any proper built-up utilities, located in risk areas on the territory, barely ensuring the minimum requirements for a heaty living of the population and in various cases incentives to an informal economy. The process of build a cadastral map in informal settlement areas is a fundamental base to support the future transformation of illegal areas and to regulate the occupation of new subdivision planning and into the creation of new expansion areas. In this paper, it is presented a methodology developed to be applied to support a new register of land and to management. The transformation of informal settlement areas. The model to register the land tenure has been associated with allows the process application to multiple typology of informal settlements. The model to register land tenure has developed on a series of qualitative and quantitative data that determine the identification and classification of the buildings and its physical and functional description. The model was developed using Geographic Information System and with an initial survey of existing land titles of possession and public proposals to develop new expansion areas. A case study of the method is presented, where the land management model was implemented - Chã da Caldeiras in Ilha do Fogo an informal settlement in Cape Verde. The results are a great acceptance of the proposal by the population and local authorities and the starting of the implementation phase.
Mon, 4 June 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0021.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: architecture; complex buildings; cellular automaton; uses incubators; public space
Online: 4 June 2018 (07:48:34 CEST)
We explores the relational, dynamic elements of Complex Buildings, a type of architecture designed to incubate uses, located in urban areas with high housing density. The uses of Complex Buildings concern different elements, including the network of agents using or managing them, the environment, and the activities and functions that take place occasionally, temporarily or permanently. Data was gathered through ethnographic research lasting 6 months and a chronotopian approach was used to describe time and space. We analyzed and discussed the interaction of the elements of Complex Buildings through a cellular automaton model, a computational method that simulates the growth of complex systems. It was used here to generate patterns that suggest configurations of uses that can optimize management and therefore increase economic and social capital. The cellular automaton model was also used to develop an abstraction of the Centquatre, a public cultural center in Paris. This center is a good example of a Complex Building, being based on a public-private partnership and having an architectural configuration designed to host a wide range of art, social and productive activities. The building includes a large central space used as an urban public area open to different types of people. The importance of this case study lies in its capacity to produce economic value by combining different uses, and also by welcoming different people to the public space. Regarding the building as a living organism, the cellular automaton model reveals the determinant nature of the concepts of configuration, compatibility of uses and economic value generated by the presence of people. We argue that this approach makes it possible to show that the space-time design and public space dimensions are determinant factors in Complex Buildings.
Wed, 2 May 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0030.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: green building; risk management; risk factors, risk mitigation measures; architect
Online: 2 May 2018 (16:55:58 CEST)
The number of green buildings has increased to address the global environmental crisis. However, green buildings face risks resulting from new materials and methods. In addition, these buildings are expected to perform at higher levels than traditional ones. The objectives of this study are to identify the possible risk factors for architects developing green building projects in South Korea and to assess risk mitigation measures. To attain this goal, fourteen risk factors and twelve mitigation measures were identified from a comprehensive literature review. A questionnaire survey was administered to architects practicing green building design. Findings revealed the ‘adoption of new technology and processes’ was the largest difference between green and traditional building projects. This study identified ‘financial risk,’ ‘design changes,’ and ‘client’s goal uncertainty’ as the top three risk factors in green building design. Additionally, the survey proposed the four most effective risk mitigation measures for green building projects: (1) ‘contract indicating each party’s roles, liabilities and limitations clearly’; (2) ‘utilizing integrated design process’; (3) ‘understanding client’s goal in green building projects’; and (4) ‘improving communication and coordination among stakeholders.’ There are a few studies focusing on the architects’ perceived risk concerning green building projects; however, this study expands the knowledge and fills the literature gap. Additionally, this study provides a comprehensive understanding of critical risks and mitigation measures that can benefit South Korea’s green building design practice through better risk management.
Mon, 16 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0173.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: renaissance; architecture; duomo; Leonardo; Bramante
Online: 16 April 2018 (05:15:25 CEST)
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) is considered one of the greatest geniuses of the Renaissance. His studies developed advanced ideas for his time, even in its most unknown aspects, such as: architecture, urban planning and restoration. He never studied formally, but he learned everything due to his method of observation, the study of other treatises and especially the group of artists with whom he collaborated. After the study of its codices a great interest and knowledge is detected, related to the design, the structural calculation, the materials and the constructive systems, in such a way that their proposals influenced the architecture of the Renaissance, through the work of other authors of your time. The purpose of this article is to make a critical analysis of its excellent architectural proposal in the cupola of the Duomo of Milan and the reasons why it was not carried out under its name. This proposal is included within a discipline in which it has never been recognized as such, but which demonstrated the same qualities as in other fields where it is recognized prestigiously.
Sun, 8 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0093.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: community building; quality of life; built form typology; front-yard; physical accessibility; visual permeability; human behaviour
Online: 8 April 2018 (11:29:30 CEST)
The residential built form, including open space, provides the physical environment for social interaction. Understanding urban open space, including semi-public and public domains, through the lens of physical accessibility and visual permeability can potentially facilitate the building of a sense of community contributing to a better quality of life. Using an inner-city suburb in Perth, Western Australia as a case study, this research explores the importance of physical accessibility patterns and visual permeability for socialising in semi-public and public domains, such as the front yard and the residential streets. It argues that maintaining a balance between public and private inter-relationship in inner city residential neighbourhoods is important for creating and maintaining a sense of community.
Wed, 4 April 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0050.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Chinese architecture; standardization; environmental architecture; Beijing urban layout
Online: 4 April 2018 (06:20:50 CEST)
A correlation between Chinese traditional architecture and cultural concepts has been established to analyze the formalization of architectural and urban patterns in relation to environmental features. In this regard, we have discussed the process of standardization from architectural elements or modules related in different levels of composition and articulated around empty spaces following ancient cosmic concepts to achieve harmony with nature. The conclusions show that Chinese architectural patterns can only be understood in relation to nature, and in turn have profound environmental values from which lessons can be learned to advance towards a more sustainable architecture.
