ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0182.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: fibromyalgia, personality disorders, Axis II, personality disorders clusters, personality traits, borderline, schizotypal, schizoid, avoidant
Online: 4 October 2023 (07:51:47 CEST)
Background: Evidence suggests that there is substantial comorbidity between fibromyalgia and Axis II pathology (i.e., personality disorders - PDs). The aim of the current study was to find out the exact cluster (A, B, C) PDs or traits that are more prominent in FM and may be predictors of FM diagnosis. Methods: Data from 86 subjects (53 with FM and 33 controls without FM) was analyzed in an observational, cross-sectional, comparative study. The assessment of categorical PDs and traits was performed independently with the Structured Clinical Interview for Personality Disorders (SCID-II). Binary logistic regression was used to determine FM predictors among PDs traits. Results. Compared with controls, FM patients had higher rate of PDs diagnoses (56.7 vs 18.2%, P<.001). However, the rate was significantly higher only for borderline PD diagnosis (28.3% vs 6.1% P<.05). The binary logistic regression analysis showed that schizotypal and schizoid (cluster A), borderline (cluster B), and dependent (cluster C) personality traits may be significant predictors of fibromyalgia (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.415). Conclusions: Our results may reflect association of FM with personality traits of all three PD clusters: A (eccentric), B (dramatic), C (anxious). However, the most consistent evidence seems to be for borderline PD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0642.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: colours; preferences; personality traits; agreeableness; extraversion
Online: 26 May 2021 (13:45:15 CEST)
Colours are important features in human and natural environments and are related to several psychological functions. However, a possible relation between colour preferences and personality traits is scarcely investigated. The aim of the present study was to find out whether differences in preferences for colours also reflected differences in Big Five personality traits. The sample consisted of 206 individuals voluntarily recruited from a student sample. The participants chose one of six primary colours (blue, green, red, yellow, black, white) from the Natural Colour System (NCS) as their favorite colour. Personality traits were measured with the Big Five Inventory-44 (BFI-44. Blue and yellow was the most and least preferred chromatic colour, respectively. There were no gender differences in preferences for the chromatic colours, but more women preferred white and men preferred black. Compared to the rest of the sample, the blue group had higher scores on agreeableness and extraversion, and the red group had lower scores on agreeableness. Pairwise comparisons showed that the blue group had higher scores on agreeableness and extraversion than the red group, and higher scores on agreeableness compared to the green group. There were no significant personality differences for the other chromatic and achromatic colour groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0065.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: DAPTQ; adaptive personality; psychometric properties; HEXACO; psychopathic personality traits; confirmatory factor analysis; test-retest validity
Online: 14 June 2017 (07:47:55 CEST)
Multiple studies reported a negative relationship between the Honesty-Humility factor of the HEXACO model and psychopathy. The Durand Adaptive Psychopathic Traits Questionnaire (DAPTQ), which was developed to assess adaptive traits known to be related to psychopathic traits, has previously demonstrate positive relationships with all factors of the Big Five Model, at the exception of a negative relationship with neuroticism. The current study aims to validate the previously reported association between the DAPTQ and the five major components of the personality, while also examining its relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor as defined by the HEXACO model. The results (N = 171) support the good internal consistency, two weeks test-retest validity and inter-correlation of the DAPTQ. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis further supports the nine-factor model of the DAPTQ. When compared to the HEXACO, the DAPTQ did not display any relationship with the Honesty-Humility factor, nor the Agreeableness and Openness factors, but kept its similar association to Emotionality, Extroversion, and Conscientiousness as initially reported in its development phase. Overall, the results support the discriminant validity of the DAPTQ to assess adaptive traits related to the psychopathic personality without overlapping with psychopathic personality traits. Results are discussed in terms of implications and further improvements to validate the DAPTQ.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0025.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: team formation; personality traits; software engineering; data-driven approach; simulated annealing
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:10:35 CET)
Collaboration among individuals with diverse skills and personalities is crucial in producing high-quality software. The success of any software project depends on the team’s cohesive functionality and mutual complementation. This study introduces a data-centric methodology for forming Software Engineering (SE) teams centred around personality traits. Our study analyzed data from an SE course where 157 students in 31 teams worked through four project phases and were evaluated based on deliverables and instructor feedback. Using the Five Factor Model (FFM) and a variety of statistical tests, we determined that teams with higher levels of extraversion and conscientiousness and lower neuroticism consistently performed better. We examined team member interactions and developed a predictive model using extreme gradient boosting. The model achieved a 74% accuracy rate in predicting inter-member satisfaction rankings. Through graphical explainability, it underscored incompatibilities among members, notably those with differing levels of extraversion. Based on our findings, we introduce a team formation algorithm using Simulated Annealing (SA), built upon the insights from our predictive model and additional heuristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1302.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Big 5; Child Personality; Elementary School Mathematic Performance; Socio Emotional Effects; Educational Data Mining
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:56:56 CEST)
children is challenging. An important advance is the 15-questions Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children. A study on students from 10 to 13 years old in Poland validated the questionnaire but with some observations. Thus, there is a need for replication and stronger evi-dence in this age group. In Chile, we replicated the study with 3,423 4th-graders (9 to 12 years old). Teachers, in regular sessions, applied the questionnaire to their entire classes. We found similar results, including that asexual pictograms worked well in both genders. We also found positive relationships between conscientiousness, openness, and extraversion with mathematical performance. Furthermore, a combination of these three traits has a relationship with math performance twice as big as each trait alone. Moreover, students with the lowest scores in this combination of personality traits (6.6% of students) have 0.27 standard deviations less in mathematical performance than those with the highest score, which is 74.3% of students. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a study finds a strong relationship between a combination of personality traits gathered with a 15-question questionnaire and fourth-graders´ math perfor-mances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0063.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Type D; Personality; Stress of Life Events; Anxiety Sensitivity; Breast Cancer
Online: 5 July 2020 (10:34:05 CEST)
Background and Aim: Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and invasion of tissues. It seems that personality differences and psychological factors are important factors that lead to different reactions to cancer. Therefore, the main purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between type D, stress level of life events, personality traits, and anxiety sensitivity in people with breast cancer attending to Tehran Bu-ali Hospital. Methods: The study was a correlational study in which 100 cancer patients referred to Bu-ali Hospital in Tehran, selected by the available sampling method from April to June 2018. The tools used included the Denollet DS-14 Type D Questionnaire, the Paykel Life events Questionnaire, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the ASI Anxiety Scale, Floyd et al., Data analysis in this study is taken place by using SPSS software, two descriptive levels (percentage, frequency, etc.) and regression. Results: The study results showed that there is a relationship between type D personality with stress of life events, neurosis, extraversion, and psychopath dimensions of personality and anxiety sensitivity in breast cancer patients. Conclusion: Psychological factors play a role in the incidence and exacerbation of breast cancer, and ultimately patients with personality type D and personality traits such as psychosis and high anxiety sensitivity and more stress of life events show more symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0762.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Behavioral syndromes; Fish personality; Neural bases of personality; Evolution of personality
