ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: health literacy; food literacy; dietary intake; nutrition; office workers; health promotion
Online: 10 November 2022 (10:14:31 CET)
Widespread patterns of poor dietary behavior are a key factor causing the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases around the world. Research provides initial insights into the potential of food literacy (FL) to empower individuals to improve their dietary behavior. Yet, studies on FL interventions in working adults are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the short- and long-term effects of a comprehensive 3-week workplace health promotion program (WHPP) on FL and dietary intake (DI) and to examine the association between FL and DI in a sample of 144 German office workers (30.0% female). Using two random intercept mixed linear regression models, we found significant strong improvements for both FL (β = 0.52, p < .0001) and DI (β = 0.63, p < .0001) after the WHPP when compared to baseline. Significant long-term improvements at 18 months where strong for FL (β = 0.55, p < .0001) and small for DI (β = 0.10, p < .0001). FL showed a significant moderate effect on DI across all measurement time points (β = 0.24, p < .0001). Our study fills a gap of long-term findings in the literature on FL interventions, offers insights into underlying mechanisms, and provides recommendations for effective WHPPs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0529.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Project Management Office; PMO; Enterprise Project Management Office (EPMO); EPMO Challenges; ANOVA; Efficiency
Online: 26 October 2020 (14:11:05 CET)
During the European unification process, they stated the need for drawing up a common energy strategic plan that will affects electricity production system in terms of infrastructure, production and generation. The EU strategic action plans included; reduction in emissions, an increase in renewable energies, energy efficiency. In this light therefore the energy efficiency was booked for researching. This article presents an in-depth study of the challenges in transforming a functioning PMO model to an EPMO model within four electricity companies from different countries within the EU and how those challenges can be address within companies implementing same methodology to bring about electricity production efficiency. Will these identified challenges make it impossible for the companies to achieve electricity production efficiency in the transformation from PMO to EPMO? PMO has been the major methodology used by these companies. To achieve production efficiency, the need for a heavyweight methodology was identified (EPMO) and implemented in four mega electricity producing companies with cross boarder distributions, one from France; Germany; Spain and UK
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0878.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Open-plan office; Intelligibility; Reverberation
Online: 12 May 2023 (04:18:45 CEST)
The acoustic conditions of open-plan office spaces influence wellbeing and productivity perceived by users, but with an inadequate evaluation for workspace, acoustic design in open-plan offices can be a factor that alters user performance. Such is the case in Mexico, where there are no adequate standards to evaluate specific acoustic conditions such as intelligibility. For this reason, this case study aims to evaluate different types of measurement methods for intelligibility. This study was carried out in a university in northern Mexico. The sound measurements were based on the Mexican standard for noise analysis and the ISO 3382- part 3 standards for acoustic measurements for open-plan offices. The psychoacoustic parameters evaluated were Reverberation and Intelligibility, using objective methods determined on S/N and subjective methods based on loss of consonant; where it was analyzed distance between sound source and zones classified by building design characteristics. The results indicated in which points the intelligibility effects increased, observing that Reverberation remained stable in this office, and that the subjective methods presented greater size of the measured sound effect than the objective methods. This finding establishes that subjective methods conformed to Lognormal behavior, which is applicable to other linguistic elements describing speech behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0514.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: ROSA; RULA; WMSD; office; biomechanical risks
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:59:36 CET)
The adoption of harmful postures due to a sedentary lifestyle, which involves long periods at work in offices, is a factor that exacerbates musculoskeletal risks. To examine these risks, there are numerous postures analysis methods, such as Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA). RULA is a consolidated method to evaluate the exposure of individual workers to ergonomic risk factors associated with upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders. In turn, ROSA is a more recent method that quantifies exposure to risk factors in an office work environment. This research aims to identify whether there is harmony between these two methods, ROSA and RULA. Through applied research, from a qualitative perspective, the scientific procedures adopted were direct observation and ROSA and RULA postural assessment instruments. The study was conducted in the radiology service and focused on the outpatient reception workstation. Results indicated that further investigation must occur to make working conditions changes as soon as possible and that both methods are harmonic. As contributions of the analysis, we have discussed the working conditions and suggested improvements to reduce the risks of musculoskeletal morbidity symptoms. We recommend future studies aimed at measuring the levels of complementarity between these methods by quantitative approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: thermal comfort; draught; cooling period; open office
