ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Occupational Stress; Burnout; Turnover Intentions; Motivation; Quantitative Study
Online: 3 November 2023 (12:41:12 CET)
The main objective of this study was to study the effect of occupational stress on turnover intentions, as well as whether this relationship is mediated by burnout levels and moderated by motivation. The sample of this study consisted of 603 participants, all employees of the Portuguese Tax and Customs Authority, which is part of the Ministry of Finance and belongs to the Direct State Administration. The results indicate that occupational stress (with managers, with career and remuneration and with work overload) has a positive and significant effect on turnover intentions and that this relationship is mediated by burnout. Motivation (intrinsic and identified) has a negative and significant effect on turnover intentions. Intrinsic motivation moderates the rela-tionship between occupational stress (with managers, with colleagues, with career and pay and with family problems) and turnover intentions. These results indicate that among the dimensions of occupational stress, the most critical are stress with managers, work overload and career and pay. These are factors that the Direct State Administration should be concerned about in trying to minimize their causes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0120.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Burnout; career satisfaction; COVID-19; faculty shortage; nursing faculty; turnover intentions; work environment; work-life interference
Online: 10 January 2022 (13:58:18 CET)
The interactions between work and personal life are important for ensuring well-being especially during COVID-19 where the lines between work and home are blurred. Work-life interference/imbalance can result in work-related burnout, which has been shown to have negative effects on faculty members’ physical and psychological health. Although our understanding of burnout has advanced considerably in recent years, little is known about the effects of burnout on nursing faculty turnover intentions and career satisfaction. Thus, this study aimed to test a hypothesized model examining the effects of work-life inference on nursing faculty burnout (emotional exhaustion and cynicism), turnover intentions and ultimately, career satisfaction. A predictive cross-sectional design was used. An online national survey of nursing faculty members was administered throughout Canada in Summer 2021. Nursing faculty who held full-time or part-time positions in Canadian academic settings were invited via email to participate in the study. Data was collected from an anonymous survey housed on Qualtrics. Descriptive statistics and reliability estimates were computed. The hypothesized model was tested using structural equation modeling. Data suggest that work-life interference significantly increase burnout which contribute to both higher turnover intentions and lower career satisfaction. Turnover intentions in turn was negatively associated with career satisfaction. The findings add to the growing body of literature linking burnout to turnover and dissatisfaction, highlighting key antecedents and/or drivers of burnout among nurse academics. These results provide suggestions for suitable areas for the development of interventions and policies within the organizational structure to reduce the risk of burnout during and post-COVID-19 and improve faculty retention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0928.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: agricultural holding; profitability; turnover; subsidies; descriptive statistics
Online: 13 July 2023 (11:17:36 CEST)
The objective of the analysis carried out in this paper is to quantify the impact of subsidies on the activity of two vegetable farms, of different sizes in terms of agricultural area under cultivation, 600 ha and 3000 ha, which can constitute a model at macroeconomic level, indicating the ways in which these farms can ensure their income. For the analysis carried out, indicators were taken into account concerning production, net profit and subsidies received over a period of three years for the agricultural crops grown on these farms, identifying their contribution and effects on profitability. Descriptive statistics, visual inspections and basic comparison methods were also used, thus determining the patterns of the impact of subsidies and their variation for each of the existing crops in the vegetable farms studied. The data on which the statistical models are based are extracted from the financial statements of the farms analysed, giving the possibility of a predictive extension of the evolution of income and, very importantly, of their profitability. The conclusions revealed, for the 600 ha vegetable farm, that this farm maintained its area constant during the analysis period, benefiting from annual subsidies, and that the practice of crop diversification (rape, barley, winter wheat, oats, soybean, maize, lucerne), appropriate rotation, conservation farming and crop irrigation on 85.34% of the area, ensured average yields/ha that exceeded those recorded at national and regional level, except for 2020. The economic performance of this farm is oscillating in the period 2018-2021, with the ability to consistently generate profit, but in 2020 it is close to break-even, a year in which subsidy income tipped the balance towards positive but modest financial results. For this farm, the statistical model carried out was inconclusive because the farm optimises its cropping plan every year, depending on agrometeorological predictions, subsidy levels and market trends, changing crops, thus not being able to estimate the extent to which each crop contributes to maintaining the financial balance of the farm. Thus, although subsidies have impacted the level of net