REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0564.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: psychiatric disorders; neuroimaging; biochemical; pain; pain biomarkers
Online: 21 June 2021 (16:39:16 CEST)
According to the literature, patients with chronic pain and mental disorders constitute a huge, heterogeneous group. However, it is known that social and psychological processes closely affect the level and expression of chronic pain. In this paper, we present a review of the literature, define methods of identifying pain biomarkers and consider the possibility of using them to assess pain in mental disorders. Group researchers searched PubMed, Scope, and Cochrane databases for "pain biomarkers in mental disorders" between 2011 and 2021. for available databases for full-text, peer-reviewed studies and review publications using the following keywords: pain biomarkers, neuroimaging pain, pain metabolomics, pain and psychiatric disorders, pain electroencephalography (EEG), serum pain biomarkers, saliva biomarkers, and diagnosis pain. The search included full-text articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, and systematic reviews. Was used part of the PRISMA method to review the literature systematically. A literature search identified 283 studies based on the initially set inclusion and exclusion criteria. In the subsequent selection stages, 11 studies were selected for analysis. There are three main areas of the possible use of biomarkers for the clinical assessment of pain in psychiatric patients, neuroimaging, changes in metabolite levels in body fluids, and changes in gene expression. As a result of the review, individual pain mediators were distinguished that may be markers of pain in psychiatric patients. Some mediators indicate the specificity of pain and are of diagnostic importance. However, despite significant advances in research, most of the described biomarkers found in clinical trials assessing the severity and frequency of pain have no practical significance in psychiatric disorders. It is possible to diagnose pain based on neuroimaging using various methods, genetic methods, body fluids: blood and urine. Of the many, body fluid biomarkers are the most advanced. Discussion: Biomarker research is a dynamically developing field. The review has proposed new ways to diagnose pain by identifying pain biomarkers. Work presented pain diagnostics in psychiatric disorders based on biomarkers from various neuroimaging methods, blood and urine analysis. The possibility of new, effective techniques gives hope for the correct diagnosis of pain, especially in patients with mental disorders, which would allow for appropriate and adequate therapeutic therapies. In clinical practice is limited to a few methods. Assessment of pain biomarkers in body fluids (serum, saliva, and urine) seems to be the most practical and promising method of clinical application. Conclusions: There are new techniques that give hope for the correct diagnosis of pain, especially in patients with mental disorders, which will allow for their proper and adequate therapy. According to the literature, patients with chronic pain and mental disorders constitute a huge, heterogeneous group. However, it is known that social and psychological processes closely affect the level and expression of chronic pain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0775.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Juvenile detainees; psychiatric disorder; conduct disorder
Online: 12 October 2023 (05:38:23 CEST)
Background and Objectives: High rates of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities have been reported in juvenile detainees which have been associated with repeat offenses. However, research on this topic has been limited to Asian countries. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and sexual differences among juvenile detainees in a detention center in South Korea. Materials and Method: The participants comprised 54 males and 46 females, with a minimum intelligence score of 80. Psychiatric diagnosis was determined using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID). The Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Version 2 (MAYSI-2) was used to investigate gender differences. Results: Using the MINI-KID, the most frequent diseases were conduct disorder (CD), alcohol dependence, suicidal tendency, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with statistically significant differences between men and women. Only alcohol abuse was higher in men while the rest were higher in women. The items with a statistically significant gender difference in MAYSI-2, were alcohol/drug use, feeling depressed/anxious, somatic complaints, suicidal ideation, and traumatic experience. All items for which the gender difference was statistically significant were higher in the proportion of women. Conclusions: Juvenile detainees exhibit high rates of psychiatric disorders and comorbidities. CDs, alcohol dependence and ADHD are the most common psychiatric disorders among juvenile detainees in South Korea. Assessment of and intervention in psychiatric disorders may help prevent further offenses. These findings highlight the importance of diagnosing and intervening in psychiatric disorders within juvenile detention systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0607.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Psychiatric comorbidity; Mexican population; Eating disorders
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:03:03 CET)
(1) Background: The prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among the patients with mental disorders is higher than general population. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of comorbid psychiatric disorders among a Mexican adolescent sample diagnosed with eating disorders; (2) Methods: Only Mexican adolescents diagnosed with eating disorders were included in the study. The diagnoses were using the DSM-5 criteria. Adolescents with ages between 12 to 17 years were included. The psychiatric comorbidities were evaluated using MINI-kid and QEWP-R. In addition, the z-score values calculated from BMI; (3) Results: The mean age was 14.08±1.7 years old. In our Mexican sample the diagnoses more frequently were bulimia nervosa (55.61%). We found that 89% of the Mexican adolescents with eating disorders had another psychiatric comorbidity. Major depressive disorder (52.40%) and suicide risk (40%) were the most prevalent comorbidity; (4) Conclusions: Our results showed that bulimia nervosa is the most frequently diagnoses in Mexican adolescent and the suicide and major depressive disorder are the principal comorbidities. This emphasizes the importance that clinicians take in-to consideration the presence of psychiatric comorbidities to achieve an integrative treatment for patients with ED.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0297.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: biological clocks; circadian rhythm disorders; psychiatric disorders; melatonin; Hypothalmo-pituitary-adrenal axis