Online: 24 December 2019 (08:42:03 CET)
Local thermal comfort (TC) and draught rate (DR) has been studied widely. There has been more meaningful research performed in controlled boundary condition situations than in actual work environments involving occupants. TC conditions in office buildings in Estonia have been barely investigated in the past. In this paper, the results of TC and DR assessment in five office buildings in Tallinn are presented and discussed. Studied office landscapes vary in heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system parameters, room units and elements. All sample buildings were less than six years old, equipped with dedicated outdoor air ventilation system and room conditioning units. The on-site measurements consisted of TC and DR assessment with indoor climate questionnaire (ICQ). The purpose of the survey is to assess the correspondence between HVAC design and the actual situation. Results show, whether and in what extent the standard-based criteria for TC is suitable for actual usage of the occupants. Preferring one room conditioning unit type or system may not guarantee better thermal environment without draught. Although some HVAC systems observed in this study should create the prerequisites for ensuring more comfort, results show that this is not the case for all buildings in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0294.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: work environment; employers; office space; remote work; COVID-19
Online: 21 June 2022 (10:31:48 CEST)
The pandemic is fast moving, accelerating rapid changes that lead to new challenges and making organizations suffer an impact. A big mark has been left on the workplaces - places where we do business, because an ongoing change to remote work challenges the role of the office. It is highly possible that as the change is progressing, it is not only the workplace that will change its design, but also the way in which work will be planned, organized, done and controlled. However, as the restrictions ease up questions appear: What is the potential of office sustainability? How has the perception of flexible office space changed due to the COVID-19 pandemic? This paper used an online survey as a quantitative research method. In this paper, we looked at the employer’s vision of the office. We investigated employers’ perspectives of where and in what settings the work will be done in the post-pandemic time. Specifically, we discussed the changes employers will apply in terms of work environment and office layout. The findings suggest that an increasing mobile workforce and expansion of the new workstyle will not mean an office exodus, but will certainly have an impact on office utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0457.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Sleep, Office workers, office workstation, wellbeing, stress, physical activity, wearables, digital health, sleep quality index, tracking sleep quality, workstation types, accelerometry, heart rate variability
Online: 27 August 2018 (11:33:23 CEST)
Study Objective: This study examined office workstation types’ impact on objective health-related metrics including stress, physical activity (PA), and sleep quality. We propose a sensor-based sleep quality index (SB-SQI) to fill a needed gap for objective sleep quality measurement over short timescales. Methods: We monitored 231 office workers using chest-worn sensors for 72 hours, yielding 11,736 hours of usable data from 163 participants (mean age 43.4, 56% women). SB-SQI was based on a validated algorithm estimating sleep-onset latency, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency, using the scoring method from the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We examined the relationships between SB-SQI, office workstation type (open-bench seating, cubicle, and private office), work-hours stress (standard deviation of heart rate variability), and after-work PA (relative duration of moderate-to-vigorous activity). Results: The sensor-derived poor-sleep ratio of the private office workers was higher than with other office workstation types (81% vs. 66.1%, p = 0.023). PSQI revealed a similar but insignificant trend with a lower effect-size. Among good-sleepers, open-bench seating workers had 22% (p = 0.018) less stress during work hours than others. A significant association between work-hours stress and after-work hours PA (r = 0.331, p = 0.000) was observed irrespective of office workstation type, with the highest PA level observed for open-bench seating workers. Conclusions: Office workstation type had a significant impact on work-hours stress, affecting PA after work hours, which influenced sleep quality. SB-SQI could be more sensitive than PSQI in determining the impact of office workstation types on sleep quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: air quality; carbon dioxide (CO2); thermal comfort; office buildings; mixed-mode buildings.