income, the extent to which they have done so is unclear. For the 3000 ha farm, the findings revealed that this farm also has a roughly constant area in use over the analysis period and for which it receives subsidies. This farm practices crop diversification (rape, barley, winter wheat, sunflower, soybean, grain maize, late potatoes, sweet potato, carrot and flowers) and adequate crop rotation. The data highlight that subsidies played a significant and sometimes overwhelming role in determining the gross output of each crop to achieve a positive value of this indicator. Modern conservation farming technologies and crop irrigation on 74.14% of the area justify the average yields/ha achieved, which again exceeded those recorded at national, regional and county level, with the exception of 2020. Maize and soybean crops consistently contributed to the farm's income, with a high gross product and net income, despite changes in the average yield per hectare achieved each year. Good and rising economic performance for this farm during the period under review, which justifies the profitability of the business from an economic, financial and commercial point of view. Although there have been fluctuations in the value of yields realized on different crops, net revenues continued to be high and even up significantly in 2021. Thus, the study highlighted and identified trends and patterns in agriculture, patterns that can serve as a source of information for relevant policy decisions, playing a key role in guiding future research and allocating resources efficiently in the agricultural sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0744.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Motivation; Project performance; Motivational techniques; Employee turnover
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:01:29 CEST)
In order to remain competitive in the highly competitive construction industry, it is crucial for construction organizations to continually improve their overall performance, as project performance is a key determinant of their relevance. Despite the industry's competitiveness and risk, it has been reported that the construction industry has the lowest return margins compared to other industries (Jackson, 1999), suggesting that the project performance of construction organizations in the industry has not been up to par. This issue can be attributed to several factors, with motivation being the primary factor. Unfortunately, motivation is often disregarded in the construction industry due to the short duration of many construction projects and the high rate of employee turnover. The impact of employee dissatisfaction and related work attitudinal problems on performance in the construction industry is a matter of concern, particularly in developing countries where working conditions may be unappealing. The severity of this issue cannot be overstated.The objective of this research is to evaluate the effectiveness of motivational techniques in enhancing project performance in Nigeria. The study employed a survey research design and targeted the management staff of construction firms in Lagos State, Nigeria. The questionnaire was used to collect data, and the respondents were purposively selected from the population. Data analysis was conducted using percentage, mean ranking, and chi-square. The findings reveal that the opportunity to learn new skills, with a mean score of 0.85, and wage increment, with a mean score of 0.82, were the most widely adopted motivational techniques for management staff and skilled labor, respectively, in construction firms. Additionally, the study found that most of the motivational schemes tested did not produce statistically significant results, indicating low adoption and limited effectiveness in enhancing project performance. As a result, it is suggested that construction companies in Nigeria should implement and enforce financial and non-financial incentives to enhance the performance of their employees and consequently, improve project performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0417.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: placental scars; demography; litter size; fecundity; turnover
Online: 16 November 2020 (11:47:54 CET)
The feral mink population in Denmark consists of two groups of animals; mink born in the wild and mink that have recently escaped from farms. The aims of this study are; 1) to estimate the reproduction and mortality of wild-born and captive-born mink and 2) to estimate the age of mink based on the width of pulp cavity (% of tooth width) in the canine teeth. During 2018, 247 wild caught mink were sent for necropsy at the Danish National Veterinary Institute. Of these mink, 112 were determined as captive-born and 96 were determined wild-born. The mean litter size ± SE of wild-born females was 7.6 ± 0.9 (range: 5-11 kits) and for captive-born females 5.9 ± 0.9 (range: 1-10 kits). The best fitting regression line for mink age (in months) based on pulp width was y=0.42x2-11.52x+104.7, R² = 0.77, p< 0.0001. Individuals with a pulp cavity width <35% was found to be younger than one year. The turnover of mink caught in nature was estimated to 66% and the yearly mortality to 69%, therefore the population is slightly declining. In conclusion, a feral reproducing mink population in Denmark persists, besides the continues influx of captive-born mink escaped from farms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Critical illness; Osteoporosis; Bone turnover; Bone metabolism; Treatment
Online: 4 January 2022 (12:29:45 CET)