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:17:20 CEST)
While the field of personality neuroscience has extensively focused on humans and, in a few cases, primates and rodents, a wide range of research on fish personality has emerged in the last decades. This research is focused mainly on the ecological and evolutionary causes of individual differences, but also aimed less extensively at proximal mechanisms (e.g., neurochemistry or genetics). We argue that, if consistent and intentional work is made to solve some of the meta-theoretical issues of personality research both on fish and mammals, fish personality research can lead to important advances in personality neuroscience as a whole. The five dimensions of personality in fish (shyness-boldness, exploration-avoidance, activity, aggressiveness, and sociability) need to be translated into models that explicitly recognize the impacts of personality in psychopathology, synergizing research on fish as model organisms in experimental psychopathology, personality neuroscience, and ecological-ethological approaches to the evolutionary underpinnings of personality to produce a powerful framework to understand individual differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0742.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: inner speech; spontaneous self-talk; goal-directed self-talk; big five personality traits; self-determination theory; autonomy; competence; relatedness; sport
Online: 9 August 2023 (10:31:01 CEST)
Good health and the promotion of well-being for all is the third of the 17 Global Goals included in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Contributing to this goal, the current study aimed to examine the relationships between one kind of athletes’ well-being, namely state organic self-talk, with personality traits, and basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration within their sport. Athletes (N = 691; mean age 21.65) from a variety of individual (n = 270) and team sports (n = 421) completed a multisection questionnaire capturing the targeted variables. Three-step hierarchical regression analyses revealed that: In step 1, all personality traits were to some extent a significant predictor of athletes’ organic, spontaneous self-talk dimensions and goal-directed self-talk functions. In step 2, need satisfaction significantly contributed to all spontaneous self-talk dimensions and goal-directed self-talk functions (except for creating functional deactivated states) over and above personality. Finally, in step 3, need frustration significantly contributed to negative spontaneous self-talk dimensions, and to all goal-directed self-talk functions (except for instruction) over and above personality and need satisfaction. Overall, our results indicate the importance of personality traits as personal antecedents, and perceptions of basic psychological need satisfaction and frustration as social-environmental antecedents, in shaping athletes’ state organic self-talk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1796.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: emotion regulation; identity; DBT-A, adolescents; Borderline Personality Personality disorders
Online: 25 August 2023 (09:22:06 CEST)
Background: Identity diffusion plays a central role in the onset of borderline personality and disorders. The Dialectical Behavioral Therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) is a treatment program for adolescents with emotional instability and dysregulation. The interest of this study is to examine the influence of a standardized and certified DBT-A therapy program on identity development of adolescents with emotion dysregulation in an inpatient setting. Methods: 138 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years with symptoms of emotional instability were assessed before and after a curricular 12-weeks in-patient DBT-A program with standardized instruments for the assessment of identity (AIDA), emotion regulation (FEEL-KJ, SEE) and general psychopathology (SCL-90-R, DIKJ). Results: The results indicate a significant change in identity development, emotion regulation and general symptoms of psychopathology after treatment with DBT-A. A connection between identity scales and psychopathological symptoms of adolescents with diagnosed borderline disorders and impaired emotion regulation could be established. Conclusion: In this large sample of adolescents, DBT-A significantly improved identity and reduced identity diffusion. As identiy disturbance is a core symptom of borderline personality disorder, our results may become clinically relevant for the prevention of personality disorders in emotionally unstable adolescents
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0180.v1
Online: 9 August 2018 (08:25:45 CEST)
We present three studies which investigated the relations between cognition and personality from 7 to 20 years of age. All three studies showed that general cognitive ability and the general factor of personality are significantly related throughout this age span. This relation was expressed in several ways across studies. The first investigated developmental relations between three reasoning domains (inductive, deductive, and scientific) and Eysenck’s four personality dimensions in a longitudinal-sequential design where 260 participants received the cognitive tests three and the personality test two times, covering the span from 9-16 years. It was found that initial social likeability significantly shapes developmental momentum in cognition and vice-versa, especially in the 9 to 11 years period. The second study involved 438 participants from 7 to 17 years, tested twice on attention control, working memory, reasoning in different domains, and once by a Big Five Factors inventory. Extending the findings of the first, this study showed that progression in reasoning is affected negatively by conscientiousness and positively by openness, on top of attention control and working memory influences. The third study tested the relations between reasoning in several domains, the ability to evaluate one’s own cognitive performance, self-representation about the reasoning, the Big Five, and several aspects of emotional intelligence, from 9 to 20 years of age (N=247). Network, Hierarchical Network, and Structural Equation modeling showed that cognition and personality are mediated by the ability of self-knowing. Emotional intelligence was not an autonomous dimension. All dimensions but emotional intelligence influenced academic performance. A developmental model for mind-personality relations is proposed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0194.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: congruence; voice; speech; communication; identity; personality
Online: 9 August 2021 (12:41:06 CEST)
Purpose: We present a theoretical framework that formalizes and defines the constructs of communicative congruence and communicative dysphoria that is rooted within a comprehensive and mechanistic theory of personality. Background: Voice therapists have likely encountered a patient who states that a therapeutic target voice “isn’t me.” The ability to accurately convey a person’s sense of self, or identity, through their voice, speech, and communication behaviors seems to have high relevance to both patients and clinicians alike. However, to date, we lack a mechanistic theoretical framework through which to understand and interrogate the phenomenon of congruence between one’s communication behaviors and their sense of self. Results: We review the initial notion of congruence, first proposed by Carl Rogers. We then review several theories on selfhood, identity, and personality. After reviewing these theories, we explain how our proposed constructs fit within our chosen theory, the Cybernetic Big Five Theory of Personality. We then discuss similarities and differences to a similarly named construct, the Vocal Congruence Scale. Next, we review how these constructs may come to bear on an existing theory relevant to voice therapy, the Trans Theoretical Model of Health Behavior Change. Finally, we state testable hypotheses for future exploration, which we hope will establish a foundation for future investigations into communicative congruence. Conclusion: To our knowledge, the present paper is the first to explicitly define communicative congruence and communicative dysphoria. We embed these constructs within a comprehensive and mechanistic theory of personality and, in doing so, hope to provide a rigorous and comprehensive theoretical framework that will allow us to test and better understand these proposed constructs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0519.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: personality; emotional aspects; communication; work activity