Online: 24 November 2019 (16:44:37 CET)
Several lines of evidence support a relationship between circadian disruption in the onset, course, and maintenance of mental disorders. Despite the study of circadian phenotypes promising a decent understanding of the pathophysiologic or etiologic mechanisms of psychiatric entities, several questions still need to be addressed. In this review, we aimed to synthesize the literature investigating chronobiologic theories and their associations with psychiatric entities. We first introduced molecular elements and mechanisms of the circadian system to promote a better understanding of the chronobiologic implications of mental disorders. Then, we comprehensively and systematically reviewed circadian system studies in mood disorders, schizophrenia, and anxiety disorders. Current research has demonstrated that circadian pathologies, including genetic and neurohumoral alterations, represent the neural substrates of the pathophysiology of many psychiatric disorders. However, much more work is needed to identify the causal relationship between circadian physiology abnormalities and mental disorders, and to develop sound pharmacologic interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0370.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: eotaxin; immune marker; neuroinflammation; ageing; neuro-psychiatric disorder
Online: 30 January 2020 (14:42:45 CET)
Background: CCL11 (eotaxin) is a chemokine with an important role in allergic conditions. Recent evidence indicates that CCL11 plays a role in brain disorders as well. Aims: This paper reviews the associations between CCL11 and aging, neurodegenerative, neuroinflammatory and neuropsychiatric disorders.Methods: Electronic databases were searched for original articles examining CCL11 in neuropsychiatric disorders.Results: CCL11 is rapidly transported from the blood to the brain through the brain-blood barrier. Age-related increases in CCL11 are associated with cognitive impairments in executive functions, episodic and semantic memory and, therefore, this chemokine was described as an “endogenous cognition deteriorating chemokine” (ECDC) or “accelerated brain-aging chemokine” (ABAC). In schizophrenia, increased CCL11 is not only associated with impairments in cognitive functions, but also with key symptoms including formal thought disorders. Some patients with mood disorders and premenstrual syndrome show increased plasma CCL11 levels. In diseases of old age, CCL11 is associated with lowered neurogenesis and neurodegenerative processes and, as a consequence, increased CCL11 increases risk towards Alzheimer's Disease. Polymorphisms in the CCL11 gene are associated with stroke. Increased CCL11 also plays a role in neuroinflammatory disease including multiple sclerosis. In animal models, neutralization of CCL11 may protect against nigrostriatal neurodegeneration. Increased production of CCL11 may be attenuated by glucocorticoids, minocycline, resveratrol and anti-CCL11 antibodies.Conclusion: Increased CCL11 production during inflammatory conditions may play a role in human disease including age-related cognitive decline, schizophrenia, mood disorders and neurodegenerative disorders. Increased CCL11 production is a new drug target in the treatment and prevention of those disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: neuroplasticity; neuroprogression; psychiatric disorders; brain economy; severe mental illness; biomarkers
Online: 3 December 2018 (16:18:31 CET)
Psychiatric disorders share the same pattern of longitudinal evolution and have courses that tend to be chronic and recurrent. These aspects of chronicity and longitudinal evolution of psychiatric disorders are currently studied under the neuroprogression framework. Interestingly, considering the plasticity of the brain, it is necessary to emphasize the bidirectional nature of neuroprogression. We review evidence highlighting alterations of the brain associated with the longitudinal evolution of psychiatric disorders from the framework of neuroplastic adaptation to pathology. This new framework highlights that substantial plasticity and remodelling may occur beyond the classic neuroprogressive framework, which is characterized only by loss of grey matter volume, decreased brain connectivity, and chronic inflammation. We also integrate the brain economy concept in the neuroplastic adaptation to pathology framework, emphasizing that to preserve its economy, i.e., function, the brain learns how to cope with the disease by adapting its architecture. This approach can disentangle both the specific pathophysiology of psychiatric symptoms and the adaptation to pathology, thus offering a new framework for both diagnosis and treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Morphological integration; dysmorphogenesis; skull; etiogenesis; neuro-psychiatric disorders
Online: 6 October 2020 (08:29:01 CEST)