Critical illness has been recognized to acutely influence bone metabolism and, consequently, bone mineral density. The main purpose of this study was to describe bone metabolism changes in adult survivors of critical illness in the attempt to correlate changes with severity scores. It is an open, prospective, observational, monocentric study on patients admitted to the ICU was conducted, evaluating bone metabolism at baseline (within 72 hours of ICU admission), 6 months, and 12 months. Fifty-nine patients admitted to the ICU (63% males), mean age 58 ± 16 years, were enrolled. Of these, 20 patients (34%) completed the one-year follow up. At baseline, bone resorption showed an increase, which was maintained at 6 months, with normalization at 12 months. Patients showed, in a majority of cases, hypovitaminosis D with hyperparathyroidism at baseline with subsequent normalization. A trend towards a correlation was described between severity scores and serum 25(OH) vitamin D and bone turnover marker levels. These results contribute to the confirmation of a positive association between critical illness requiring ICU and bone metabolism changes. This study poses the bases for further studies to evaluate bone health in ICU patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0049.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Nurse Turnover; Machine Learning; SMOTE; NSSRN; Random Forest; XGoost
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:19:50 CET)
Predicting nurse turnover is a growing challenge within the healthcare sector, profoundly impacting healthcare quality and the nursing profession. This study employs the Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) to address class imbalance issues in the 2018 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) dataset and predict nurse turnover using machine learning (ML) algorithms. Four ML algorithms, namely logistic regression (LR), random forests (RF), decision tree (DT), and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost), are applied to the SMOTE-enhanced dataset. The data is randomly split into an 80% training set and a 20% validation set. Eighteen carefully selected variables from the NSSRN database serve as predictive features, and the machine learning model identifies feature importance concerning nurse turnover. The study includes a performance comparison based on metrics such as Accuracy, Precision, Recall (Sensitivity), F1-score, and AUC. In summary, the results demonstrate that SMOTE-enhanced random forests (SMOTE_RT) exhibit the most robust predictive power, both in the classical approach (with all 18 predictive variables) and an optimized approach (utilizing eight key predictive variables). XGBoost, decision tree, and logistic regression follow in performance. Notably, age emerges as the most influential factor in nurse turnover, with working hours, EHR/EMR usability, individual income, and region also playing significant roles. This research offers valuable insights for healthcare researchers and stakeholders, aiding in selecting suitable ML algorithms for nurse turnover prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2229.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Organizational commitment; turnover intention; theory of planned behavior; SMEs
Online: 30 June 2023 (14:34:05 CEST)
Purpose: For businesses of all sizes, turnover is a significant issue that has a detrimental impact on organizational performance. This study investigates the variables influencing SME workers' intentions to leave their current employers. This study also examines the moderating effect of organizational commitment on the relationships between attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and turnover intentions. Methodology: Six hypotheses were proposed regarding the connections between the initial TPB components and organizational commitment. Results: The PLS-SEM structural path analysis findings revealed that the three fundamental predictors of TPB significantly influence turnover intention, with perceived behavioral control most strongly influencing intention. Furthermore, the results revealed that organizational commitment moderated the relationship between TPB constructs and turnover intention. Practical Implications and Originality: This study used an extended TPB model to introduce fresh perspectives into the literature on SME workers' organizational commitment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0413.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CO2 turnover time; anthropogenic emissions; CO2 flux; global warming
Online: 17 January 2023 (02:24:26 CET)
Although total nett CO2 atmospheric flow can be estimated with reasonable accuracy, the contributing gross fluxes between the atmosphere and the earth's surface are poorly understood. This paper presents a method, driven by the objective of simplicity, by which the global outflow and inflow of CO2 between atmosphere and a globally equivalent "mixing reservoir" can be estimated, using the isotopes 14C and 13C as tracers. It has been asserted that the isotopic carbon in CO2 cannot be directly used as a tracer in flow studies because it is not subject to the Revelle factor. Evidence is provided showing that this view is mistaken. The model contains 7 key parameters which are used to create synthetic records of Δ14C and d13C spanning 200 years or more, including during the period of atmospheric weapons testing and its decay known as the "bomb pulse". By optimising the fit between these computed values and the historical records of d13C and Δ14C, all seven key parameters are determined. The effective "mixing reservoir" is thereby determined to have a size around six times that of the atmosphere, with global outflux rising from 39.7 GTC yr-1 in 1750 to 58.9 GTC/yr in 2020, this figure probably not including annually cycled carbon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0394.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: hippocampus; seahorse; diet switch; stable isotopes; turnover; discrimination factor
Online: 30 March 2022 (15:19:41 CEST)