Online: 21 November 2018 (07:06:12 CET)
One of the trends in current research in psychology explores how personal variables can determine a person’s communication style. Our objective was to find out the moderating effect of Mood in the relationship between the five big personality traits and an aggressive verbal communication style risk factor from work activity in a sample of nursing professionals. This study is a quantitative descriptive design. The final sample was 596 nurses with a range of 22 to 56 years. An ad hoc questionnaire was used to collect sociodemographic data, the 10-item Big Five Inventory, the Communication Styles Inventory, and the Brief Emotional Intelligence Inventory for Senior Citizens. This study showed that for nursing professionals, the “Agreeableness”, “Conscientiousness” and “Neuroticism” traits have a close relationship with aggressive verbal communication. Even though Mood moderates this relationship, it is only significant for those individuals with high scores in “Neuroticism”. Because personality dimensions are considered relatively stable over time and consistent from one situation to another, organizations should hold workshops and other types of practical activities to train workers in communication skills and Emotional Intelligence in order to promote employee health and that of their patients and avoid risk factor from work activity in nursing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0369.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: personality dynamics; general factor of personality; stimulus-response model; minimum action principle; Hamiltonian; Ermakov-Lewis energy
Online: 17 May 2021 (07:56:34 CEST)
The objective of this paper is to present a mathematical formalism that states a bridge between Physics and Psychology, concretely between analytical dynamics and personality theory in order to open new insights in this theory. In this formalism energy plays a central role. First, the short-term personality dynamics can be measured by the General Factor of Personality (GFP) response to an arbitrary stimulus. This GFP dynamical response is modelled by a stimulus-response model: an integro-differential equation. The bridge between Physics and Psychology is provided when the stimulus-response model can be formulated as a linear second order differential equation and, subsequently, reformulated as a Newtonian equation. This bridge is strengthened when the Newtonian equation is derived from a minimum action principle, obtaining the current Lagrangian and Hamiltonian functions. However, the Hamiltonian is a non-conserved energy. Then, some changes provide a conserved Hamiltonian function: the Ermakov-Lewis energy. This energy is presented, as well as the GFP dynamical response that can be derived from it. An application case is presented: an experimental design in which 28 individuals consumed 26.51 g of alcohol. This experiment provides an ordinal scale for the Ermakov-Lewis energies that predicts the effect of a single dose of alcohol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1143.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Locus Coeruleus; Personality; Openness to Experience; Intelligence
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:16:32 CEST)
It has been proposed that upregulation of the noradrenergic (NA) system through exposure to novelty might be one of the key components for building cognitive reserve and resilience to neurodegeneration. A personality trait that promotes greater interest in novel experiences is Openness to Experience (OE). Individuals who are high in OE exhibit strong curiosity towards novelty and are more likely to be exposed to novel stimuli throughout the lifespan.Performing voxel-based morphometry analyses, we examined whether OE in 135 healthy young adults was associated with Locus Coeruleus (LC) - the main core of the noradrenergic system. We also investigated whether LC mediates the relationship between OE and a key measure of reserve, I.Q. In comparison with other neuromodulators’ seeds (Dorsal and Median Raphe [DR-MR] -5-HT, Ventral Tegmental Area [VTA] -DA- and Nucleus Basalis of Meynert [NBM] -Ach-), results show that greater LC integrity was related to greater OE and IQ. Additionally, mediation analyses revealed that only LC mediated the relationship between OE and IQ. Furthermore, a Bayesian multiple regression was conducted to model the contribution of both isolated and combined neuromodulator seeds to OE trait express. This approach found that the LC + VTA could account for more variance in OE expression compared to the LC alone. Other weaker but significant associations were observed between DR and OE, between LC + NBM and Conscientiousness and between DR + NBM and Extraversion. These results are together suggestive that OE is primarily underpinned by monoaminergic functioning, and that the LC-NA system plays a central role mediating the interdependence between OE expression and cognition (IQ level). While offering further understanding of the neurobiology of human personality, these findings indicate a pivotal role of LC-NA system integrity in novelty seeking in daily life. This provides a psychobiological account for how OE expression may be beneficial for maintaining the noradrenergic system to facilitate cognitive reserve and resilience to neurodegenerative conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Judgement Bias; Personality; Social Status; Test Design
Online: 27 May 2020 (12:10:45 CEST)
The assessment of positive emotional states in animals has been advanced considerably through the use of judgement bias testing. JBT methods have now been reported in a range of species. Generally, these tests show good validity as ascertained through use of corroborating methods of affective state determination. However, published reports of judgement bias task findings can be counter-intuitive and show high inter-individual variability. It is proposed that these outcomes may arise as a result of inherent inter- and intra-individual differences as a result of biology. This review discusses the potential impact of sex and reproductive cycles, social status, genetics, early life experience and personality on judgement bias test outcomes. We also discuss some aspects of test design that may interact with these factors to further confound test interpretation. There is some evidence that a range of biological factors affect judgement bias test outcomes, but in many cases this evidence is limited and needs further characterisation to reproduce the findings and confirm directions of effect. It is our proposition that researchers should consider dedicated study on these factors and their impact on judgement biasing. This is needed to confirm effect and investigate mechanisms. Alternately, consideration and reporting of these factors in JBT studies through incorporation in statistical analyses will provide much needed additional data on their impact. These actions will enhance the validity and practical applicability of the JBT for welfare assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0277.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: personality; burnout; engagement; Big Five; healthcare personnel
Online: 28 January 2019 (12:00:59 CET)
The burnout syndrome, which affects so many healthcare workers, has recently awakened wide interest due to the severe repercussions related to its appearance. Even though job factors are determinant to its development, not all individuals exposed to the same work conditions show burnout, which demonstrates the importance of individual variables such as personality. The purpose of this study was to determine personality characteristics of a sample of nursing professionals based on the Big Five model, and then, having determined the personality profiles, analyze the differences in burnout and engagement based on those profiles. The sample was made up of 1236 nurses. An ad hoc questionnaire was prepared to collect the sociodemographic data, and the Brief Burnout Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Big Five Inventory-10 were used. The results showed that the existence of burnout in this group of workers, is associated negatively with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience, and positively with the neuroticism personality trait. These personality factors showed the opposite pattern with regard to engagement. Three different personality profiles were also found in nursing personnel, in which professionals who had a profile marked by strong neuroticism and low scores on the rest of the personality traits where those who were most affected by burnout.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0611.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Hypersexuality; Nymphomania; Satyriasis; Personality disorders; Bipolarism; Sexual arousal
Online: 20 April 2023 (05:42:07 CEST)
