INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0401.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: intrathecal; methotrexate; myelopathy; Guillain-Barre syndrome
Online: 7 October 2023 (09:51:50 CEST)
Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly used in intrathecal chemotherapy for patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) to prevent central nervous system (CNS) involvement. However, the use of MTX-based chemotherapy can lead to rare yet severe complications, such as MTX-induced myelopathy. Here we report the case of MTX-induced myelopathy initially misdiagnosed as Guillain-Barre syndrome, leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We present a case of a 39-year-old male with a history of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) who experienced bilateral foot paresthesia and progressive lower extremity weakness after intrathecal methotrexate (MTX) treatment. Initially suspected as Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) due to similar clinical features and nerve conduction studies. The patient received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, but his condition worsened. A subsequent spine MRI revealed MTX-induced myelopathy. This case highlights the diagnostic challenge posed by the similarity in clinical presentation between MTX-induced myelopathy and GBS. Differentiating between these conditions is critical for appropriate management. Prompt recognition and treatment with folate metabolism compounds may mitigate neurological sequelae.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0506.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; SNP; DMARD; methotrexate; pharmacogenomics
Online: 24 August 2020 (07:33:05 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA); is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease which causes loss of joint function and significantly reduces quality of life. Plasma metabolite concentrations of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) can influence treatment efficacy and toxicity. This study explored the relationship between DMARD metabolising gene variants and plasma metabolite levels in RA patients. DMARD metabolite concentrations were determined by tandem mass-spectrometry in plasma samples from 100 RA patients with actively flaring disease, collected at two intervals. Taqman-probes were used to discriminate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes in cohort genomic DNA: rs246240 (ABCC1), rs1476413 (MTHFR), rs2231142 (ABCG2), rs3740065 (ABCC2), rs4149081 (SLCO1B1), rs4846051 (MTHFR), rs10280623 (ABCB1), rs16853826 (ATIC), rs17421511 (MTHFR) and rs717620 (ABCC2). Mean plasma concentrations of methotrexate (MTX) and MTX-7-OH metabolites were higher (p<0.05, C.I. 95%) at baseline in rs4149081 GA genotype patients. Patients with rs1476413 SNP TT or CT alleles in the have significantly higher (p<0.001, 95% C.I) plasma poly-glutamate metabolites at both study time points and correspondingly elevated disease activity scores. Patients with the rs17421511 SNP AA allele reported significantly lower pain scores (p<0.05, 95% C.I.) at both study intervals. Genotyping strategies could help prioritise treatments to RA patients most likely to gain clinical benefit, whilst minimizing toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Hydrogel; pH-responsive; colon; targeted delivery; methotrexate
Online: 22 September 2020 (08:17:48 CEST)
The purpose of current research work was to formulate and typify gelatin and poly(vinyl) alcohol (Gel/PVA) hydrogel which would be highly pH-responsive and can able to accomplish targeted delivery of methotrexate in order to treat the colo-rectal pathologies. The primed gel/pva hydrogel discs were subjected to various physicochemical techniques i.e. swelling, diffusion co-efficient, sol-gel analysis and porosity using three altered sorts of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer solutions for assessment/evaluation, and their characterization was done through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Shape alteration and controlled methotrexate of release of Gel/PVA hydrogel have been done using three type of pH (1.2, 6.8 & 7.4) phosphate buffer mediums. Methotrexate was loaded through in-situ drug loading method due to hydrophobicity. Different kinetic models (first order & zero order kinetic), Higuchi model and Krosmere peppas model/Power law were applied to manipulate the drug release data. Physicochemical evaluation tests and drug release profile results were found insignificant (p< 0.05) in various pH mediums and dependent upon polymers concentration pH of medium and cross-linker amount. Kinetic model disclosed that release of methotrexate from Gel/PVA hydrogel follow non-Fickian diffusion method. It became concluded from this research work that release of methotrexate Gel/PVA hydrogel in targeted colon area can be achieved for treating colo-rectal disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0235.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: microRNAs; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; pediatric; methotrexate; toxicity; pharmacogenetics