Structure - function interdependence is a universal phenomenon in biological systems. Any alteration in structural features may result in change in functions–leading to natural selection of a particular trait, or dysfunctions thereof. Many such alterations arise during the course of evolution of a species and may meticulously be traced during embryonic development of an organism. Through the theoretical construct of morphological integration, a set of phenotypic traits alter in a coordinated and integrated manner during evolution and embryonic development of an organism yielding efficient environmentally adapted physiological functions pertinent to those structures. Such integration may go awry sometimes, setting the basis for genesis of diseases. Morphological integration in human skull has been established through various methods. The brain-skull co-development is handcuffed through evolution and development, and the very basis of a neuro-psychiatric disorder could be underlying in dysmorphogenesis of the skull, its consequent effect on structures, and thus functions of the pertinent brain components. Here we propose that morphological integration in human skull may be mechanistically implied in etiogenesis of certain neuro-psychiatric disorders and should be borne in mind during clinical diagnosis and therapeutic interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0047.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: HPA axis; NGFs; psychiatric disorders; prevention of mental diseases; stress
Online: 4 December 2017 (07:45:28 CET)
Apart from their established role in embryonic development Nerve Growth Factors (NGFs) have diverse functions in the nervous system. Their role in integration of physiological functioning of the nervous system is now attracting attention. In the present analysis, we propose a novel paradigm about a novel role of NGFs: NGFs play imperative role in maintaining psychological integrity of an individual as a biological system. This function may be mediated through HPA-axis- operated homeostatic mechanisms; stress induced disruption of which may lead to psychiatric disorders. Current literature suggests existence of constitutive homeostatic regulatory mechanisms for NGFs disruption which may lead to pertinent and imperative behavioural effects. NGFs are known to play crucial role in endocrine regulation. This is especially true with the prototype ‘NGF’ and Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF). These moieties have been observed to play important function in maintaining neuro-endocrine homeostasis thereby having a profound impact on the psychological health of an individual. Role of NGFs and HPA-axis activation (in separate studies) in developing psychiatric disorders - especially those born of stress - have been reported. Literature suggests their unique interplay for producing a common effect which might be implicated in stress induced genesis of psychiatric disorders. This aspect, therefore, needs to be elucidated further as a disease etiogenesis model. This model may yield important insights into the biology of psychiatric disorders and may open ways for new therapeutic approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0819.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; children; adolescents; psychiatric hospitalization; mood disorders; non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors; suicidal ideation
Online: 12 October 2023 (15:43:28 CEST)
The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the quarantine measures on children and adolescents’ hospitalization psychiatric has been poorly studied, especially in Italy, the first European country to adopt social restrictions. To fill this gap, this retrospective study examined changes in admissions to our child and adolescent psychiatry ward from the emergency department during the two COVID-19 quarantine periods in Italy (March to June 2020; October 2020 to January 2021) compared with two reference periods (defined as 12 months prior to the respective quarantine periods). Specifically, we examined data on the number of inpatients and the distribution of psychopathological disorders (i.e., psychosis, mood disorder) and self-injurious behaviors. The results revealed significantly fewer admissions during the first quarantine period relative to the first reference period and, conversely, significantly more admissions during the second quarantine period relative to the second reference period. Of note, the results showed an increased frequency of mood disorders, non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors and suicidal ideation during the quarantine periods, compared to the reference periods. The findings underline the need to focus on the psychopathological profile of children and adolescents with patient-tailored therapeutic interventions and suggest the importance of developing psychological healthcare services for future emergency periods..
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0192.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: voltage-gated calcium channels; major depressive disorder; autism spectrum disorder; schizophrenia; bipolar disorder; attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder; anxiety; calcium channel modulators; psychiatric disorders; auxiliary subunits; genetic risk variations
Online: 20 June 2019 (04:16:52 CEST)
Psychiatric disorders are mental, behavioral or emotional disorders. These conditions are prevalent, one in four adults suffer from any type of psychiatric disorders world-wide. It has always been observed that psychiatric disorders have a genetic component, however new methods to sequence full genomes of large cohorts have identified with high precision genetic risk loci for these conditions. Psychiatric disorders include, but are not limited to, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Several risk loci for psychiatric disorders fall within genes that encode for voltage-gated calcium channels (CaVs). Calcium entering through CaVs is key for multiple neuronal processes. In this review, we will summarize recent findings that link CaVs and their auxiliary subunits to psychiatric disorders. First, we will provide a general overview of CaVs structure, classification, function, expression and pharmacology. Next, we will summarize tools and databases to study risk loci associated with psychiatric disorders. We will examine functional studies of risk variations in CaV genes when available. We will review pharmacological evidence of the use of CaV modulators to treat psychiatric disorders. Our review will be of interest for those studying pathophysiological aspects of CaVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0480.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: psychiatric disease; brain injury; chloride transporter
Online: 29 August 2022 (09:36:50 CEST)
