Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Biochemical Basis for the Time-of-day Effect on Glufosinate Efficacy Against Amaranthus palmeri

Version 1 : Received: 16 July 2021 / Approved: 19 July 2021 / Online: 19 July 2021 (16:10:12 CEST)

How to cite: Takano, H.K.; Dayan, F.E. Biochemical Basis for the Time-of-day Effect on Glufosinate Efficacy Against Amaranthus palmeri. Preprints 2021, 2021070418 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0418.v1). Takano, H.K.; Dayan, F.E. Biochemical Basis for the Time-of-day Effect on Glufosinate Efficacy Against Amaranthus palmeri. Preprints 2021, 2021070418 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202107.0418.v1).

Abstract

Glufosinate, a glutamine synthetase (GS) inhibitor, often provides variable weed control depending on environmental conditions such as light, temperature and humidity at the time of application. Midday applications normally provide improved efficacy compared to applications at dawn or dusk. We investigated the physiological, molecular, and biochemical basis for the time-of-day effect on glufosinate efficacy in Amaranthus palmeri. GS1 and GS2 gene expression and protein abundance were assessed in different parts (young leaves, old leaves, and roots) of plants incubated in the dark compared to those in the light. The turnover of GS total activity was also evaluated overtime following glufosinate treatment at midday compared to dusk application. The results suggest that GS in A. palmeri is less expressed and less abundant in the dark compared to in the light. Midday application of glufosinate under intense light conditions in the hours following application provide full control of A. palmeri plants. Consequently, these plants are unable to recover GS activity by de novo protein synthesis. Full activity of GS is required for complete inhibition by the irreversible inhibitor glufosinate. Therefore, glufosinate applications should always be performed in the middle of the day when sunlight is intense, to prevent weed escapes from the herbicide treatment.

Subject Areas

herbicide efficacy; glutamine synthetase; reactive oxygen species; enzyme turnover; mode of action; Palmer amaranth

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