Online: 9 October 2023 (03:02:35 CEST)
Methotrexate (MTX), a structurally related substance to folic acid, is an important chemotherapeutic agent used for decades in the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and other types of cancer as non Hodgkin lymphomas and osteosarcomas. Despite the successful outcomes observed, the primary drawback is the variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics between patients. The main adverse events related to its use are mainly nephrotoxicity, mucositis and myelosuppression especially when used in high doses. The potential adverse reactions and toxicities associated with MTX are a cause for concern and may lead to dose reduction or treatment interruption. Genetic variants in MTX transport genes have been linked to toxicity. Pharmacogenetic studies conducted in the past focused on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding and 5′-regulatory regions of genes. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant role of miRNAs in the transport and metabolism of drugs, and in the regulation of target genes. The last few years, the number of annotated miRNAs is continually rising, as well as the studies of miRNA polymorphisms and MTX toxicity. Therefore, the objective of the present study is to investigate the role of miRNA variants related to MTX adverse effects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1127.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: prediction; adherence; methotrexate; self-report questionnaires; rheumatoid arthritis
Online: 18 July 2023 (02:57:56 CEST)
Abstract: Objective: This study aimed to estimate adherence to methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and identify specific nonadherence risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study included 111 patients (age mean 56.2±10.6 years, 78.4% female, and disease duration mean 6 (3-13) years). Three adherence self-assessment questionnaires were used: the Compli-ance-Questionnaire-Rheumatology (CQR19), the Medication Adherence Reports Scale (MARS-5), and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). We also collected demographic data, disease and treatment characteristics, and anxiety/depression estimation results (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale- HADS). Results: Adherence was identified in 48.6% of patients (COR19), 70.3% (MARS-5), and 82.9% of patients in the VAS questionnaire. All three questionnaires displayed a significant positive mutual correlation: CQR19 with MARS-5 and VAS (r =0.364, r=0.329 respectively, p<0.001 for both), between VAS and MARS-5 score (r=0.496, p<0.001). A significant positive prediction was shown for urban residence (0.347 (0.134-0.901), p=0.030), using the MARS-5 scale, female sex (0.264 (0.095-0.730), p=0.010) according to CQR19 and for a dose of methotrexate (0.881 (0.783-0.992), p=0.036) in VAS scale, while negative prediction were shown for comorbidity number (3.062 (1.057-8.874), p=0.039), and depression (1.142 (1.010-1.293), p=0.035) using MARS-5 scale and for older age (1.041 (1.003-1.081), p=0.034) according to CQR19. The use of steroids was a significant positive predictor in all three questionnaires and remained an independent predictor for metho-trexate adherence in multivariant logistic regression. Conclusion: We showed nonadherence to methotrexate in a significant number of patients using all three questionnaires. Concomitant steroid therapy emerged as an independent positive predictor for adherence.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0520.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: ectopic pregnancy; heterotopic pregnancy; laparoscopy; methotrexate; corpus luteum
Online: 28 December 2022 (01:16:33 CET)
Objective Ovarian pregnancy is a rare but well-known pathology. However, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment are not clearly established. Data sources. All case reports published in Pubmed from Nov 2011 till Nov 2022. Study eligibility criteria. A systematic review and 2 case reports of ovarian pregnancy Study appraisal and synthesis methods. Not applicable Results Ovarian pregnancies occur in 8% of women without or blocked oviducts and in 23% on the other side than the corpus luteum and the symptoms of ovarian pregnancies are not specific. Therefore ovarian pregnancy has to be suspected in all women with abdominal bleeding. As for extrauterine pregnancies, the presence of an intrauterine pregnancy does not rule out an ovarian pregnancy. Surgical excision is the preferred treatment. Important is that in women with both an intra-uterine and an ovarian pregnancy, care should be taken not to damage the corpus luteum. Conclusions Ovarian pregnancies can occur in women with blocked tubes, on the other side of the corpus luteum, in the presence of an intrauterine pregnancy, and even when pregnancy tests or tranvaginal ultrasonography are negative. The diagnosis being difficult to exclude, a laparoscopy is indicated in all women with intra-abdominal bleeding, keeping in mind that an intra-uterine pregnancy cannot be exluded and that a corpus luteum need to be respected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0398.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Nephrotoxicity; Methotrexate; Genomics; Machine Learning; Explainable Artificial Intelligence; Biomarker