Thu, 1 February 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0282.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: environmental cues; fear of crime spots; sense of safety; social cues
Online: 1 February 2018 (07:59:02 CET)
Streets are primary elements through which the character of urban neighborhoods are experienced and expressed. The “sense of safety” in neighborhood streets is paramount to social and psychological wellbeing of its residents and visitors. The intention of this study was to explore environmental and social cues of a neighborhood, which evoke fear of crime, which will help designers to prevent the generation of such negative feelings and promote more safe and comfortable spaces in our cities. This study used interviews, group discussions and observations to identify fear-generating factors with a sample of participants in the multi ethnic neighborhood of Kotahena in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Field data was analyzed through visual documentation and photographic surveys. Moreover, group discussions, interviews and personal observations were used to synergize the study objectives. The findings inform that fear of crime on streets is influenced by both environmental and social cues to varying degrees. Feelings of fear were associated with gender, ethnicity and less familiarity with the place as participants were from an ethnic minority within the community. Literature has emphasized that fear of crime has a connection to actual crime locations. The research findings, however, indicate that fear of crime spots identified by the residents do not have a direct relationship to the actual crime locations.
Mon, 15 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0121.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: social criteria; building assessment tools; sustainable development; social sustainability
Online: 15 January 2018 (07:55:41 CET)
The social criteria of sustainable development have remained underexplored. Moreover, a large number of green building assessment tool and social sustainability documentations have been developed which, has had a direct impact on social criteria issues, but there seems to be a substantial gap in the study of social criteria in green building assessment tools. In examining the problem facing social sustainability, taking into consideration social sustainability in sustainable development reviews and green building assessment tool towards social aspects. This paper through analysis identified a centripetal conceptual framework composed of seven key components equity, education, participation & control, social cohesion, health & safety, accessibility & satisfaction, and cultural values. The interpretation of the social sustainability in green building assessment tool would impact building practitioners towards implementing social criteria in GBAT. The aim was to identify social categories as well as consider a starting point for the development of an effective social criteria assessment tool for green building.
Tue, 2 January 2018
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0013.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: resilient urban design; smart planning; climate change; resilient regional laws; pleasant public space
Online: 2 January 2018 (12:03:30 CET)
The manuscript wants to investigate the debate on urban resilience and climate change linking theory and practice, describing the possible innovations that concern urban design, urban normative and regional laws developing in different countries. The approach pursued would encourage resilience and flood protection through smart planning and through the architectural and urban project; considering public space as strategic soil where developing the resilient city, using engineering technical climate defence as new space for citizens and communities. Resilience themes are included in all levels of government and in spatial and strategic development policies such as in some project concerning public and private space and in municipal plans; the urban defense structures has to become new pleasant space for the city; these actions will not only contribute to making cities more resilient but will contribute to the creation of a more pleasant and attractive urban environment. The Resilience is the main keyword of some strategic vision of the Netherlands and of Italian laws and the concept is tested in some best practice such as in Rotterdam, in Bordeaux, in London and in the research carried out by "Arquitectos de Cabecera" in Barcelona. Resilience is seen as a new paradigm of smart planning.
Wed, 8 November 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0049.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: spatial perception; Perceived Restorativeness Scale; urban greening; cognitive mapping; environmental restorative effect; perceptual range
Online: 8 November 2017 (03:11:06 CET)
In daily living environments, an individual’s state influences spatial perception. The current study, based on Attention Restoration Theory, aimed to explore differences in the health utility of nature according to individual differences in spatial perception. Cognitive mapping and the Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) were used to assess spatial perception ranges and the restorative effect of the environment. Two spatial perceptual groups were defined: one describing only the internal area of a green space, and another illustrating the external area of this green space on a larger scale. The former had higher overall PRS, Being Away, Fascination, and Compatibility scores. The latter had higher scores only on the Coherence subscale. These results illustrate that frequency of nature visits and time spent traveling to do so differently influence the two groups’ attentional restoration, which has great implications for landscape planning in highly stressful urban environments.
Fri, 18 August 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0068.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Terrestrial Laser Scanning; orthoimage; heritage; remote sensing; preservation; archaeology
Online: 18 August 2017 (16:49:13 CEST)
This article presents a methodology to process information from a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) from three dimensions (3D) to two dimensions (2D), and to two dimensions with a color value (2.5D), as a tool to document and analyze heritage buildings. Principally focused on the loss of material in stone, this study aims at creating an evaluation method for loss control, taking into account the state of conservation of the building in terms of restoration, from studying the pathologies, to their identification and delimitation. A case study on the Cathedral of the Seu Vella de Lleida was completed, examining the details of the stone surfaces. This cathedral was affected by military use, periods of abandonment, and periodic restorations.
Tue, 25 April 2017
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0155.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: architecture; 19th century; 20th century; Nordic countries; natural stone; national romanticism; geology
Online: 25 April 2017 (04:56:44 CEST)
In the second half of the 19th century new methods for quarrying and processing natural stone are developed. In the Nordic countries Sweden, Norway and Finland this technological progress goes hand in hand with a systematic geological mapping and large-scale exploitation of natural stone deposits. As a result, new constructions are developed—changing the building practice in these countries. With the end of historicism a new architecture arises that particularly in Norway and Finland acquires a national-romantic character. This paper examines the interaction between geological exploration, commercial development, technical inventions and the development of a national-romantic architecture.
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