Introduction: The concept of hypersexuality belongs to modern parlance, according to a predominantly clinical meaning, understood as a psychological and behavioural alteration as a result of which sexually motivated stimuli are sought in inappropriate ways, often experienced in a way that is not completely satisfactory. Methods: Literature up to February 2023 was reviewed. Results: Forty-two articles were included in the review. Conclusion: Hypersexuality is a potentially clinically relevant condition, consisting of one or more dysfunctional and pathological behaviours of one's sexual sphere and graded according to the severity of impairment of subjective acting out; for this reason, the Perrotta Hypersexuality Global Scale (PH-GS) is suggested, which distinguishes high-functioning forms (pro-active and dynamic hypersexuality) from those of attenuated and corrupted functioning (dysfunctional and pathological hypersexuality of grade I and II). Future research is hoped to address the practical needs of this condition, such as the exact etiopathology, the role of oxytocin in dopaminergic hypotheses (and its ability to attenuate the symptomatology suffered by the patient in terms of manic drive), the best structural and functional personality framing of the subject, and the appropriate therapy to pursue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1894.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: Personality change; organ transplant; heart transplant; temperament; emotions; preferences
Online: 27 September 2023 (11:08:09 CEST)
Personality changes have been reported to occur following organ transplantation, and most commonly among heart transplant recipients. We set out to examine whether personality changes do occur following transplantation, and specifically, what types of changes occur among heart transplant recipients compared to other organ recipients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2022, in which 47 participants (23 heart recipients and 24 other organ recipients) completed an online survey. In this study, 89% of all transplant recipients reported experiencing personality changes after receiving their organ transplant, which was similar for heart and other organ recipients. With the exception of physical attributes, the types of personality changes reported were similar between the two groups. These finding indicate that heart transplant recipients are not unique in their reported experience of personality changes following organ transplantation. Further studies are needed to deepen our understanding of what causes these personality changes following organ transplantation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0273.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: dark triad personality; emergency response; psychological adaptation; narcissism; psychopathy
Online: 5 May 2023 (02:30:22 CEST)
The present research was titled “A Study on Dark Triad Personality and Emergency Response and Psychological Adaptation among Young Adults during Pandemic.” The purpose of the study was to explore the association between the dimensions of dark triad personality namely narcissism, psychopathy, Machiavellianism and the dimensions of emergency response and psychological adaptation namely worry, agitation, awareness, prosociality, perceived self-efficacy. The correlation between the dimensions of dark triad personality and the dimensions of emergency response and psychological adaptation. Gender differences were also studied for the dimension dark triad personality. The results showed that a strong positive correlation existed between narcissism and agitation, Machiavellianism and worry and Machiavellianism and agitation. Narcissism and psychopathy were found to be strong predictors of agitation. Significant Gender differences were noted on the dimensions of psychopathy and Machiavellianism where males scored higher than females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: burnout; occupational therapist; emotional exhaustion; health; stress; coping; personality
Online: 29 November 2022 (11:55:47 CET)
1) Background: There are few studies of burnout syndrome (BS) in occupational therapists (OTs), and protective factors of BS has received little attention in the scientific literature. This research aimed to estimate the prevalence of BS, characterize the associated psychosocial factors, and analyze their relationship with health in a sample of Spanish OTs. (2) Methods A total of 127 therapists completed the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and other standardized questionnaires measuring: personality traits (reduced five-factor personality inventory, NEO-FFI), coping styles (Coping Strategies Questionnaire, CAE), work-family conflict (Survey Work-Home Interaction Nijmegen, SWING), professional factors (role ambiguity/clarity and modified role conflict questionnaires), and the perception of health (Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire). Several correlational and multiple regression analyses were performed to study the psychosocial predictors of burnout and its relationship with health perception. (3) Results showed that 15.8% of the professionals presented BS, with emotional exhaustion (EE; 38.7%) being the most compromised dimension. Neuroticism, role conflict, negative work-family interaction, and open emotional expression (OE) significantly predicted a higher EE. The main predictors of cynicism (CY) were being male, role conflict, and OE. Finally, role conflict and role ambiguity and social support-seeking were significant predictors of reduced professional eﬃciency (PE). (4) Conclusion: A high percentage of OTs with BS advocates becoming aware of the importance of this syndrome in the health community, it would be critical to consider the protective factors (i.e., emotional management, social support) that help promote OTs’ well-being and health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0199.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Big Five; Natural Language Processing; Personality Detection; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 13 September 2021 (09:59:25 CEST)
Personality is the most critical feature that tells us about an individual. It is the collection of the individual’s thoughts, opinions, emotions and more. Personality detection is an emerging field in research and Deep Learning models have only recently started being developed. There is a need for a larger dataset that is unbiased as the current dataset that is used is in the form of questionnaires that the individuals themselves answer, hence increasing the chance of unconscious bias. We have used the famous stream-of-consciousness essays collated by James Pennbaker and Laura King. We have used the Big Five Model often known as the five-factor model or OCEAN model. Document-level feature extraction has been performed using Google’s word2vec embeddings and Mairesse features. The processed data has been fed into a deep convolutional network and a binary classifier has been used to classify the presence or absence of the personality trait. Hold- out method has been used to evaluate the model, and the F1 score has been used as the performance metric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0127.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Brand Personality; Corporate Social Responsibility; CSR Management; Branding; Sustainability
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:33:00 CEST)
This document aims to adapt the dimension of the Socially Responsible Brand Personality (SRBP), proposed by Mayorga (2017), in the midst of the Covid-19 pandemic. The interest of this work is to contribute with the management of the CSR, contributing from a communicational perspective with a tool that optimizes the construction of a socially responsible image by the different stakeholders. The results allow us to conclude that there is a structural modification of the brand personality, which can be presumed to be generated by the current environment and can be established as a pillar of CSR management in the new normality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0533.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; mental health; anxiety, work; stress; personality; loneliness
Online: 21 December 2020 (15:39:19 CET)
Background: COVID-19 crisis has changed the conditions of many throughout the globe. One negative consequence of the on-going pandemic is anxiety brought by uncertainty and the COVID-19 disease. Increased anxiety is a potential risk factor for wellbeing at work. This study investigated psychological, situational, and socio-demographic predictors of COVID-19 anxiety using longitudinal data. Methods: Nationally representative sample of Finnish workers (N = 1308) was collected before and during the COVID-19 crisis. Eighty percent of the participants responded to the follow-up study (N=1044). COVID-19 anxiety was measured with a modified Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory. Psychological and situational predictors included perceived loneliness, psychological distress, technostress, personality, social support received from work community, and remote working. Also, number of socio-demographic factors were investigated. Results: Perceived loneliness, psychological distress, technostress, and neuroticism were identified as robust psychological predictors of COVID-19 anxiety. Increase in psychological distress and technostress during the COVID-19 crisis predicted higher COVID-19 anxiety. Recent change in work field and decreased social support from work community predicted COVID-19 anxiety. Women and young people experienced higher anxiety. Conclusions: Different factors explain workers’ COVID-19 anxiety. Increased anxiety can disrupt wellbeing at work, emphasizing organizations’ role in maintaining an inclusive and caring work culture and providing technical and psychological support to workers during crisis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0003.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: neurobiological; personality; group processes; cohesion; intelligence; oxytocin; serotonin; dopamine