Online: 6 July 2023 (08:41:31 CEST)
Background: The purpose of this study is to carry out bioinformatic analysis of lncRNA data obtained as a result of genomic analysis of kidney tissue samples taken from rats with nephrotoxicity induced by methotrexate (MTX) and from rats without pathology and modeling with tree-based machine learning method. Another aim of the study is to identify potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of nephrotoxicity and to provide a better understanding of the nephrotoxicity formation process by providing the interpretability of the model with explainable artificial intelligence methods as a result of the modeling. Methods: To identify potential indicators of drug-induced nephrotoxicity, 20 female Wistar Albino rats were separated into two groups: nephrotoxicity and control. Kidney tissue samples were collected from the rats, and genomic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The data set obtained as a result of genomic analysis was modeled with Random Forest (RF), one of the tree-based methods. Modeling results were evaluated with sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), balanced accuracy (B-Acc), negative predictive value (Npv), accuracy (Acc), positive predictive value (Ppv), and F1-score performance metrics. The Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Annotations (LIME) method was used to determine the lncRNAs that could be biomarkers for nephrotoxicity by providing the interpretability of the RF model. Results: The outcomes of the histological and immunohistochemical analyses done in the study supported the conclusion that MTX use caused kidney injury. According to the results of the bioinformatics analysis, 52 lncRNAs showed different expression in the groups. As a result of modeling with RF for lncRNAs selected with Boruta variable selection, the B-Acc, Acc, Sp, Se, Npv, Ppv, and F1-score were 88.9%, 90%, 90.9%, 88.9%, 90.9%, 88.9% and 88.9%. respectively. lncRNAs with id rnaXR_591534.3 rnaXR_005503408.1, rnaXR_005495645.1, rnaXR_001839007.2, rnaXR_005492056.1 and rna_XR_005492522.1 the lncRNAs with the highest variable importance values produced from RF modeling can be used as nephroxicity biomarker candidates. Also, according to the LIME results, the high level of lncRNAs with id rnaXR_591534.3 and rnaXR_005503408.1 especially increased the possibility of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: With the possible biomarkers obtained as a result of the analyses made within the scope of this study, it can be ensured that the procedures for the diagnosis of drug-induced nephrotoxicity can be carried out easily, quickly and effectively.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1962.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: methotrexate (MTX); rheumatoid arthritis (RA); cytokeratin -18 ( CK -18)
Online: 29 May 2023 (08:56:15 CEST)
Background: CK-18 is a serological marker of apoptosis that has been widely associated with fibrosis and steatosis in NASH. Many studies have showed association CK-18 levels with NAFLD. To date, there is a profound lack of rheumatology studies on the effect of MTX therapy with regard to CK-18 levels. The relationship between CK-18 levels and cumulative MTX dose, MTX treatment duration, weekly MTX dose is not available in the literature. Objectives: The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between serum cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) and cumulative methotrexate dose in rheumatology patients on methotrexate (MTX) therapy. Besides, we studied the correlations between CK-18 and clinical parameters including age, disease duration , duration of MTX therapy, cumulative steroid dose and biochemical parameters such as alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase AST). Methods : We recruited 79 rheumatology patients on methotrexate (MTX) therapy as MTX group and 38 patients not on MTX therapy as non-MTX group . All subjects were tested for their serum CK-18 levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. We identified 20 patients with the highest CK-18 levels and 20 patients with the lowest CK-18 levels and had ultrasound liver performed on them. Results : The median serum CK-18 levels were marginally higher among the patients on MTX (1.20 ng/mL [0.19-37.15]) compared to the non-MTX group (1.17 ng/mL [0.37-34.32]). There was a significantly positive relationship between serum CK-18 levels and cumulative MTX dose (r = 0.329, p = 0.003) and total duration of MTX therapy (r = 0.284, p = 0.011). Apart from the above-mentioned variables, the CK-18 levels in MTX group significantly correlated with age (r = 0.265, p = 0.018), ALT (r = 0.440, p = <0.001) and AST (r = 0.478, p= 0.004). Ultrasound liver findings showed median CK-18 levels was higher among patients with abnormal liver findings although statistical significance was not reached. Conclusion : Among patients on MTX therapy, serum CK-18 levels correlated positively with cumulative MTX dose , total duration of MTX treatment , ALT and AST levels. These findings are preliminary and requires validation by future studies in the field of rheumatology.