The initial development of seahorse juveniles is characterized by low digestion capabilities. Stable isotope analysis is an effective tool in studies of trophic food webs and animal feeding patterns. The present study provides new insights for the understanding of growth and food assimilation in early developing seahorses following a laboratory diet switch. The study was performed in early life stages of the seahorse Hippocampus reidi by assessing the influence of diet shift on changes and turnovers in carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) stable isotope in juveniles. Newborn seahorses were fed for 60 days following two feeding schedules (A6 and A11) based initially on copepods Acartia tonsa and subsequently on Artemia nauplii (since days 6 and 11, respectively). After prey shift, we determined δ13C and δ15N turnover rates as functions of change in either body mass (fitting model G) and days of development (fitting model D), contributions of metabolism and growth to those turnover rates, and diet-tissue discrimination factors. Survival, final dry weight and final standard length for diet A11 were higher compared to diet A6. The shift from copepods to Artemia lead to fast initial enrichments in δ13C and δ15N. Afterwards, the enrichment was gradually reduced until reaching the isotopic equilibrium with diet. In most cases, both fitting models performed similarly. The isotopic analysis revealed that 100% of tissue turnover was attributed to growth in diet A11, whereas 19-25% was endorsed to metabolism in diet A6. Diet-tissue discrimination factors were estimated for the first time in seahorse juveniles, resulting in higher estimates for diet A11 (2.9 ± 0.7‰ for δ13C; 2.5 ± 0.2‰ for δ15N) than in diet A6 (1.8 ± 0.1‰ for δ13C; 1.9 ± 0.1‰ for δ15N). This study highlights the relevance of feeding on copepods and their effect on isotopic patterns and discrimination factors in seahorse juveniles after a dietary shift. Regarding the application of the results achieved to feeding schedules in the rearing of H. reidi, a long period of feeding on copepods during the first days of development is highly recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0274.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; bone turnover markers; leptin; body composition
Online: 21 June 2020 (14:33:41 CEST)
The link between scoliotic deformity and bone metabolism in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) has not been well researched. Moreover, the data concerning the cross-talk between fat tissue content/hormonal activity and bone markers in this group of patients are lacking. The objective of this study was to correlate the extent of scoliotic-curve severity with the bone turnover vs. leptin level and nutritional status in girls with AIS. The study encompassed 77 AIS girls, aged 14.7 ± 2.17 years. Scoliotic curve severity assessed by Cobb’s angle was categorized as mild (10-19o) moderate (20-39º) or severe (≥40º). Corrected height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI), corrected height Z-score, BMI Z-score and waist/height ratio (WHtR) were calculated for the entire group. Body composition parameters: fat mass (FAT), fat-free mass (FFM) and predicted muscle mass (PMM) were determined using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Bone turnover markers (osteocalcin (OC) and amino terminal of collagen cross-links NTx) and leptin levels were assessed in serum. Multiple regression analysis showed that, OC, NTx (negatively with p<0.05) and leptin (positively with p<0.01) were significantly associated with curve severity in AIS girls. Moreover, Cobb’s angle was positively correlated with W/HtR (p<0.01)and FAT (p<0.05). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant differences in leptin (p<0.05 vs. mild only), OC (p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate)) and W/HtR (p<0.01 and p<0.05 vs. mild and moderate respectively) between the three AIS severity subgroups. OC was significantly lower in the severe AIS subgroup, while leptin and W/HtR were significantly higher. Significant correlations between leptin and anthropometrical parameters as BMI z-score and W/HtR were shown. Leptin level correlated also significantly with BMI z score (p<0.001), W/HtR (p<0.0001) and body composition parameters (p<0.000001). Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between NTx and leptin level (p<0.05). Bone metabolism in AIS girls seems to be altered and significantly related to the scoliotic curve severity. Leptin may be a crucial link in the cross-talk between bone turnover and body composition in this group of patients. Further studies concerning this topic are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0362.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: employee retention; employee turnover; client embeddedness; human resource management
Online: 28 November 2019 (11:22:28 CET)
The employee turnover literature to date is teeming with process models that assume only organizational and personal factors contribute to employees’ intentions to leave and stay. However, with the average percentage variance explained still only around 50%, it is clear that other factors play a substantial role in these decision-making processes. One possible explanation is to explore the unique role that clients play in employees’ intentions to stay or leave. This paper extends the conceptualization of the role that clients play on employee’s intentions to stay and leave their roles, particularly within service industries such as health care. This paper presents the results of two qualitative studies that examine employees’ decision-making process for turnover and retention intentions. The first study explores the factors influencing employees’ intentions to stay and leave the Australian aged care sector (N = 420) and the second study explores prison health care nurses in the United States (N = 175). The results of both studies reveal that client-related factors affect the choice to stay within a job and, in some cases, are the favoured aspect of the role. Therefore encouraging client-staff relationships will expand job satisfaction and therefore increase retention of employees within both contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0314.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: political skill; job satisfaction; turnover intention; popularity; positive affect; negative affect