Online: 2 July 2020 (12:50:13 CEST)
By using a systems biological perspective and available literature on human social interaction, grouping, and cohesiveness, a new coherent model is proposed that integrates existing social integration and neurobiological research into a theoretical neurobiological framework of personality and social interaction. This model allows for the coherent analysis of complex social systems and interactions within them, and proposes a framework for estimating group cohesiveness and evaluating group structures in order to build and organize optimized social groups. This „Neurobiological-Associative“ model proposes two primary feedback loops, with environmental conditioning (learning) being sorted into an associative model that modulates interaction with the social environment, and which impacts the second feedback loop involving the individuals' neurobiological capacity. In this paper, the concept of neurobiological capacity is developed and based upon contemporary research on intelligence, personality, and social behavior with a focus on the oxytocin, serotonin, and dopamine systems. The basis of social exclusion and group structure is thus, expressed in the very most simple terms, neurobiological compatibility and risk assessment modulated by an internal associative model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0264.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: emotional intelligence; job satisfaction; military context; proactive personality; resilience
Online: 23 September 2019 (07:40:31 CEST)
Although prior research has extensively examined the association of emotional intelligence (EI) with various job attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction), the empirical and systematic investigation of this link within military institutions has captured considerably less research attention. The present research analyzed the relationship between EI, teamwork communication, and job satisfaction among Spanish military cadets. We tested the potential unique contribution of EI to job satisfaction over and above demographics (i.e., gender and age), proactive personality, and resilience. Moreover, we also examined whether EI indirectly affects job satisfaction via its relationship with teamwork communication. A sample of 363 cadet officers of the Spanish General Military Academy completed questionnaires assessing EI, teamwork communication, proactive personality, resilience, and job satisfaction. Our results revealed that EI exhibited incremental variance in predicting job satisfaction even after accounting for demographics, proactive personality, and resilience. Additionally, we found that the effect of EI on job satisfaction was partially driven by enhanced teamwork communication. This research provides empirical evidence suggesting a pathway (i.e., effective teamwork communication) through which EI helps military cadets to experience higher job satisfaction. Implications for future academic programs including EI and teamwork communication to promote positive job attitudes among military personnel are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1647.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: AI; HyperCLOVA X; Personality; Digital Twin; Large Language Model; Transformer
Online: 25 October 2023 (13:42:27 CEST)
A digital twin is a virtual representation that serves as the real-time digital counterpart of a physical object or system. Recent advancements have extended the concept of digital twins to humans, incorporating complex biological data such as DNA (Predictiv Care, Inc.) and immune system profiles. These sophisticated models go beyond mere pictorial representations, offering a more holistic digital reflection. However, a significant gap remains. The current human digital twin models are not capable of learning one’s preferences. In this pilot study, we introduce Diginality, a chatbot powered by HyperCLOVA X, a Large Language Model (LLM) developed by NAVER, Inc. Diginality, learns one’s preferences with custom training from data collected by interview-style questions on the user’s topic of interest. Our findings demonstrate that Diginality successfully answers one’s preferences, thereby adding a new dimension to the concept of human digital twins. This work represents a pioneering step towards creating a more comprehensive and psychologically nuanced human digital twin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1426.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: personality types; coping strategies; perceived coping efficacy; academic stress; gender
Online: 20 July 2023 (13:02:49 CEST)
Some evidence suggests that personality types are a useful construct to understand stress and coping. However, further research is needed, especially on academic stress. Our aim was to explore how personality types and gender relate to coping strategies for academic stress and perceived coping efficacy. A total of 810 university psychology students completed the NEO-FFI Inventory and the Coping Strategies Inventory. Post-hoc tests for MANOVA and ANOVA were performed, where personality types and gender were treated as predictors and use of coping strategies and perceived coping efficacy as criteria. Finally, a one-way ANOVA followed by post hoc comparisons was performed to analyse the associations between personality types and perceived coping efficacy. Those with personality types combining low neuroticism with high conscientiousness chose the most adaptive coping strategies and showed the highest levels of perceived coping efficacy, while those whose personality types combined high neuroticism with low conscientiousness opted for maladaptive coping strategies and presented the lowest level of perceived coping efficacy. As for gender, women chose emotional expression more frequently. The personality type classification provided useful information on individual differences in coping with academic stress, which can help guide specific strategies to manage it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0440.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Heart rate variability (HRV); Conversation; Extraversion personality; Perceived social isolation
Online: 19 May 2021 (12:42:21 CEST)
Studies showed that introversion is the strongest personality trait related to perceived social isolation (loneliness), which can predict various complications beyond objective isolation such as living alone. Lonely individuals are more likely resort to social media for instantaneous comfort, but it is not a perpetual solution. Largely negative implications including poorer interpersonal relationship and depression were reported due to excessive social media usage. Conversational task is an established intervention to improve verbal communication, cognitive and behavioral adaptation among lonely individuals. Despite that behavioral benefits have been reported, it is unclear if they are accompanied by objective benefits underlying physiological changes. Here, we investigate the physiological signals from 28 healthy individuals during a conversational task. Participants were ranked by trait extraversion, where greater introversion is associated with increased susceptibility to perceived social isolation as compared to participants with greater extraversion as controls. We found that introverts had a greater tendency to be neurotic, and these participants also exhibited significant differences in task-related electrodermal activity (EDA), heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) as compared to controls. Notably, resting state HRV among individuals susceptible to perceived loneliness was below the healthy thresholds established in literature. Conversational task with a stranger significantly increased HRV among individuals susceptible to isolation up to levels as seen in controls. Since HRV is also elevated by physical exercise and administration of oxytocin hormone (one form of therapy for behavioral isolation), conversational therapy among introverts could potentially confer physiological benefits to ameliorate social isolation and loneliness. Our findings also suggest that although the recent pandemic have changed how people are interacting typically, we should maintain a healthy dose of social interaction innovatively.