Background. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disabilities over the industrialized countries. Cognitive decline appears in the chronic phase of the pathology consecutively to cellular and molecular processes. Here we described the use of KCC2, a neuronal-specific potassium-chloride transporters as potent biomarker to predict cognitive dysfunctions after TBI. Methods. Using neuronal and total exosomes collection from blood serum in control and TBI subjects we were able to anticipate the decline of cognitive performance. Results. After TBI, we observed a significative and persistant loss of KCC2 expression in the blood exosomes that is correlated to changes in network activity and cellular processes such as secondary neurogenesis. Also we correlated this KCC2 loss in expression to the appearance of the cognitive decline observed in mice and more particularly we correlate the KCC2 loss of expression to the appearance of the depressive-like behavior. Conclusion. According to our protocol, we were able to confirm our previous findings in agreement with the potential therapeutic effect of bumetanide in the prevention of the post traumatic depression after TBI, by restoring the KCC2 expression thus preventing the massive neuronal death of interneurons and the secondary neurogenesis effect observed in such model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: autism, cognition, components, psychiatric impairments, comorbidity
Online: 24 April 2018 (01:02:55 CEST)
We propose a theory of ASD as a condition of comorbid cognitive impairments that corrupt the learning, encoding, and manipulation of episodic and semantic memories. We consider (i) episodic and semantic memory functions of the entorhinal-hippocampal complex, (ii) constraints on the transfer and encoding of these memory components into neocortical areas, and (iii) the demands of cognitively manipulating memories in distributed computations being necessary for goal oriented interactions. In ASD, learning and cognitive challenges manifest in diverse ways but especially in high-complexity model predictive control tasks with latent variables. ASD impairments in social interactions represent a prototypical example. Social interactions are at the high end of complexity and require processes (i)–(iii) to work in a concerted fashion due to the need for the learning and estimation of many, sometimes latent, parameters, including emotions, intention, physical and mental capabilities as well as the predictive modeling of these parameters for decision making and timed-action series. We put forth the idea that autism is a result of an arbitrary combination of otherwise not prominent corruptions in processes (i)–(iii). Together, these corruptions may severely impair intelligence and slow down learning, especially in high complexity learning tasks. Over time, slow learning may spare the spontaneous learning-by-doing method - namely, repetitive behavioral patterns, whereas behavioral failures related to complex tasks can restrict interest in such task, thus inducing a fear of novelty; conversely, the fear of novelty restricts interest and can slow learning down. We embed our thoughts into a predictive autoencoding, goal-oriented model of a deterministic world. We compare this model to others, such as the noisy brain model, the Bayesian prior theory, the mirror neuron theory and the weak central coherence theory. We argue that the predictive autoencoder model of the deterministic world harmonizes with these other models and embraces them in a straightforward way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0204.v1
Subject: Nursing, Public Health And Healthcare Keywords: ProQoL; job satisfaction; intention to leave; psychiatric nurses; Jordan
Online: 5 December 2023 (04:46:42 CET)
Psychiatric nurses were challenged with high levels of stress, which in turn lower their professional quality of life (ProQoL) and job satisfaction and increase their intention to leave job at psychiatric settings. Adequate level of ProQoL improve patient care provision. The purpose is to assess the levels, relationships, and predictors of professional quality of life of Jordanian psychiatric nurses and their job satisfaction and intention to leave job. A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to collect data using the Professional Quality of Life Scale-5 from a convenience sample of 144 psychiatric nurses. Results showed that the mean score of compassion satisfaction (CS), burnout (BO), and secondary traumatic stress (STS) were 35.21, 27.0, and 26.36, respectively. The mean scores of intention to leave and job satisfaction were 2.33, and 3.7, respectively. Income level, educational level, intention to leave, and job satisfaction were significantly differing in CS dimension. Nurses’ age, intention to leave, and job satisfaction were significantly differing in BO. Nurses’ age, years of experience, frequent C-shift worked, and work affiliation were different in STS. Burnout, STS, and educational level predicted CS. CS, STS, job satisfaction, and level of education predicted BO. BO, CS, and frequent working night C-shift predicted STS. More studies are needed to assess the factors that affect ProQoL among psychiatric nurses, and to evaluate interventional programs that improve quality of life of psychiatric nurses. This is important in retaining nurses and increasing their job satisfaction. Jordanian psychiatric nurses reported moderate level of (ProQoL), high level of job satisfaction, and low intention to leave job. There is a need to enhance (ProQoL).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1447.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Neuroproteomics, synapse, neurological and psychiatric disorders, cell-type specificity
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:44:42 CEST)
In the last two decades, our knowledge of synaptic proteomes and their relationship to normal brain function and neuropsychiatric disorders has been expanding rapidly through the use of more powerful neuroproteomic approaches. However, mass spectrometry (MS) based neuroproteomic studies of synapses still need cell-type, spatial, and temporal proteome information. With the advancement of sample preparation and MS techniques, we have just begun to identify and understand proteomes within a given cell type, subcellular compartment, and cell-type-specific synapse. Here, we review the progress and limitations of MS-based neuroproteomics of synapses in the mammalian CNS and highlight the recent applications of these approaches in studying neuropsychiatric disorders such as major depressive disorder and substance use disorders. Combining neuroproteomic findings with other omics studies can generate an in-depth, comprehensive map of synaptic proteomes and possibly identify new therapeutic targets and biomarkers of several central nervous system disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0564.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: serotonin antagonist/reuptake inhibitors; comorbidity; psychiatric disorders; trazodone; neurobiology; emotion