Online: 26 December 2018 (12:16:31 CET)
From the perspective of individual resource and social capital, this paper aims to explain how employees’ political skill affect their job satisfaction and turnover intention, through the mediating role of popularity. Using a sample of 237 dyad surveys from supervisors and employees in the Yangtze River Delta of China, we found that: 1) political skill is positively correlated with job satisfaction and negatively correlated with turnover intention, and that these correlations are partially mediated by individual popularity; 2) positive affect (PA) moderates the relationship between political skill and job satisfaction, and negative affect (NA) moderates the relationship between political skill and turnover intention. The implications of our findings and future research directions are discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2106.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: Caribbean mangroves; origin; evolution; turnover; diversification; fossil pollen; Eocene; Oligocene; Miocene; Pliocene
Online: 1 November 2023 (03:11:44 CET)
Recently, the evolutionary history of the Caribbean mangroves has been reconsidered using partial palynological databases organized by the time intervals of interest, namely Late Cretaceous to Eocene for the origin, Eocene-Oligocene transition for major turnover and Neogene to Quaternary for diversification. These discussions have been published in a set of sequential papers but the raw information remains unknown. This paper reviews all the information available and provides the first comprehensive and updated compilation of the abovementioned partial databases. This compilation is called CARMA-F (CARibbean MAngroves-Fossil) and includes nearly 90 localities from the present and past Caribbean coasts, ranging from the Late Cretaceous to the Pliocene. Details on the Quaternary localities (CARMA-Q) will be published later. CARMA-F lists and illustrates the fossil pollen from past mangrove taxa and their extant representatives, and includes a map of the studied localities and a conventional spreadsheet with the raw data. The compilation is the most complete available for the study of the origin, evolution and diversification of Caribbean mangroves, and is open to modifications for adapting it to the particular interests of each researcher.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0233.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: primary and middle school teachers; justice; organizational justice; salary satisfaction; turnover intention; China
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:45:37 CEST)
Primary and middle school teachers are a critical part of China’s foundational education; teacher turnover heavily affects the stable development of foundational education. In this study, interviews with 20 teachers found that relatively low income, high work pressure, unfair distribution, and difficulty in achieving promotion to higher professional titles are the main reasons for teacher turnover intention. This study investigates 485 primary and middle school teachers from Zhejiang and Jiangsu provinces. We found that primary and middle school teachers reported intense feelings of unfairness about their distribution of income. Their salary satisfaction was low, and the ratio of turnover intention was high. The main reasons for teachers’ high turnover intentions were low income, high pressure from work, unfair distribution, and the difficulty of achieving professional title promotion. To lower teachers’ turnover intentions, China should raise teachers’ income appropriately and increase the number of teachers with high professional titles. Schools should improve procedural, distributive, and interactive justice. Teachers should adjust their income references and perceptions of fairness. This situation can be effectively resolved only if all parties work hard to make positive changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0418.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: herbicide efficacy; glutamine synthetase; reactive oxygen species; enzyme turnover; mode of action; Palmer amaranth
Online: 19 July 2021 (16:10:12 CEST)
Glufosinate, a glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor, often provides variable weed control depending on environmental conditions such as light, temperature and humidity at the time of application. Midday applications normally provide improved efficacy compared to applications at dawn or dusk. We investigated the physiological, molecular, and biochemical basis for the time-of-day effect on glufosinate efficacy in Amaranthus palmeri. GS1 and GS2 gene expression and protein abundance were assessed in different parts (young leaves, old leaves, and roots) of plants incubated in the dark compared to those in the light. The turnover of GS total activity was also evaluated overtime following glufosinate treatment at midday compared to dusk application. The results suggest that GS in A. palmeri is less expressed and less abundant in the dark compared to in the light. Midday application of glufosinate under intense light conditions in the hours following application provide full control of A. palmeri plants. Consequently, these plants are unable to recover GS activity by de novo protein synthesis. Full activity of GS is required for complete inhibition by the irreversible inhibitor glufosinate. Therefore, glufosinate applications should always be performed in the middle of the day when sunlight is intense, to prevent weed escapes from the herbicide treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0299.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: commuting stress; turnover intention; life satisfaction; mediation model; demographics; ANOVA; hierarchical regression; bootstrap; Turkey