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:55:27 CEST)
Since people spend most of their time in indoor environments, the objective of this work was to study indoor air quality perception and its effects on users’ thermal comfort. Based on previous data from a building with a central air-conditioning system and two mixed-mode buildings located in the humid subtropical climate of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, statistical analyses were performed. Each user subjective answer obtained through a questionnaire was combined with the corresponding environmental conditions – measured using microclimate stations, a portable thermo-anemometer and a CO2 analyser. Results showed that improvement in air quality was associated with the reduction of air temperature and humidity ratio. Also, there was a significant influence of thermal, air movement and humidity sensation and acceptability of air quality perception. Users felt more satisfied or neutral with air quality for being in thermal comfort, and not because of the CO2 level – which means that air quality perception is influenced by factors other than CO2. This study recommends the implementation of an air exchange device in split air-conditioners with air recirculation used in mixed-mode buildings in Brazil. It is important to provide suitable indoor ventilation to reduce pollutants concentration, ensure good air quality and prevent respiratory diseases.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: building simulation; office buildings; energy performance; energy modelling; HVAC; analytical modelling; statistical analysis
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:40:25 CEST)
Large office buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of energy consumption in urban districts. However, thorough assessments regarding the Nordic countries are still lacking. In this paper we analyse the largest dataset to date for a Nordic office building, by considering a case study located in Stockholm, Sweden, that is occupied by nearly a thousand employees.Distinguishing the lighting and occupants’ appliances energy use from heating and cooling, we can estimate the impact of occupancy without any schedule data. A standard frequentist analysis is compared with Bayesian inference, and the according regression formulas are listed in tables that are easy to implement into building performance simulations (BPS). Monthly as well as seasonal correlations are addressed, showing the critical importance of occupancy.A simple method, grounded on the power drain measurements aimed at generating boundary conditions for the BPS, is also introduced; it shows how, for this type of data and number of occupants, no more complexities are needed in order to obtain reliable predictions. For an average year, we overestimate the measured cumulative consumption by only 4.7%. The model can be easily generalised to a variety of datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0204.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Office of Innovation; novel drugs; novel therapies; regulatory science; Latin American Regulatory landscape
Online: 18 September 2019 (12:51:16 CEST)
Regulatory agencies across the Latin American Region have strengthened the regulatory science through the development of new tools, standards and various other related parameters to evaluate and assess safety, efficacy, quality and performance. The former have been implemented to promote and incorporate new drugs and technologies, which still, are a challenge to well-established regulatory frameworks. Furthermore, in today’s environment, the existing regulatory framework protecting public’s health creates barriers for market entry of novel drugs and medical devices. This article aims to the pioneering work that Cuban Regulatory Agency (CECMED) has been developing with the aim to build a strong regulatory framework geared to accelerated innovation and the successful transition from research and development to clinical development. The Office of Innovation recently established at the CECMED is the first flagship in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Its aim is to play a leading role as a driving force for the national and regional biopharmaceutical innovation. This article will discuss the Office of Innovation its conceptualisation and management taking into account the Latin American regional and national Cuban context.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0044.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Open-plan office; socio-technical systems; green ergonomics; biophilic design; sustainable development; human factors.
Online: 5 May 2021 (12:20:49 CEST)
Open-plan office (OPO) layouts emerged to allow organizations to adapt to changing workplace demands. We explore the potential for OPOs to provide such adaptive capacity to respond to two contemporary issues for organizations: the chronic challenge of environmental sustainability, and the acute challenges emerging from the great COVID-19 homeworking experiment. We apply a socio-technical systems perspective and green ergonomics principles to investigate the relationship between an OPO environment and the occupants working within it. In doing so, we consider the relevant technical and human factors such as green technology and employee green behavior. We also consider how a green OPO might provide non-carbon benefits such as improving occupant wellbeing and supporting the emergence of a green organizational culture. Our investigation highlights several avenues through which an OPO designed with green ergonomic principles could benefit occupants, the organizations they work for, and the natural environment of which they are a part and on which they depend. We find reason to suspect that green OPOs could play an important role in sustainable development; and offer a research agenda to help determine whether in fact OPOs are another example of how going green is good business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0427.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Switzerland; defence industry; defence policy; the Federal Office for Defence Procurement; RUAG; arms export
Online: 16 March 2021 (14:15:25 CET)
