ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0557.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:28:53 CET)
The Umbulan Water Supply Project is categorized by the Shipping Infrastructure Acceleration Committee in the list of Accelerated National Strategic Projects through Presidential Regulation Number 3 of 2016 concerning the Acceleration of the Implementation of National Strategic Projects, targeted to operate in mid-2019. This is what will be the focus of the stakeholders of the Umbulan Water Supply Project. This study was to identifying and analyzing networks among stakeholders. Method: This study used a qualitative approach with exploratory methods combined with meta-analysis identification design Identification of stakeholder mapping in the context of early detection of stakeholder involvement in the implementation of the Umbulan Water Supply Project at various levels starting from the National, Provincial (East Java), District/City (Pasuruan, Sidoarjo, Surabaya, to Gresik), Sub-District (Winongan, Gondang Wetan, and Pohtjentrek). The conclusion of this study was based on in-depth interviews and focus group discussions in describing the determination of stakeholders which were divided into two, namely primary stakeholder and secondary stakeholder, and outline the result of the indicators analysis on the stakeholder network of Umbulan Water Supply Project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; value co-creation; business sustainability; stakeholder
Online: 8 August 2022 (04:09:12 CEST)
As a typical form of value co-creation, crowdsourcing has been increasingly applied by firms to generate business value. By engaging a crowd, a platform, and other stakeholders, a crowdsourcer can foster the co-creation of a portfolio of value for diverse stakeholders. In analyzing the value co-creation in crowdsourcing, we propose a framework by combining the theories and frameworks in value co-creation and crowdsourcing. The framework examines the key stakeholders, joint purpose, engaged value co-creation processes, contributions, bidirectional relationships of the engagement, and perceived value, exhibiting a holistic view of the value co-creation in a crowdsourcing project. Results of the analysis reveal the business performance of the crowdsourcing project and identify areas of improvement regarding business sustainability. This is a major theoretical contribution of this study. The research design applied a case study approach to empirically investigate a crowdsourcing project. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0250.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: innovation platform; ecosystem; stakeholder engagement; challenge landscapes
Online: 12 July 2021 (11:48:45 CEST)
Background: South Africa’s public healthcare sector is overburdened, especially its under-resourced primary healthcare delivery system. This burden could be relieved by alleviating the population’s ill-health, focusing on the social determinants of health. These include living conditions and levels of social cohesion. In an attempt to address the aforementioned ‘challenge landscape’, this article considers socio-economic empowerment of those marginalised members of society living at the base of the pyramid (BOP) to improve factors contributing to poor health. We propose that Innovation Platforms (IPs) offer opportunities to achieve this by drawing diverse stakeholders together, which should include marginalised individuals, to pool resources and knowledge and collaborate around a specific set of challenges. Method: A Grounded Theory approach is utilised to develop the framework comprising concept definition from a systemized literature review. It is evaluated through various progressive stages through three phases of evaluation: 1) the initial framework was subjected to scrutiny in a theoretical case study, 2) a first-pass semi-structured interview and later four more semi-structured interviews with subject matter experts, and 3) an instrumental case study to refine the framework and to understand its application in a particular situation (this included four stakeholder interviews and a workshop and feedback session with the project champion). Results: This article contributes to the extant literature by addressing the lack of guidance on stakeholder engagement practices critical to the proper functioning of IPs in the context of overcoming the complex challenges associated with social determinants of health. The final output of the study is a refined management tool for stakeholder engagement in IPs. The tool provides practical recommendations to support policy makers, researchers and practitioners in 1) establishing IPs, 2) identifying areas for improvement and 3) identifying reasons for an IP’s failure and lessons to learn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0044.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Agricultural information, smart-mobile, stakeholder farmers, Sudan
Online: 3 September 2018 (15:12:49 CEST)
The access to agricultural information in Sudan continues to be challenging to farmers due to use of inadequate sources and traditional extension approaches. The rapid growth of smart-mobile phones usage in developing countries resulted in several advantages compared to other alternatives in term of costs, geographic coverage and ease of use. This research was conducted in North Kordofan Sate to explore the role of smart-mobile phone in accessing agricultural information. Primary data were obtained by structured questionnaires and focus group discussion through participatory rural appraisal and observation while secondary data were collected from scientific journals, books and authenticated web sources. A number of 230 respondents (10% from total farmers) were interviewed and five focus group discussions were done. Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) version 22 was used to analyze the data with aid of descriptive statistics and Chi-squire Test. The result indicated that most of the respondents fall in age group between 21-40 years, and they depend on farm activity. There was 90% of farmers processed mobile phone since more than three years ago, 90.8%continuedto use smart mobile phone to access agricultural information and showed positive contribution towards income generation. The results also revealed that there was positive perception towards using mobile phones which showed more efficient in use than radio and TVs. The results showed great advantages of using smart mobile phone where 75.2 % of respondents preferred to get agricultural information, logistics and other needs through successful communication in the mid of agricultural season. Results of Chi-squire test showed significant differences between the parameters tested. The study recommended that farmers should be connected with mobile phones to admit ease communication with agricultural extension offices and quick access to their needs and logistics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0441.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Sustainability reporting; NGOs; stakeholder theory; Africa; NGO participation
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:46:29 CEST)
There is growing adoption of corporate sustainability practice in both for-profit and not-for-profit organizations. This proliferation is largely due to the increasing concerns for social, environmental and economic factors in which we assume shared responsibility. Despite the growing attention of researchers and practitioners, several corporations failed to meet their sustainability responsibilities. Several reasons could be associated to this phenomenon such as lack of regulatory mechanism, accountability, etc. This review, however, seeks to examine how nongovernmental organizations (henceforth, NGOs) influence corporate sustainability adoption (i.e. sustainability reporting). In the review of prior research, we leveraged the institutional-legitimacy and corporate governance theories. The findings suggest that NGOs have greater potential in sustainability discourse through two salient actions, namely (1) collaborative partnership, and (2) confrontational tactics. While the former promotes stakeholder involvement in corporate decision making through dialogue, joint-projects on CSR, sustainability reporting, the latter, however, is the last resort – involving “naming and shaming” corporations for poor social and environmental performance through public and social media. The objective of such action is to cause reputational damage to businesses. Finally, it is also observed that crucial to NGO power and influence is the collaboration with government and civil society organizations in the fight for environmental sustainability and accountability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0607.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: deliberate biological events; stakeholder mapping; preparedness and response
Online: 31 July 2018 (06:14:05 CEST)
Background: Recent infectious disease outbreaks have brought increased attention to strengthening the capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to natural biological threats. However, deliberate biological events also represent a significant global threat that have received relatively little attention. The Biological Weapons Convention provides a foundation for the response to deliberate biological events, but the political mechanisms to respond to and recover from such an event are poorly defined. Methods: We performed an analysis of the epidemiological timeline, the international policies triggered as a notional deliberate biological event unfolds, and the corresponding stakeholders and mandates assigned by each mandate. Findings: The results of this analysis identify a significant gap in both policy and stakeholder mandates: there is no single policy nor stakeholder mandate for leading and coordinating the response activities associated with a deliberate biological event. These results were visualized using an open source web-based tool published at https://dbe.talusanalytics.com. Interpretation: While there are organizations and stakeholders responsible for roles in leading security or public health response, these roles are non-overlapping and are led by organizations not with limited interaction outside such events. The lack of mandates highlights a gap in the mechanisms available to coordinate response and a gap in guidance for managing the response. The results of the analysis corroborate anecdotal evidence from stakeholder meetings and highlight a critical need and gap in deliberate biological response policy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0101.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: biodiversity conservation, livelihood, co-management, stakeholder, law enforcement
Online: 18 November 2016 (15:20:07 CET)
Despite of being an exceptionally biodiversity rich country, the forest coverage of Bangladesh is declining at an alarming rate. Declaration and management of protected areas in this regard is one of the efforts from government side to tackle the loss of biodiversity. The limited numbers of forest-protected areas (FPA), established to conserve the dwindling forest biodiversity of the country with high pressure on them for timber, non-timber forest products, and fuelwood - makes their management challenging. Moreover, most of the FPAs of the country declared only in the recent decades with very limited infrastructure, manpower and policy support for monitoring and governance. Some people-centred approaches for the management of FPAs and alternative livelihood and income generation subsidies although made available through a few project interventions, their number are still inadequate and performance remains less than satisfactory. This chapter provides a critical review of the FPAs of Bangladesh looking at their role in biodiversity conservation, management challenges, and key lessons from previous management interventions with recommendations for the future. It has been revealed that the FPA system of Bangladesh still poorly represents the diverse forest ecosystems with relatively small forest size and lack of corridors for the movement of wildlife. There are ample opportunities to render co-management of FPAs an effective strategy to minimize the conflicts in FPAs management in the country. It is, however, important to ensure the access of local forest-dependent people to different alternative income generating options that may adequately support their livelihoods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0480.