Online: 17 July 2018 (09:49:16 CEST)
Using hierarchical regression analysis within a mediation model framework, the present study explores direct and indirect (through life satisfaction) causal impacts of commuting stress on turnover intention of employees from 29 business organizations in six populous cities of Turkey. A semi-random heterogeneous sample of 214 employees with different demographics was surveyed in winter and summer times for also capturing seasonal variations of variables. The results supporting the partial mediating role of life satisfaction in the positive relationship between commuting stress and turnover intention infer that commuting stress induces turnover intention directly and indirectly (by reducing life satisfaction). The analysis of variance reveals that demographic characteristics of employees such as gender, marital status, age, and family size together with commuting type and commuting duration matter for their perceived commuting stress, life satisfaction, and turnover intention levels. Commuting stress perception is relatively higher in summer time whereas the other magnitudes are consistently and significantly invariant between two survey implementations. The study concludes with a call for the consideration of commuting stress and life satisfaction together with environmental and demographic factors when analyzing the antecedents and consequences of employee turnover intention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0036.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Organizational loyalty, human resource management practices, structural equation modeling, employee turnover and employee retention
Online: 6 October 2017 (10:00:34 CEST)
The role of human resource management practices and organizational loyalty dealing with employee retention has been widely explored and examined in the existing literature. The majority of human resource management researchers have focused on the role of policies and practices in different sectors related to employee retention. However, less attention has been given to identifying the practices and procedures common across all industries and sectors. The present study attempts to determine and examine the most important constructs like HR practices and organizational loyalty of employee retention management and proposes a comprehensive structural equation model to measure the impact of these constructs on employee retention. After an extensive review of the literature, organizational loyalty, and human resources management practices like recruitment and selection, compensation and benefit, training and development, supervision and evaluation have been identified as four essential practices dealing with employee retention and are common across all industries. These practices constitute the component factors of an employee retention management predicting employee’s turnover intentions. The survey method was adopted, and the original data obtained through the self-administered questionnaire. The valid one hundred and eighty-nine (189) respondents analyzed by using Lisrel 8.7, Structural equation model (SEM) analysis results shows that human resource management practices and organizational loyalty have strong positive impact on employee retention. This study tends to assist human resource managers and decision makers in selecting the appropriate motivating factors to retain and satisfy their employees
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0144.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: job satisfaction; physicians; turn-over intention; turnover intention; teamwork; skills shortage; interview study; repertory grids
Online: 8 December 2022 (04:18:02 CET)
Job satisfaction has a strong impact on the intention to stay which is an important aspect to counter skills shortage in academic medicine. In an interview study combining qualitative and quantitative methods we investigated how the mental representation of working conditions influences job satisfaction and its impact on the intention to stay. In a first study chief physicians participated in interviews about job satisfaction in academic hospitals. Answers were segmented into statements, ordered by topics and rated according to their valence. In a second study assistant physicians (residents) during and after their training period talked about strength, weaknesses and potential improvements of working conditions. Again, answers were segmented, ordered, rated and used to develop a ‘job satisfaction scale’. In a third study, assistant physicians participated in a computer-led repertory grid procedure composing ‘mental maps’ of job satisfaction factors, filled in the job satisfaction scale and rated if they would recommend work and training in their clinic as well as their intention to stay. Comparing the interview results with recommendation rates and intention to stay show that a negative attitude is linked to high workload and poor career perspectives. A positive attitude towards work environment and high intention to stay are linked to sufficient personnel and technical capacities, reliable duty scheduling and fair salaries. The third study using repertory grids showed that the perception of current teamwork and future developments concerning work environment were the main aspects to improve job satisfaction and the intention to stay. The results of the interview studies were used to develop an array of adaptive improvement measure. The results support prior findings that job dissatisfaction is mostly based on generally known “hygiene factors” and whereas job satisfaction is due to individual aspects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0008.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Sustainable dryland farming; clay soil amendment; soil water use; organic matter; enzyme activity; nutrient turnover