Subject: Social Sciences, Religion Keywords: tendency of corruption; dark triad personality; organizational culture; religiosity; compensation
Online: 11 January 2021 (13:03:22 CET)
Internal and external factors influence the tendency of corruption. One of these internal factors is Dark Triad Personality, religiosity, and compensation, while the external factors are the organizational culture. This first study was conducted on 222 private employees and the second study 205 state employee in the East Java area. All subjects have worked at the company for at least 1 year and have a position as the staff, administrator, manager, and age range from 22 to 55. The results of the first study using regression analysis showed that: there was a significant correlation between dark triad personality, organization culture, and the tendency of corruption of private employee (F = 60,132; p = 0,000); there was a significant negative correlation between organizational culture and tendency of corruption (p = 0,000); there was a positive correlation between dark triad personality and the tendency of corruption (p = 0.05). The results of the second study using regression analysis showed that: there was a significant correlation between religiosity, compensation, and the tendency of corruption of state employee (F = 65.950; p = 0,000); there was a significant negative correlation between religiosity and tendency of corruption (p = 0,000); there was no correlation between compensation and tendency of corruption (p = 0.074). This research's practical implication is: the company or institution must always create a positive perception of organizational culture, minimize dark triad personality, and maximize religiosity to reduce the tendency of corruption among employees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0168.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: fine motor precision; vision; proprioception; sex differences; individual differences; personality
Online: 15 November 2019 (03:46:22 CET)
Previous studies have reported certain sex differences in motor performance precision. The aim of the present study was to analyse sex differences in fine motor precision performance for both hands in different tests conditions. 220 Spanish participants (ages: 12-95) performed fine motor tasks - tracing over the provided models – lines of 40 mm for both hands, two sensory conditions (PV – proprioceptive-visual; P – proprioceptive only) and three movement types (F – frontal, T – transversal and S - Sagittal). Differences in line length (the task focused on precision) were observed through MANOVA analysis for all test conditions, both sexes and different age groups. Sex differences in precision were observed in F and T movement types (statistically significance level and higher Cohens’ d was observed in condition with vision). No any statistically significant differences were observed in both hands and sensory conditions in sagittal type. Sex differences in fine motor precision were more frequently observed in the PV sensory condition in the frontal movement type and less in the sagittal one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Borderline personality disorder; machine learning; data fusion; child trauma; symptoms severity
Online: 6 February 2023 (08:47:40 CET)
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) is a severe personality disorder whose neural bases are still unclear. Indeed, previous studies reported inconsistent findings concerning alterations in cortical and subcortical areas. In the present study we applied for the first time an unsupervised machine learning approach known as mCCA+jICA, in combination with a supervised machine learning approach known as Random Forest, to possibly find covarying GM-WM circuits that separate BPD from controls and that are also predictive of this diagnosis. To this aim, we analyzed the structural images of patients with BPD and matched HCs. Results showed that two GM-WM covarying circuits, including basal ganglia, amygdala, and portions of the temporal lobes and of the orbitofrontal cortex, correctly classified BPD against HC. Notably, these circuits are affected by specific child traumatic experiences (emotional and physical neglect, and physical abuse) and predict symptoms severity in the interpersonal and impulsivity domains. These results support that BPD is characterized by anomalies in GM and WM circuits related to early traumatic experiences and specific symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0071.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; lockdown; Mediterranean diet; personality traits; physical activity; lifestyle habits
Online: 2 April 2021 (14:21:13 CEST)
The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) resulted in lockdowns and social distancing measures enforced by governments. Using a cross-sectional design, this study aimed to identify changes in adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) and physical activity (PA) and associations with personality, during lockdown in Qatar. A sample of 543 participants was recruited online between April and May 2020. Results showed a reduction in Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during lockdown (5.9 ± 0.08) compared to before lockdown (6.1 ± 0.08) (p ˂ 0.001). Although there was an increase in the percentage of participants who consumed ≥4 tablespoons olive oil per day (9% vs 12%; p ˂ 0.001), vegetables (54.3% vs 58.7%; p = 0.005), legumes (11.8% vs 15.3%; p = 0.007) and sofrito (70.9% vs 77.3%; p ˂ 0.001), there was also a significant decrease in the percentage of participants who consumed fresh fruit (39.4% vs 15.8%; p ˂ 0.001) and fish/seafood (5.9% vs 3.9%; p = 0.035) and an increase in saturated fat consumption (45.9% vs 53.8%; p ˂ 0.001), during lockdown compared to before lockdown. Participants who scored high in the extraversion personality dimension had a higher MD adherence (B = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.04, 1.64; p = 0.039) before lockdown compared to participants who scored high in the agreeableness personality dimension, although this difference did not reach statistical significance during lockdown. Those who scored high in openness had the lowest change in MD adherence score (B = -0.31; 95% CI = -0.58, -0.04; p = 0.026). Total PA (B = -506.26; 95% CI = -678.60, -333.92; p ˂ 0.001), vigorous activity (B = -155.95; 95% CI = -274.64, - 38.21; p = 0.010), moderate activity (B = -93.04; 95% CI = -148.07, -38.01; p = 0.010) and walking (B = -257.27; 95% CI = -337.87, -176.67; p ˂ 0.001) were decreased during lockdown, while sitting was increased compared to before lockdown (B = 940.91, 95% CI = 831.9, 1049.90; p ˂ 0.001). Openness was positively associated with all PA (B = 562.2; 95% CI = 62.7, 106.7; p = 0.027), including walking (B = 241.7; 95 % CI = 29.4, 454.0; p = 0.026) and negatively associated with sitting (B= -303.4; 95% CI = -590.0; -16.8; p = 0.038) when compared to those with high agreeableness scores, before lockdown. During lockdown, the time spent sitting was lower in those with high scores on neuroticism when compared to those with high agreeableness scores (B= -619.5; 95 % CI = -1215,-23.9; p = 0.042). Differential changes in lifestyle habits by personality dimensions during lockdown, suggest the need to tailor lifestyle interventions based on people’s personality types, for more effective lifestyle change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0338.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: animal personality; swimming activity; male mate choice; mating preferences; Poecilia reticulata
Online: 18 January 2021 (12:58:42 CET)
Mate choice that is based on behavioural traits is a common feature in the animal kingdom. Using the Trinidadian guppy, a species with mutual mate choice, we investigated whether males use female swimming activity – a behavioural trait known to differ consistently among individuals in many species – as a trait relevant for their mate choice. In a first experiment, we assessed male and female activity in an open field test alone (two repeated measures) and afterwards in heterosexual pairs (two repeated measures). In these pairs, we simultaneously assessed males’ mating efforts by counting number of sexual behaviours (courtship displays and copulation). Male and female guppies showed consistent individual differences in their swimming activity when tested both alone and in a pair, and these differences were maintained across both test situations. When controlling for male swimming behaviour and both male and female body size, males performed more courtship displays towards females with higher swimming activity. In a second experiment, we tested for a directional male preference for swimming activity by presenting males video animations of low and high active females in a dichotomous choice test. In congruence with experiment 1, we found males to spend significantly more time in association with the high active female stimulus. Both experiments thus point towards a directional male preference for higher activity levels in females. We discuss the adaptive significance of this preference as activity patterns might indicate individual female quality, health or reproductive state while, mechanistically, females that are more active might be more detectable to males as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1037.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Nursing Values; COVID-19; Nursing Stress; Burnout; PTSD; Hardy Personality; Self-Actualization