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: push-pull technology; stemborers; stakeholder interaction; social learning; Ethiopia
Online: 22 October 2018 (08:18:22 CEST)
Stemborer pests contribute to significant maize crop yield loses incurred by the smallholder famers in Ethiopia. The problem requires requires concerted effort to learn and adopt new innovations to find a long lasting solution. In this study, the on-farm implementation of the push-pull technology (PPT) was used as a platform for interaction and enhancing the social learning among the stakeholders in the maize growing Woredas of Bako Tibe, Jimma Arjo and Yayu in the Oromia region. The main stakeholders were the smallholder maize farmers, researchers and the extension staffs. The study took place between August 2014 to May 2015. The PPT is a biological based strategy addresses the stemborer pest problem in maize crop. Under the strategy, maize crop is intercropped with a stemborer moth repellent fodder legume, Desmodium (the push) together with an attractant trap plant, Napier/Brachiaria grass (the pull) planted around maize-legume intercrop. The study was implemented based on the transdisciplinary action research approach and qualitative data collected during focus group discussions, key informant interviews, stakeholder workshops, participant observations and on-farm PPT demonstrations. The findings show that, the involvement of different stakeholders in joint PPT activities in an interactive environment is an innovation in itself. It creates opportunities for the stakeholders’ empowerment as well as deliberating on the contributions from each other to overcome uncertainties about the technology and create new knowledge. The intercropping strategy of maize with Desmodium and Napier/Brachiaria is used to reintroduce the traditional mixed cropping system of smallholder agriculture as strategy for control of pests.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: SACDM; SOS; SQA; key factors software quality assurance; Scrum; stakeholder
Online: 9 December 2019 (07:37:30 CET)
The main moto of this study is to examine and study on behavior of Software Quality Assurance (SQA) issues of project stakeholders in a Scrum environment and their consequences. This inductive case study identifies SQA principles relevant to Meeting User Expectations. The Stakeholders in the Scrum project having lack of Concrete Guidance on Scrum’s SQA approaches, methods, and techniques. The insufficiency of concrete guidelines in Scrum needs a management squad to develop concepts that can include implementing practices from other methodologies and wisely modifying the system structure to incorporate the practices adopted, ensuring improvement in the processes, and creating a shared ownership environment. Through explaining the incompleteness of Agile approaches with special attention to the lack of concrete instructions in Scrum, the study uses techniques to customize literature and advocate for Scrum’s versatility. The study uses strategies to adapt literature and argue for Scrum’s simplicity by illustrating the incompleteness of Agile approaches with special attention to the lack of concrete instructions in Scrum methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: energy policy; stakeholder requirements; adaptive/transformative; heat decarbonisation; energy system architecture
Online: 1 September 2022 (09:15:02 CEST)
It is a truism that whole energy system models underpin the development of policies for energy system decarbonisation. But recent reviews have thrown doubt on the appropriateness of such models for addressing the multiple goals for future energy systems, in the face of emergent real-world complexity and the evolution of stakeholder’s priorities. Without an understanding of the changing priorities of policy makers and expectations of stakeholders for future systems, system objectives and constraints are likely to be ill-defined, and there is a risk that models may be inadvertently instrumentalised. Adopting a system architecture perspective, the authors have undertaken a three-year programme of research to explore strategies for decarbonising heat in the UK, with interaction with and elicitation of needs from stakeholders at its heart. This paper presents the procedure, methods, and results of an exercise in which experts from stakeholder organisations across the energy system were interviewed. Analysis of interview data reveals two broad approaches to heat decarbonisation which can be broadly defined as either adaptive or transformative. Specific insights gained from these interviews enabled our modelling teams to refocus their work for exploration with a wider circle of stakeholders. Results suggests that this iterative approach to formalising model-policy interaction could improve the transparency and legitimacy of modelling and enhance its impact on policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0360.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Corporate social responsibility, corporate governance, stakeholder engagement, sustainability, sustainable development goals.