When we talk about the Defence Industry (DI), arms transfers, and military expenditures we mostly refer to data accumulated by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). In the SIPRI Top 20 list of largest exporters of major arms for 2019, small states hold consecutive positions: Israel takes 8th place, Switzerland is 13th, and Sweden, Norway, and Belarus place 15th, 17th, and 20th respectively. The author analyses the Swiss DI case due to several reasons; its place in SIPRI Top, its sharp rise of Swiss arms exports in the recent year, its Swiss neutrality strategy, the country’s multilingual society, and its all-government approach to the arms industry, though still contributing to the limited scholarly studies on contemporary Swiss DI. This paper aims to explore Swiss DI and its strategies, to identify the country’s defence and security policy influence towards DI, and to discuss the Swiss DI stance and future perspectives in the context of the global arms trade. At the same time, this paper also highlights Swiss DI successes and failures that could be of significant use to other small states aiming to develop or enhance their relevant DIs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: climatic change; office buildings; overheating; carbon emissions; energy consumption; mixed-mode ventilation; natural ventilation
Online: 13 November 2018 (04:15:59 CET)
The UK Government is committed to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% by 2050. Buildings are responsible for 37% of the total GHG emissions in the UK and the need to reduce their emissions has resulted in more stringent building regulations in the recent past. The regulations, energy rating systems and voluntary guidelines — all are primarily aimed at reducing the need for heating and associated energy use by increasing insulation and air-tightness. However, future climates are projected to be warmer than the present day. Internal gains dominated non-domestic buildings will likely overheat, the adaptation to which will require energy-intensive cooling solutions, thus defeating the purpose of heating-focused regulations. This research investigated the effects of warming climate on overheating, and energy use and resulting emissions in representative urban office spaces in London in the present-day and future climates using hourly dynamic thermal simulations. Findings suggest that more airtight and highly—insulated office buildings designed for heating—dominated temperate UK climate will overheat in the 2050s. Heating demand reduces but electricity consumption increases by 121% when hybrid cooling is adopted to ameliorate overheating. Despite the rise, adopting a mixed-mode ventilation strategy was one of the ways of achieving overall energy efficiency while meeting benchmark overheating and carbon emissions target in present and future climatic contradictions. Current heating-focused legislations need to be urgently re-evaluated to account for the effects of climatic variability and overheating risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0419.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: job satisfaction (JS); work style (WS); leadership style (LS); organizational climate (OC); register office; Mongolia
Online: 18 October 2018 (11:49:18 CEST)
Purpose - The purpose of the study is to investigate the missing link between leadership style and job satisfaction among Mongolian public sector employees. This study reiterates the mediating role of organizational climate (OC) and work style (WS) in a new proposed model. Methodology - The questionnaire is designed by a synthesis of existing constructs in the current relevant literature. The research sample consisted of 143 officers who work in the primary and middle units of territory and administration of Mongolia. Factor analysis, reliability test, collinearity test, and correlation analyses confirm validity and reliability of the model. Multiple regression analysis, using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), tests the hypotheses of the study. Practical implications - This study has several important implications for studies related to organizational behavior and job satisfaction. Furthermore, the implications of findings are beneficial to organizations aiming at improving policies and practices related to organizational behavior and human resource management. Regulators and supervisors of private or public organizations aiming to increase the level of their employees’ job satisfaction will also benefit from the findings. Therefore, this study’s new proposed model can be the basis of fundamental research to build a better human resource policy. Although leadership style is an influential factor for job satisfaction, this study identifies the mediating missing links between leadership style and employees’ job satisfaction. Findings: The findings of this research indicate that organizational climate and work style complement and fully mediate the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction. Appropriate leadership style is most effective when it matches organizational climate as well as employees’ work style. Furthermore, suitable organizational climate will increases the level of job satisfaction. If work style of employees is respected and taken into consideration, leadership style can find its way into job satisfaction. Originality/value - This study is the first to understand the motivators of job satisfaction in government sector of Mongolia. This study suggests valuable findings for executive officers, junior and primary unit’s officers of register sector of government in Mongolia. The findings of this study help managers and executives in their effort to develop and implement successful human resource strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0227.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: real-time intelligent monitoring; zigbee protocol; Internet of Things (IoT); office security system; security-threats
Online: 13 July 2018 (05:25:50 CEST)
Internet of Things (IoT) opens new horizons by enabling automated procedures without human interaction using IP connectivity. IoT deals with devices, called things which are represented as any item from our daily life that is enhanced with computing or communication facilities. Among various mobile communications, Zigbee communication is broadly used in controlling or monitoring applications due to its low data rate and low power consumption. Securing IoT systems have been the main concern for the research community. In this paper, different security-threats of Zigbee networks in IoT platform have been addressed to predict the potential security threats of Zigbee protocol and a Security Improvement Framework (SIF) has been designed for intelligent monitoring in an office environment. Our proposed SIF can predict and protect various potential malicious attacks in the Zigbee network and respond accordingly through a notification to the system administrator. This framework (SIF) is designed to make automated decisions immediately based on real-time data which are defined by the system administrator. Finally, the designed SIF has been implemented in an office security system as a case study for real-time monitoring. This office security system is evaluated based on the capacity of detecting potential security attacks. The evaluation results show that the proposed SIF is capable of detecting and protecting several potential security attacks efficiently enabling more secure way of intelligent monitoring.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0954.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: water quality; infection control; occupational practices; dental unit; dental office; waterlines; antiseptic protocols; water sustainability, environmentalism