Online: 16 November 2023 (11:09:07 CET)
The present paper presents findings from the follow-up of 185 of these nurses who had been involved in the front-line care of COVID-19 patients in urban centres in Northern England, during and after the “second wave” of COVID patients in November, 2020. Measures of adjustment, stress (including PTSD), and Maslowian self-actualization were added to earlier measures of personality, adjustment, work-life stress, and career intention. Cluster analysis identified three types in the 2020-2023 cohort: I ‘Actualizing Professionals’; (N=62); II ‘Strong Professionals’ (N=56); III ‘Highly Stressed Nurses’ (N=45). These latter very stressed nurses included all nurses (N=16) identified as having PTSD symptoms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0461.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: eating disorders; anorexia nervosa; bulimia nervosa; personality traits; screening tools; Covid-19
Online: 20 August 2020 (13:11:08 CEST)
This article aims to review the screening and diagnostic tools for eating disorders (ED). Eating disorders represent a complex pathology defined by an imbalance between hunger and satiety, installed in an emotional, traumatic, or conflictive context. Recently, the emphasis regarding ED is focused on the link between genetics, mental pathology, and the somatic and metabolic phenotype and early detection. Early detection and intervention can assure a better recovery and can improve a lot the quality of life of these patients. Methods: We selected ten articles of central importance on the topic in a systematic search on eight databases, articles selected on the type of scales, and size of the study. Results: We identified eight questionnaire scales used in large trials in ED disorders in the scanned literature, choose because we consider it the most accurate and the ones that evaluate best the pathology and the elements that are important as specific traits in ED. There are interview-type scales and self-administered scales. Interview scales are characterized by assessments of symptoms and diagnosis, while self-administered assess particular traits and the possibility of further development of eating disorders. The majority of the scales evaluated were described and used in adult populations. From all the scales assessed and analyzed, only three are described at the child population – it is EAT-26 (> 16 years), EDI-3 (>13 years), and ANSOCQ (> 13 years). Conclusions: It is essential to develop specific scales for people under 18 years of age, given the increasing incidence of ED among children and the need for early detection and appropriate intervention. Early detection of ED in children implies a simple and accurate evaluation at the primary care level or in schools, as the course of the disease can be subclinical for several years. Moreover, the need for accurate scales and telemedicine testing and diagnosis is of high importance during the COVID-19 pandemic as youth are at particular risk being psychologically affected due to disrupted education and social interactions - at a critical time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0246.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: complex problem solving; microworlds; personality; investment traits; within-individual variabil-ity; performance trajectories
Online: 18 July 2022 (03:43:39 CEST)
Complex problem-solving (CPS) tasks have become an increasingly popular tool for understand-ing and assessing cognitive ability. These tasks have been repeatedly shown to be predictors of academic and workplace success above and beyond traditional measures of general intelligence and fluid intelligence. To date, there has been little exploration of the underlying mechanisms that drive this additional predictive utility. In this study, we examined the role of a variety of non-cognitive personality and investment traits that could drive performance on CPS tasks. Adult participants (n = 152) were recruited via M-Turk and completed a battery of personality and in-vestment trait measures, a measure of general mental ability, and a 61-trial microworlds-style CPS task. Generalised linear mixed-effects models revealed a wide variety of personality and in-vestment traits influenced task performance above and beyond general mental ability. Specifical-ly, two clusters of traits emerged as important determinants of performance: one cluster that in-fluenced the capacity to deal with the introduction of system randomness (Conscientiousness and Extraversion) and one cluster that influenced the capacity to deal with the introduction of system delays (NFC, Learning Goal Orientation, and Intellect). These findings suggest that CPS tasks do capture more than just general mental ability and may be good predictors of academic and workplace success because they tap into both cognitive ability and the motivation and willingness to engage in cognitive exploration and mental effort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0122.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: social skill deficits; major depression; stress; state marker; introvert personality; family supporting satisfaction
Online: 7 May 2020 (12:37:06 CEST)
Background: Social skills deficits are present in 43.3% of major depressed patients and significantly impact health-related quality of life. However, studies concerning social deficits as state-dependent markers of depression are limited. Objective: To delineate the effects of severity of depression, personality characteristics, family support satisfaction and self-esteem on social skills in clinical depression. Methods: We recruited 150 patients with major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder and assessed 1) Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), 2) Social Skill Inventory (SSI), 3) Family Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve (APGAR) Questionnaire 4) Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and 5) Maudsley Personal Inventory (MPI). Results: Social skills deficits were significantly associated with female gender, age < 40 years, depression severity, introvert / neurotic personality, and lowered family support satisfaction and self-esteem. A large part of the variance (47.2%) in social skills deficits was predicted by satisfaction of family support, introvert personality, and low self-esteem. Exploratory Factor Analysis showed that a bifactorial model best fitted the data with a) a general factor loading highly on BDI-II, SSI emotional and social, APGAR, RSES, MPI_introvert and MPI_neurotic scores, and b) a single-group factor loading on both SSI, RSES, and MPI introvert scores. Conclusion: In clinical depression, social skills deficits covary with increasing severity of depression and thus constitute a state marker of depression, and independently from severity of depression covary with introvert personality features. As such, remission of social skills deficits may emerge as a novel objective for the treatment of depression and prevention of new episodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1614.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: online shopping; structural equation modeling; cognitive load; fear of missing out; personality type; online shopping addiction
Online: 22 June 2023 (11:55:24 CEST)
E-commerce platforms created to meet the needs of digital consumers, who are the leading actors of digital-oriented consumption, are increasing rapidly. Revolutionizing our daily lives by offering the digital equivalent of real-world experiences, e-commerce now offers a comfortable shopping experience that transcends the limitations of time and space. This phenomenon has been embraced by individuals spanning all age groups, from young children to the elderly. Structural equation modeling was used in this study, in which the factors affecting online shopping addiction were determined. In this direction, the causal and correlational relationships between the variables of fear of missing out (FoMO), cognitive load, personality types, some socio-demographic characteristics (gender and monthly shopping amount) and online shopping addiction in online shopping were revealed structurally. Since the purposive sampling was used, the study was carried out on 488 people. The goodness-of-fit indices included in the created model were found at an “acceptable” level (χ2/df= 2.248, p=0.000; RMSEA=0.051; GFI=0.878; AGFI=0.856; CFI=0.950; NFI=0.914). These results show that the final version of the model meets the necessary criteria for a good fit, its validity and accuracy. The study revealed the causal and correlational relationship between online shopping addiction and cognitive load, personality types, FoMO, gender, and monthly online shopping amount.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0377.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Police Mental Health Act; Section 136; repeated detention; suicide and suicide prevention; trauma; personality disorder; lived experience