Online: 16 May 2021 (21:30:41 CEST)
Cooperative organizations try to balance economic viability and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) management through strategic policies that involve dialogue, participation and engagement with stakeholders. To measure the impact of CSR management, the electricity sector implements monitoring processes and models, such as the Sustainability Reporting Standards of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI), which measure contributions to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. This research analyses the strategic management of CSR in the 28 electric cooperatives that market electricity in Spain with the aim of determining their level of commitment to CSR and stakeholder participation in their corporate policies. The analysis is based on the descriptive-exploratory study of the whole population of electric cooperatives. The results indicate that the CSR management of most electric cooperatives is still in an emerging stage within the Value Curve. Importantly, there is a significant percentage of cooperatives that have already advanced towards the consolidating and institutionalized stages. However, most of these social-economy organizations are not developing programs that link their CSR strategies with their priority SDGs and sustainability as commitment to their community.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0386.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: multi-stakeholder processes; sustainability transformations; sense-making; strategy; theory of change
Online: 30 November 2019 (09:52:47 CET)
The commonly used words ‘transformation’ and ‘transition’ tend to lose their edge when used for any significant change process as is rather often the case. Partners and wider stakeholders in initiatives related to ‘sustainability transitions’ therefore often entertain different perspectives on what the strategic orientation of an initiative is or is meant to be. Common planning and design processes such as situation analysis and theories of change, however, often do not sufficiently cater to this dynamic. As a result, different actors may be pulling the initiative in different directions, undermining the overall partnership efforts. In this short contribution a strategic scoping canvas and an associated facilitation process are presented as a way of addressing such situations. Illustrations are provided of initial application in three cases related to food system transitions in Peru, Ethiopia, and Bangladesh, exploring the connectivity with approaches commonly used in the context of system transformations, including the Multi-Level Perspective on sustainability transitions, the Leverage Points approach, Capability Approach, and the theory of Large System Change. We conclude that the canvas and associated facilitation approach has proved useful in different contexts, offering opportunities for complementing existing methodologies, and potentially enhancing their efficacy in facilitated multi-stakeholder processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0036.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: patient engagement; stakeholder engagement; patient group engagement; prioritization tool; patient engagement activities
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:15:23 CEST)
Patient group engagement is increasingly used to inform the design, conduct, and dissemination of clinical trials and other medical research activities. However, the priorities of industry sponsors and patient groups differ, and there is currently no framework to help these groups identify mutually beneficial engagement activities. Methods: We conducted 28 qualitative, semi-structured interviews with representatives from research sponsor organizations (n=14) and patient groups (n=14) to determine: 1) how representatives define benefits and investments of patient group engagement in medical product development and, 2) to refine a list of 31 predefined patient group engagement activities. Results: Patient group and sponsor representatives described similar benefits: engagement activities can enhance the quality and efficiency of clinical trials by improving patient recruitment and retention, reduce costs, and help trials meet expectations of regulators and payers. All representatives indicated that investments include both dedicated staff time and expertise, and financial resources. Factors to consider when evaluating benefits and investments were also identified as were suggestions for clarifying the list of engagement activities. Discussion: Using these findings, we refined the 31 engagement activities to 24 unique activities across the medical product development lifecycle. We also developed a web-based prioritization tool (https://prioritizationtool.ctti-clinicaltrials.org/) to help clinical research sponsors and patient groups identify high priority engagement activities. Use of this tools can help sponsors and patient groups identify the engagement activities that they believe will provide the most benefit for the least investment and may lead to more meaningful and mutually beneficial partnerships in medical product development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0277.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: socioecological systems; water ecosystem services; participatory mapping; stakeholder values; spatial analysis; river basin
Online: 13 September 2020 (11:43:38 CEST)
Reductions in water availability and increasing rainfall variability are generating a narrative of growing competition for water in the Mediterranean basin. In this article, we explore the distribution and importance of water resources in the Muga River Basin (Catalonia, Spain) based on key stakeholders’ perceptions. We performed a sociocultural evaluation of the main water ecosystem services in the region through stakeholder interviews and participatory mapping. The basin was generally perceived as a hotspot of ecosystem services, but we detected varying opinions and considerable differences in the perceptions of importance and spatial distribution of water ecosystem services. These discrepancies were linked to the varying levels of stakeholders’ dependence on water. Our findings are important for contributing to correct water planning and management in the river basin, which is a complex water social system marked by conflicts between different stakeholder groups vying for the same resource. This complex situation requires bottom-up strategies to create transparent, participatory decision-making models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0249.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Land system science; governance; natural resource management; resource conflict; conservation; development; stakeholder en-gagement; ecosystem management; wicked problems
Online: 15 August 2022 (04:35:26 CEST)
Integrated landscape approaches (ILA) aim to reconcile multiple, often competing, interests across agriculture, nature conservation, and other land uses. Recognized ILA design principles provide guidance for their implementation, yet application remains challenging, and a strong performance evidence-base is yet to be formed. A comprehensive literature review and focus group discussions with practitioners identified considerable diversity of ILA in actors, temporal, and spatial scales, inter alia. This diversity hampers learning from and steering these integrated planning approaches because of its intractable nature. Therefore, we developed a tool—an ‘ILA mixing board’—to structure the complexity of ILA into selectable and scalable attributes in a replicable way to allow planning, diagnostics, and comparative assessment of ILA. The ILA mixing board tool presents seven qualifiers, each representing a key attribute of ILA design and performance such as project flexibility, inclusiveness of the dialogue, and the centrality of the power distribution. Each qualifier has five (non-normative) outcome indicators that can be registered as present or absent. This process in turn guides planners, evaluators and other participating stakeholders involved in landscape management to diagnose the ILA type, and or its performance. We apply the ILA mixing board as a diagnostic tool to three ILA cases in Nicaragua, Madagascar, and the Congo Basin to show some of the many possible configurations of qualifiers on the mixing board. Overall, the tool allows comparative analyses of the complexity of ILA in a structured and manageable way.