Online: 12 May 2023 (13:40:37 CEST)
Dental healthcare providers, staff and patients are constantly exposed to the risk of infection or cross-infection in the dental office, particularly due to the formation of biofilms within Dental Unit Waterlines (DUWLs). Good water quality, achieved with environmentally friendly means, is essential in ensuring the safe operation of the clinic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the practices and protocols used in dental offices of Metropolitan Athens in Greece with regards to water quality in DUWLs. The questionnaire about water quality was distributed to dental practitioners in 2022 and was completed by 206 dentists. Water supplied to dental units was mainly from the public network (65.0%), with 55.8% using in-office filtration. Most dentists (71.8%) do not know the active substance of the antiseptic used for the DUWLs, while 96.1% reported having an antiseptic reservoir embedded in the dental unit. Daily flushing with a small and a large amount of fluid was practiced in approximately 83% and 61% of dental offices, respectively. Dental associations should raise awareness regarding water quality and maintenance of DUWLs in dental offices, investing in lifelong learning, while implementing protocols and green strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0407.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: Claim management office (CMO); organisational project management (OPM); built environment; project-based organization (PBO); construction claim
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:45:55 CEST)
A claim management office (CMO) is a new intra-organisation fit based on an organisational project management (OPM) approach and deals specifically with improving claim performance. However, CMO is either misunderstood or often overlooked in construction companies, mainly due to ignorance of the OPM context but further exacerbated by a lack of real case study research on how to adopt CMO in these organisations. This study addresses this prevailing knowledge gap by investigating the nature of the construction industry from the CMO viewpoint and developing an extensive framework through which to improve organisational claims performance. Organisational ambidexterity theory integrated with X-inefficiency theory is adopted for claims performance outcomes, due to organisation intra-firm irrational decisions when managing such claims. Data was obtained and analysed from a international large construction company (which used CMOs) and its internal focus group discussion (as a multi-method approach). The reference framework provides new perspectives on how construction-related companies can adopt a CMO structure, which enables them to improve claims performance by planning in three interrelated activities viz. function-, process- and performance-based-. Furthermore, findings contribute to researchers and practitioners by providing a true understanding of the CMO-related mechanism and plausible roadmap for future work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sitting; intervention; feasibility; office workers; behaviour change wheel; police; QR codes; activity breaks; cardiometabolic risk; behaviour change; wellbeing
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:45:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a theory-derived sedentary workplace intervention (single arm, pre-post design) for police office staff. Twenty-four staff participated in an 8-week intervention incorporating an education session, team competition with quick response (QR) codes, team trophy, and weekly leaderboard newsletters, a self-monitoring phone app, and electronic prompt tools. The intervention supported participants to reduce and break up their sitting time with three minutes of incidental movement every 30 minutes at work. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using mixed methods via the RE-AIM QuEST and PRECIS-2 frameworks. The intervention was highly pragmatic in terms of eligibility, organisation, adherence, outcome, and analysis. It was slightly less pragmatic on recruitment and setting. Delivery and follow-up were more explanatory. Reach and adoption indicators demonstrated feasibility among police staff, across a range of departments, who were demographically similar to participants in previous office-based multi-component interventions. The intervention was delivered mostly as planned with minor deviations from protocol (Implementation fidelity). Participants perceived the intervention components as highly acceptable. Preliminary results showed improvements in workplace sitting and standing, as well as small improvements in weight and positive affect. Evaluation of the intervention in a fully powered randomised controlled trial to assess behaviour and health outcomes is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1314.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: RBFOpt model-based optimization; genetic algorithms; multi-objective optimization; Energy Use Intensity optimization; spatial Daylight Autonomy optimization; office building; layout optimization
Online: 18 May 2023 (09:37:53 CEST)
Advancements in Parametric Design, Generative Design, and automation in Building Information Modelling (BIM) have opened new opportunities for architects and engineers working on complex buildings, such as offices. These developments allow designers to enhance their designs, increase project efficiency, improve performance, and reduce project time and costs. To address conflicting objectives that arise during the design process, genetic algorithms with multi-objective optimization (MOO) have been employed in architectural design. The GENIUS project aims to optimize building shape, apertures, and shading systems in the concept and design stages, with a focus on energy and daylight performance. The project integrates BIM and visual programming tools with Artificial Intelligence techniques like Genetic Algorithms and RBFOpt model-based optimization. Optimization algorithms are used to identify the best solutions that meet all design objectives, helping architects optimize their designs and achieve desired outcomes. The workflow was tested on a case study of a large office building, with MOO focused on maximizing daylight performance using Spatial Daylight Autonomy metric and minimizing energy consumption using Energy Use Intensity metric. The project provides architects with a method to improve their designs using Algorithm Aided Design tools, which help identify the best solutions for complex design problems.