Online: 1 March 2022 (08:27:33 CET)
Degraded soils causing from natural and human affects are universal in arid and semi-arid regions all over the world. Bentonite and humic acid (BHA) are increasingly being tested to remediate these degraded lands with potential benefits on crop production and soil health. The objective of this paper was to determine the residual effects four to five years after a one-time BHA application at six rates on (i) dynamic changes in soil properties, and (ii) oat crop productivity parameters, in a dryland farming ecosystem. With increasing rates of one-time BHA application, soil profile water storage displayed a piecewise linear increase plus plateau, whereas soil electrical conductivity, pH and bulk density were all reduced significantly (P < 0.05) in the 0-20 cm and 20-60 cm layers. The improved soil environments gave rise to an increased activity of soil enzymes urease, invertase and catalase that respectively reached the peak values of 97%, 37% and 32% at the rates of 21 to 24 Mg BHA ha-1. These conversely boosted soil nutrient turnover, leading to a 40% higher soil available P. Compared with the control treatment, application of BHA at the estimated optimum rate (roughly 24 Mg ha-1) increased grain yield by 20%, protein yield by 62%, water use efficiency by 41%, and partial factor productivity of N by 20%. Results of this study showed for the first time that a one-time BHA application would be a new and effective strategy to combat land degradation, drought, and promote a sustainable soil micro-ecological environment in dryland agroecosystem under a varying climate scenario.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0607.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: catalysis; kinetics; time; biological macromolecular enzyme; large biological macro-substrate; catalytic step; catalytic efficiency; turnover number
Online: 16 November 2020 (08:28:55 CET)
Classical enzyme kinetics are summarized and linked with modern discoveries here. The time course of sequential catalytic events by biological macromolecular enzyme is analyzed at the molecular level; the relationships between catalytic efficiency (turnover number), catalytic rate/velocity, the amount of time taken and physical/biochemical conditions of the system are discussed. This writing tries to connect the microscopic molecular behavior of enzyme to kinetic data obtained in experiment, and the hypothesis proposed here provide an interpretation to previous experimental observations and can be testified by future experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0041.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: employee turnover; perceived external prestige; organizational justice; job satisfaction; organizational commitment; extrinsic rewards; career advancement; constituent attachments
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:29:48 CET)
The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has established itself as the medical device industry’s preferred regional center. Major multinational corporations either have a regional subsidiary or are planning to open up a principal office in the UAE to expand their business. Employees in the industry are in high demand as new opportunities open up frequently and that causes challenges to companies, namely employee turnover. This research helps bridge the gap found in the literature by investigating the factors that impact employee turnover in the medical device industry in the UAE. These factors were tested with their subsequent sub-factors. Using a quantitative approach, the study surveyed 230 participants from 47 medical device companies in the UAE. The result of one-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant relationship between employee salary and employee turnover. The linear regression analysis was statistically significant between perceived external prestige, location, flextime, organizational justice, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, extrinsic rewards, career advancement, lack of alternatives, constituent attachments, and employee turnover. These findings indicate the need for a strategy utilizing these factors for existing and new medical device companies in the UAE to prevent high employee turnover or limit it at least.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0899.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: job exhaustion; primary prevention; leader-member exchange theory; job demands-resourses model; work adjustment theory; turnover intention; job satisfaction
Online: 14 November 2023 (09:43:30 CET)
Combining the Job Demands-Resourses model and the Work Adjustment theory, this research aims to create a theoretical model that considers Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Work Adjustment as protective factors, capable of reducing job exhaustion and turnover intention. A convenience sample of 257 Italian employees filled an online self-report questionnaire. A sequential mediation model was tested, which showed that the relationship between LMX and turnover intention is mediated by Work Adjustment and Job Exhaustion. The results show that the higher the LMX, the higher the work adjustment of the workers and the less they will perceive job exhaustion and, consequently, intent to leave the organisation. With a view to primary prevention, the aim was to investigate possible protective factors at work and the risk factors to look out for in order to move in the direction of preventing a malaise phenomenon before it develops with the aim of promoting wellbeing in organisations.