Online: 19 April 2023 (07:52:17 CEST)
Personality disorders (PD) are described as enduring patterns of markedly deviant and pervasive inner experiences and behaviors, with onset in adolescence, which lead to severe distress or impairment. Patients suffering with major depressive disorder (MDD) display higher rates of comorbidity with personality disorders, often complicating the treatment, and worsening the outcome. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the most common of PD and is frequently associated with MDD, with which shares several features. The most part of research agrees on the fact that comorbid BPD in MDD patients quite double the poor response to treatments. Moreover, no treatment strategy stands out currently to emerge as more effective in these cases, thus urging the call for the need of a new approach. Herein, we revise the current literature on BPD, its neurobiology and comorbidity with MDD, as well as the more recent treatment strategies used. Then, based on its pharmacology, we propose a possible role of trazodone as a valuable tool to approach underlying BPD in MDD
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0219.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: personalized psychiatry; psychiatric disorders; induced pluripotent stem cells; brain organoids
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:46:51 CEST)
The polygenic and multifactorial nature of many psychiatric disorders has hampered the personalized medicine approach implementation in clinical practice. However, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has emerged as an innovative tool for patient-specific disease modeling to expand the pathophysiology knowledge and treatment perspectives in the last decade. Current technologies enable adult human somatic cell reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) to generate neural cells and direct neural cell conversion to model organisms that exhibit phenotypes close to human diseases, thereby effectively representing relevant aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders. iPSCs reflect patient pathophysiology and pharmacological responsiveness, particularly when cultured under conditions that recapitulate spatial tissue organization in brain organoids. Recently, the application of iPSCs has been frequently associated with gene editing that targets the disease-causing gene to deepen the illness pathophysiology and conduct drug screening. Moreover, gene editing has provided a unique opportunity to repair the putative causative genetic lesions in patient-derived cells. Here, we review the use of iPSC technology to model and potentially treat neuropsychiatric disorders by illustrating the key studies on a series of mental disorders, including schizophrenia, major depression disorder, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. The future perspective will involve the development of organ-on-a-chip platforms that control the microenvironmental conditions to reflect individual pathophysiological by adjusting physiochemical parameters according to personal health data. This strategy could open new ways to build a disease model that considers individual variability and tailors personalized treatments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1779.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: General hospital; General ward; Mental health care user; Non-psychiatric nurse
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:57:08 CEST)
Mental Health Care Users (MHCUs) are admitted in general wards with medical and surgical conditions where non-psychiatric nurses are allocated to render services for medical and surgical conditions. Non-psychiatric nurses are expected to care for MHCUs in general wards regardless of their knowledge and skills which is against the Mental Health Care Act. The purpose of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of non-psychiatric nurses in car-ing for MHCUs admitted in general wards in Limpopo Province. Qualitative approach using explorative, descriptive, and contextual design was adopted for the study. Methodology included the setting, population, sampling, ethical con-siderations, and the measures to ensure trustworthiness. The study was conducted in four general hospitals of Limpopo Province, South Africa with mental health care wards, medical ward and surgical ward which were selected through simple random sampling. Semi structured Individual interviews were used to collect data from twenty professional nurses until data saturation. Data was analysed using Tesch’ s method. Ethical considerations were adhered to throughout the study. Themes that emerged after data analysis were: Managing MHCUs, Types of patient’s behaviour. The study concluded that professional nurses without psychiatry caring for MHCUs in general wards need training to provide holistic care.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: serotonin antagonist/reuptake inhibitors; comorbidity; psychiatric disorders; neurological disorders; dementia; primary care
Online: 22 February 2023 (08:42:51 CET)