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0304.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: PCNSL; high-dose methotrexate; acute uric acid nephropathy; rasburicase
Online: 20 July 2022 (11:52:03 CEST)
Background: Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs) are sensitive to chemotherapy. Standard treatment is high-dose methotrexate (MTX)-based chemotherapy. There are no reports of successful treatment of acute uric acid nephropathy with rasburicase after MTX administration in PCNSL. Case presentation: A 54-year-old man with a history of gout presented with character change and memory loss. MRI showed a large, enhancing mass spanning the bilateral frontal lobes and right temporal lobe. After endoscopic biopsy, MTX, procarbazine and vincristine (MPV) regimen was initiated for treatment of PCNSL. After initiation of chemotherapy, the patient suffered from a gout attack and blood examination revealed acute renal failure (ARF) and hyperuricemia. The considered causes of ARF included MTX toxicity and acute urid acid nephropathy. Since a good response to chemotherapy was observed, the latter was assumed. After improvement of renal function, MTX was resumed, initiating rasburicase for control of hyperuricemia. A complete response was obtained after induction chemotherapy. Hyperuricemia was controlled with rasburicase and renal function was preserved. Conclusions: Acute uric acid nephropathy should be considered when ARF occurs after initiation of MTX in PCNSL. For newly diagnosed PCNSL patients with large tumors or hyperuricemia, upfront usage of rasburicase should be considered to prevent it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0440.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Au nanoparticles; nanocarriers; methotrexate; anticancer drug; chemotherapeutics; controlled release
Online: 16 November 2020 (17:38:03 CET)
In the present study the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) loaded with methotrexate (MTX) has been carried out in order to obtain controlled size and monodispersed nanocarriers, around 20nm. Characterization study shows metallic AuNPs with MTX polydispersed on the surface. MTX is linked by a replacement of citrate by the MTX carboxyl group. The drug release profiles showed faster MTX release when it is conjugated, which leads to the best control of plasma concentration. Also, the enhanced release observed at pH 5 could take advantage of the pH gradients that exist in tumor microenvironments to achieve high local drug concentrations. AuNPs-MTX conjugates were tested by flow cytometry against lung (A-549) and colon (HTC-116) cancer cell lines. Results for A-549 showed a lighter dose-response effect than for colon cancer ones. This could be related to the presence of folate receptors in line HTC-116 on the contrary than line A-549, supporting the specific uptake of folate-conjugated AuNPs-MTX by folate receptor positive tumor cells. Conjugates exhibited considerably higher cytotoxic effects compared with the effects of equal doses of free MTX. Anexin V-PI test sustain as cell death mechanism apoptosis, which is normally disabled in cancer cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1402.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; methotrexate; NF-κB; TNF-α; drug resistance
Online: 19 August 2023 (12:13:09 CEST)
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. Although prognosis continually improved along years, a significant proportion of patients still relapse from the disease due to leukemia resistance to therapy. Methotrexate (MTX), a folic acid antagonist, is a chemotherapy agent commonly used against ALL and a immune-system suppressant for rheumatoid arthritis, that presents multiple and complex mechanisms of action and resistance. Previous studies have shown that MTX modulates the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway, an important family of transcription factors involved in inflammation, immunity, cell survival, and proliferation, frequently hyperactivated in ALL. Using gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) on publicly available gene expression data from 161 newly diagnosed pediatric ALL patients, we found “TNF-α signaling pathway” to be the most enriched Cancer Hallmark in MTX poor responder patients. Transcriptomic analysis in a panel of ALL cell lines (6 BCP-ALL and 7 T-ALL) also identified