Online: 31 October 2019 (16:48:30 CET)
Most police Mental Health Act (Section 136) detentions in England and Wales relate to suicide prevention. Despite attempts to reduce detention rates, numbers have risen almost continually. Although Section 136 has been subject to much academic and public policy scrutiny, the topic of individuals being detained on multiple occasions remains under-researched and thus poorly understood. A mixed methods study combined six in-depth interviews with people who had experienced numerous suicidal crises and police intervention, with detailed police and mental health records. A national police survey provided wider context. Consultants with lived experience of complex mental health problems jointly analysed interviews. Repeated detention is a nationally recognised issue. In South East England it almost exclusively relates to suicide or self-harm and accounts for a third of all detentions. Females are detained with the highest frequencies. The qualitative accounts revealed complex histories of unresolved trauma that had catastrophically damaged interviewee’s relational foundations, rendering them disenfranchised from services and consigned to relying on police intervention in repeated suicidal crises. A model is proposed that offers a way to conceptualise the phenomenon of repeated detention, highlighting that long-term solutions to sustain change are imperative, as reactive-only responses can perpetuate crisis cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0414.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: nursing values; burnout; hardy personality; work-life balance; nursing stress; co-counselling; critical realism; nurse education; nurse-patient ratios
Online: 19 November 2018 (04:21:47 CET)
This initial report of a longitudinal study of 192 English hospital nurses has measured Nursing Values (the 6Cs of nursing); Personality, Self-Esteem and Depression; Burnout Potential; Work-Life Balance Stress; ‘Hardy Personality’; and Intention to Leave Nursing. Correlational, component and cluster analysis identifies four groups: “The Soldiers” (N = 79) , with medium scores on most measures, who bravely ‘soldier on’ in their nursing roles, in the face of numerous financial cuts to the National Health Service, and worsening nurse-patient ratios; “Cheerful Professionals” (N = 54), coping successfully with nursing roles, and a variety of challenges, in upwardly mobile careers; “High Achievers” (N = 39), senior nurses with strong profiles of a ‘hardy personality’, and commitment to fundamental nursing values; “Highly Stressed, Potential Leavers” (N = 20), with indicators of significant psychological distress, and difficulty in coping with nursing role challenges. We propose a model of co-counselling and social support for this distressed group, by nurses who are coping more successfully with multiple challenges. We discuss the role of nurse educators in fostering nursing values, and developing and supporting ‘hardy personality’ and emotional resilience in recruits to nursing. This study is framed within the disciplinary approach of Critical Realism, which identifies the value basis for research and dialogue in developing strategies for social change.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: living systems; the Fibonacci sequence; systems strategies; a human's information analysis; the two hemispheres of the brain; differential personality models
Online: 8 February 2021 (16:17:11 CET)
This theoretical article provides a brief description of the model of living systems' functioning by defining them as resource flows patterns. It reviews the living systems growth limitation between their development cycles by the Fibonacci sequence. Besides, there are presented systems resource base criteria, necessary for accumulating the resources and their investment. The article also considers the conditions for the formation of various systems strategies. Then we reviewed the principles of elemental analysis of information by a person as a living system according to the considered model. The study also shows the possibility of forming priorities in analyzing information for 16 combinations as maximum. At that, it remains crucial to divide a human's information analysis between the two hemispheres of the brain. The described combinations of priorities in a person's information analysis are compared with the existing differential personality models, such as the big five personality traits, the Myers-Briggs type indicator, temperaments model and Honey and Mumford Learning styles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2091.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Regional organisations; Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft; Collectivism-Individualism; Cultural Agency Theory; metacybernetics; political development; social psychology; Mindset Agency Theory; normative personality; EU; ASEAN
Online: 5 June 2023 (09:00:10 CEST)
Regional organisations (ROs) are important in that they can enable states in their regions to pros-per and develop for improvement. Interest here lies in the European Union (EU) and the Associa-tion of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). Their political development involves complex process-es for collective actions involving ingroup member RO states. To explore development, we firstly examine the rise of both the EU and ASEAN. The literature gives some attention to the behaviour-alist political approach to explain developmental differences using social organisation theory, often in terms of the Gemeinschaft-Gesellschaft paradigm of Tönnies. However, here we adopt a social psychology approach that distinguishes between operative structure (which directly determines behaviour), and substructure (housing normative personality deemed to be responsible for behav-ioural imperatives). This enables a relationship to be made between the Tönnies paradigm and the Collectivism-Individualism paradigm of Triandis. The theoretical approach adopted involves a complex adaptive systems model deriving from metacybernetics, and this also delivers Mindset Agency Theory as a qualitative methodology. Consistent with the general view, it is shown that the EU is more or less a coherent rational organisation, while ASEAN is more idealistic delivering pragmatic paradox. In particular, ASEAN is frequently descried as an organisation with contra-dictions, and for this reason its pathologies are explored in some detail
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0149.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: sensory processing sensitivity; highly sensitive person; highly sensitive child; differential susceptibility; environmental sensitivity; temperament; personality; aetiology; animal model; neuroscience; cognition; mental health
Online: 10 September 2018 (04:58:01 CEST)
Sensory Processing Sensitivity (SPS) is a trait describing inter-individual differences in sensitivity to environments, both positive and negative ones. SPS has attracted growing societal interest. However, (neuro)scientific evidence is lagging behind. We critically discuss how to measure SPS, how it relates to other theories of Environmental Sensitivity and other temperament and personality traits, how SPS interacts with environments to influence (a)typical development, what the underlying aetiologies and mechanisms are, and its relation to mental disorders involving sensory sensitivities. Drawing on the diverse expertise of the authors, we set an agenda for future research to stimulate the field. We conclude that SPS is a heritable, evolutionarily conserved trait, linked to increased risk for psychopathology and stress-related problems in response to negative environments, as well as to greater benefits (e.g., intervention responsivity, positive mood) in positive environments. We need advances in objective assessment of SPS, understanding mechanisms, differentiating it from (seemingly) related mental disorders, to exploit the potential of SPS to improve mental health, preserve human capital, and prevent adverse effects.