Depression is estimated to be a leading contributor to the global mental health-related burden. The determinants of this huge prevalence lie in the fact that depressive symptoms may be comorbid in a wide variety of disorders, thus complicating and exacerbating their clinical pictures. This makes the treatment of depressive symptoms even more difficult since many pharmacological and pharmacokinetic interactions should be considered by physicians approaching the therapy. Hence, depression still represents a challenge for both psychiatrists and the other clinicians, in terms of its high rates of relapse and resistance despite well-established protocols. It is also complicated by the well-known latency in its complete response to current antidepressant treatments. In this context, the search for new strategies in antidepressant treatment is mandatory; even including revising the use of “old” pharmacotherapies by considering their specific features may help to perfecting the treatment of depression, both in its standalone psychiatric manifestation and in the framework of other clinical conditions. The results of a consensus of experts regarding the possible use of trazodone as a valuable strategy for addressing the “real world” unmet needs of depression treatment is herein reported. This is based on the unique characteristics of this drug possibly delivering a rapid antidepressant action as compared to other selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as well as on its pharmacodynamic malleability and pharmacokinetic tolerability when used in the milieu of other drugs in treating comorbid depressive symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Veterans; psychiatric disorders; equine-assisted services; PTSD; psychotherapy incorporating horses; military sexual trauma
Online: 6 May 2023 (05:14:12 CEST)
Equine-assisted services (EAS) are being increasingly used as complementary interventions for military veterans who have experienced trauma. However, there is limited evidence of benefit for this population and almost no literature describing desired potential outcomes and possible mechanisms of action. The aim of this article is to address these gaps by reviewing the extant literature of animal-assisted interventions in general, and equine-assisted services in particular, with the goal of providing guidance for future investigations in the field. Currently, the field is in the early stage of scientific development, but published results are promising. Interventions that enhance treatment compliance and/or outcomes could benefit this population. Preliminary results, reviewed herein, indicate that EAS interventions might benefit the military veteran population by enhancing treatment engagement and therapeutic alliance, as well as contributing to symptom reduction and resulting in various transdiagnostic benefits. It is recommended that future studies include exploration of potential beneficial outcomes discussed herein as well as investigate suggested mechanisms of action.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Keywords: mitochondria; stress resilience; plasticity; stress; kynurenine; Alzheimer’s disease; neurodegenerative; depression; anxiety; psychiatric
Online: 8 July 2022 (03:56:36 CEST)
Nearly half a century has passed since the discovery of cytoplasmic inheritance of human chloramphenicol resistance. The inheritance was then revealed to take place maternally by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Later, a number of mutations in mtDNA were identified as a cause of severe inheritable metabolic diseases with neurological manifestation, and the impairment of mitochondrial functions has been probed in the pathogenesis of a wide range of illnesses including neurodegenerative diseases. Recently growing number of preclinical studies has revealed that animal behaviors are influenced by the impairment of mitochondrial functions and possibly by the loss of mitochondrial stress resilience. Indeed, as high as 54% of patients with one of the most common primary mitochondrial diseases, mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, present psychiatric symptoms including cognitive impairment, mood disorder, anxiety, and psychosis. Mitochondria are multifunctional organelles which produce cellular energy and play a major role in other cellular functions including homeostasis, cellular signaling, and gene expression, among other. Mitochondrial functions are observed to be compromised and to become less resilient under continuous stress. Meanwhile, stress and inflammation have been linked to the activation of the tryptophan (Trp)-kynurenine (KYN) metabolic system, which observably contributes to development of pathological conditions including neurological and psychiatric disorders. This narrative review discusses the functions of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system, the interaction of the Trp-KYN system with mitochondria, and the current understanding of the involvement of mitochondria and the Trp-KYN system in preclinical and clinical studies of major neurological and psychiatric diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cohort studies; Epidemiology; Gray matter; Neuroimaging; Paediatrics; Psychiatric symptoms; QDECR; Vertex-wise analysis.
Online: 14 May 2021 (11:31:23 CEST)
Physical symptoms are defined as symptoms for which adequate examination does not reveal a sufficient underlying root cause, e.g., pain and fatigue. The extant literature of the neurobiological underpinnings of physical symptoms has been largely inconsistent and primarily consists of (clinical) case-control studies with relatively small samples sizes. Therefore, we studied the association of brain morphology with physical symptoms in pre-adolescents from two independent and population-based cohorts. This study included 2,683 individuals from the Generation R Study (51% girls, 10.1 ± 0.6 years old) and 10,567 pre-adolescents from the ABCD Study (48% girls, 9.9 ± 0.6 years old). High- resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was collected using 3-Tesla MRI systems. Physical symptoms were evaluated using the somatic complaints syndrome scale from the parent-reported school-age version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Linear regression models were fitted for global brain metrics (i.e., cortical and subcortical grey matter volume and total white matter volume) as well as surface-based vertex-wise measures (surface area and cortical thickness). Analyses were initially conducted separately in each cohort and later meta-analysed. No associations were observed in either cohort separately. In the combined vertex-wise meta-analysis of both cohorts; the right hemisphere surface area, most notably the rostral middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate cortex, were related to physical symptoms after correcting for multiple comparisons (cluster area = 1,882 mm2). The present study, which is the most representative and well-powered to date, suggests that surface area, but not other measures of brain morphology, are modestly related to physical symptoms in pre- adolescents. While these effects are subtle, future longitudinal research is warranted to elucidate whether such associations indicate a cause or a consequence of the physical symptoms.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Nutritional Psychiatry; Mental Health Professionals; Psychiatrists; Psychologists; Psychotherapists; Education; Psychiatric Disorders; Diet; Supplements; Nutrition