the same pathway as differentially enriched among MTX resistant cell lines, as well as in slowly dividing cells. To better understand the crosstalk between NF-κB activity and MTX resistance, we genetically modified the cell lines to express luciferase under a NF-κB biding site promoter. We observed that the fold change in NF-κB activity triggered by TNF-α (but not MTX) treatment correlated with MTX resistance and proliferation across the lines. At the individual gene level, NFKB1 expression was directly associated with a poorer clinical response to MTX, and with both an increased TNF-α-triggered NF-κB activation and MTX resistance in the cell lines. Despite these results, pharmacological inhibition (with BAY 11-7082 and parthenolide) or stimulation (with exogenous TNF-α supplementation) of the NF-κB pathway did not alter MTX resistance of the cell lines significantly, evidencing a complex interplay between MTX and NF-κB in ALL.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0328.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Phytobioactive compounds; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant; methotrexate; hepatotoxicity; oxidative stress
Online: 16 August 2021 (11:37:17 CEST)
Methotrexate (MTX) is a potent drug for the treatment of various diseases globally amidst being a chemotherapeutic and immunosuppressant agent. However, hepatotoxicity induced by MTX could be life-threatening if left untreated. Folate supplementation is concurrently applied to reduce the adverse effects of MTX, albeit efficacy compromise. Therefore, there is the need to understand the process for the prevention and treatment strategies for MTX induced hepatotoxicity (MIH). In recent times, preliminary preclinical and clinical findings indicate the potential of natural phytobioactive compounds for MIH prevention and treatment. This mini review therefore summarizes proposed mechanisms of MIH and recent advances in the prevention and treatment prospects of natural phytobioactive compounds on MIH.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0046.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Keywords: methotrexate, cubic phase, magnetocubosomes, monoolein, liquid crystalline phase, drug delivery system, alternating magnetic field
Online: 4 January 2019 (14:32:38 CET)
The release profiles of methotrexate, an anticancer drug, from the monoolein liquid crystalline cubic phases were studied. The cubic phases were used either in the form of a lipidic film deposited onto a glassy carbon electrode surface or in the dispersed form of magnetocubosomes, which are considered a prospective hybrid drug delivery system. Commonly, cubosomes or liposomes are employed, but not in the case of toxic methotrexate, known to block receptors responsible for folate transport into the cells. The release profiles of the drug from the lipidic films were monitored electrochemically and described using the Higuchi model. They were also modified via changes in temperature; the release was faster, although deviating from the model when the temperature was increased. Magnetocubosomes - cubic phase nanoparticles containing hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles placed in an alternating magnetic field of low frequency and amplitude, stimulated drug release from the suspension, which was monitored spectroscopically. These new biocompatible hybrid materials are very promising, allowing to control the release of the drug at the appropriate sites, but do require further investigations into their in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo biodistribution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0082.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; drug repurposing; methotrexate; EXSCALATE; virtual screening; molecular docking; antiviral activity; SARS-CoV-2; viral entry; nsp13
Online: 6 April 2023 (09:21:51 CEST)
During COVID-19 pandemic, drug repurposing represented an effective strategy to obtain quick answers to medical emergencies. Basing on previous data on Methotrexate (MTX), we evaluated the anti-viral activity of several DHFR inhibitors in two cell lines. We observed that this class of compounds showed a significant influence on the virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) partly associated to the intrinsic antimetabolic activity of these drugs, but also to a specific antiviral function. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms, we took advantage of our EXSCALATE platform for in-silico molecular modelling and further validated the influence of these inhibitors on nsp13 and viral entry. Interestingly, Pralatrexate and Trimetrexate showed superior effects in counteracting the viral infection compared to other DHFR inhibitors. Our results indicate that their higher activity is due to their polypharmacological and pleiotropic profile. These compounds can thus potentially give a clinical advantage in the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients already treated with this class of drugs.