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:36:58 CET)
Abstract: Nutritional interventions have beneficial effects on certain psychiatric disorder symptomatology and common physical health comorbidities. However, studies evaluating nutritional literacy in mental health professionals (MHP) are scarce. This study aimed to assess the degree of self-rated training and literacy relating to nutrition in MHPs. We conducted a cross-sectional survey across 52-countries. Surveys were distributed via colleagues and professional societies. Data were collected regarding self-reported general nutrition knowledge, nutrition education, learning opportunities, and the tendency to recommend food supplements or specific diets in clinical practice. In total, 1056 subjects participated in the study: 354 psychiatrists, 511 psychologists, 44 psychotherapists, and 147 MHPs in-training. All participants believed the diet quality of individuals with mental disorders was poorer compared to the general population (p<0.001). The majority of the psychiatrists (74.2%) and psychologists (66.3%) reported having no training in nutrition. Nevertheless, many of them used nutrition approaches, with 58.6% recommending supplements and 43.8% recommending specific diet strategies to their patients. Only 0.8% of participants rated their education regarding nutrition as ‘very good’. Almost all (92.9%) stated they would like to expand their knowledge regarding ‘Nutritional Psychiatry’. There is an urgent need to integrate nutrition education into MHP training, ideally in collaboration with nutrition experts to achieve best practice care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0206.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Mexican Amerindian, Dual diagnosis, polygenic risk scores, psychiatric diseases, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, substance use disorder
Online: 12 September 2018 (01:20:54 CEST)
In order to summarized the polygenic background of psychiatric diseases, polygenic risk scores (PRS) have been developed. Recently, PRS have been use to predict patients with higher comorbidities in psychiatric diseases, like dual diagnosis. PRS are principally derived in analysis of Caucasian and Asian populations, we are not aware of how this PRS could be applied in populations with high admixture. In order to explored this, the present work has the aim to analyzed if previous calculated PRS for psychiatric diseases could predict dual diagnosis in Mexican population, and also, if PRS calculation could be influenced by Mexican Amerindian (MA) global ancestry. We performed PRS calculation, using PRSice, with summary genome-wide association statistics previously published for psychiatric diseases, and also, performed Nagelkerke correlation test in order to established if PRS are correlated with dual diagnosis. We found that dual diagnosis could be predicted by major depressive disorder polygenic risk score. Nevertheless, schizophrenia polygenic risk score is highly correlated with global MA ancestry, independently of the schizophrenia diagnosis. Our results reinforced the notion that PRS calculation could be deviated by the MA global ancestry, nevertheless analysis on larger sample sizes are required in order to clarified this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0555.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: nutritional risk screening; severe mental illness; psychiatric treatment; BMI; nutritional status; malnutrition; depression; schizophrenia; nutrition; diet
Online: 30 November 2022 (02:44:53 CET)
People with severe mental illness (SMI) are often in poor physical health, resulting in higher mortality and reduced life expectancy compared to the general population. Although eating habits are one of the main predictors of physical health, few studies assess the nutritional status and eating behaviour of people with SMI. The aim of this study was to examine the nutritional status and risk of malnutrition in people with SMI and in need of intensive psychiatric treatment. The cross-sectional study included 65 inpatients and 67 outpatients with psychotic or depressive disorders from the Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Zurich. Patients’ assessments at admission included anthropometric measurements, such as weight and height, and interview data including severity of symptoms and functioning (SCL-K-9, PHQ-D, CGI, m-GAF), personal and medical data, nutrition risk screening tools (adapted NRS, MNA-SF) and laboratory values. The results showed that 32% of the inpatients (body mass index [BMI] = 25.3) and 34% of the outpatients (BMI = 27.9) were at risk of malnutrition, which was associated with higher levels of psychiatric symptoms and lower levels of functioning. These results indicate that a substantial proportion of psychiatric patients seem to be at risk of malnutrition, despite most being overweight, and hence they might benefit from nutritional support during their psychiatric treatment. Moreover, nutritional risk screening tools specifically developed for the mental healthcare setting are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Thai START; Forensic psychiatric inpatients; Confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data; Violence risk assessment; forensic psychology; Psychometrics
Online: 13 January 2022 (15:57:05 CET)
The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is deemed the most appropriate instrument for assessing violence risks and management because of its balanced approach between dynamic risk and protective factors. Although several facets of reliability and predictive validity of this tool were strong, its inter-rater reliability, construct validity, and implementation in Asian population were under-investigated. The objective of this research was to examine the inter-rater reliability and construct validity of the START: Thai version within forensic psychiatric inpatients. The participants consisted of 118 forensic psychiatric inpatients hospitalized at Galya Rajanagarindra Institute in Thailand. Trained mental health professionals (i.e., psychiatrists, forensic nurses, clinical psychologists, social workers, and occupational therapists) assessed each participant across twenty domains of the Thai START. The inter-rater reliability was examined using the intraclass correlation coefficient and a confirmatory factor analysis for ordinal data was used to test the construct validity of the scale. The main finding showed a good-to-excellent inter-rater reliability and supported two relational constructs (i.e., strength vs vulnerability subscales) of the Thai START. The Thai START is a promising tool for using in Thai forensic psychiatric setting but some items were not significant in contributing to the scale. This study also provides the guideline for implementing the tool in non-Western forensic psychiatric populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0448.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R)/post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); cutoff point/cutoff score; psychiatric patients/the general public/healthy adults; psychometric evaluation/criterion validity; Coronavirus Disease-19/COVID-19; Arabic version/Arab/Saudi Arabia
Online: 25 January 2023 (05:02:13 CET)
The Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) is the most popular measure of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), which has been recently validated in Arabic. This instrumental study aimed to determine optimal cutoff scores of the IES-R and its subscales in Arab samples of psychiatric patients (N = 168, 70.8% females) and healthy adults (N = 992, 62.7% females) from Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic as an ongoing collective traumatic event. Based on a cutoff score of 14 of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 8-items (DASS-8), receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed two optimal points of 39.5 and 30.5 for the IES-R in the samples (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.86 & 0.91, p values = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.80-0.92 & 0.87 to 0.94, sensitivity = 0.85 & 0.87, specificity = 0.73 & 0.83, Youden index = 0.58 & 0.70, respectively). Different cutoffs were detected for the six subscales of the IES-R, with numbing and avoidance expressing the lowest predictivity for distress. Meanwhile, hyperarousal followed by the irritability expressed stronger predictive capacity for distress than all subscales in both samples. In path analysis, pandemic-related irritability resulted from direct and indirect effects of key PTSD symptoms (intrusion, hyperarousal, and numbing). Irritability contributed to traumatic symptoms of sleep disturbance in both samples while the opposite was not true. The findings suggest usefulness of the IES-R at a score of 30.5 for detecting adults prone to trauma related distress, with higher scores needed for screening in psychiatric patients. Various PTSD symptoms may induce dysphoric mood, which represents a considerable burden that may induce circadian misalignment and more noxious psychiatric problems/ co-morbidities (sleep disturbance) in both healthy and diseased groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0014.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Coronavirus disease 2019/COVID-19; Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21/DASS-21; DASS-8; shortened version*; shorter version* of the DASS-21; psychiatric disorders; factorial structure/psychometric properties/structural validity/validation; measurement invariance/multigroup analysis; psychological distress; discriminant validity; item coverage; good predictive validity
Online: 1 September 2021 (12:15:27 CEST)
Despite extensive investigations of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21) since its development in 1995, its factor structure and other psychometric properties still need to be firmly established, with several calls for revising its item structure. Employing confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), this study examined the factor structure of the DASS-21 and five shortened versions of the DASS-21 among psychiatric patients (N = 168) and the general public (N = 992) during the COVID-19 confinement period in Saudi Arabia. Multigroup CFA, Mann Whitney W test, Spearman’s correlation, and coefficient alpha were used to examine the shortened versions of the DASS-21 (DASS-13, DASS-12, DASS-9 (two versions), and DASS-8) for invariance across age and gender groups, discriminant validity, predictive validity, item coverage, and internal consistency, respectively. Compared with the DASS-21, all three-factor structures of the shortened versions expressed good fit, with the DASS-8 demonstrating the best fit and highest item loadings on the corresponding factors in both samples (χ2(16, 15) = 16.5, 67.0; p = 0.420, 0.000; CFI= 1.000, 0.998; TLI = 0.999, 0.997; RMSEA = 0.013, 0.059, SRMR = 0.0186, 0.0203). It expressed configural, metric, and scalar invariance across age and gender groups. Its internal consistency was comparable to other versions (α = 0.94). Strong positive correlations of the DASS-8 and its subscales with the DASS-21 and its subscales (r = 0.97 to 0.81) suggest adequate item coverage and good predictive validity of this version. The DASS-8 and its subscales distinguished the clinical sample from the general public at the same level of significance expressed by the DASS-21 and other shortened versions, supporting its discriminant validity. Neither the DASS-21 nor the shortened versions distinguished patients diagnosed with depression and anxiety from other conditions. The DASS-8 represents a valid short version of the DASS-21, which may be useful in research and clinical practice for quick identification of individuals with potential psychopathologies. Diagnosing depression/anxiety disorders may be further confirmed in a next step by clinician-facilitated examinations. Brevity of the DASS-21 would save time and effort used for filling the questionnaire and support comprehensive assessments by allowing the inclusion of more measures on test batteries.