ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental anxiety; dental fear; anxiolytics; nitrous oxide
Online: 12 September 2016 (10:32:47 CEST)
Dental anxiety (DA) negatively affects patients’ oral and overall health. This study explored attitudes and clinical practices of licensed Ohio general dentists who treat patients with DA. Methods: An anonymous self-administered mail survey was sent to 500 general dentists licensed and practicing in Ohio. Responses to 21 pre-coded questions were analyzed. Frequencies were examined; cross-tabs, Chi-Square, and Fischer’s Exact Test were calculated for statements according to dentists’ gender. Alpha was set at p = 0.05. Results: Nearly all respondents treated anxious patients; males were more likely to find it challenging than females. Dentists were most familiar with distraction, although half found nitrous oxide to be an effective tool. Female dentists were more likely than males to be familiar with anxiolytics and find them effective. Conclusion: Overall, Ohio general dentists are most familiar with using distraction and nitrous oxide during appointments for anxious patients. Gender differences exist in attitudes towards anxiolytic use for patients with DA. Practice Implications: By identifying techniques that are comfortable for patient and practitioner, oral health disparities associated with DA may be reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0090.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: heat-pain; pilot study; anxiety; fear; psychopathy
Online: 24 February 2017 (07:18:39 CET)
While the majority of previous studies assessing pain-related variables in psychopaths used electric shocks, little is known about the effectiveness of alternative pain-inducing methods to increase emotional responses such as fear and anxiety. A small sample of healthy undergraduate men (N = 15) was recruited to assess the effectiveness of a heat stimulus to induce pain in an immediate versus delayed punishment paradigm. Although pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and threat of pain did not increase throughout the experiment, participants experienced a significant increase of fear of pain and pain intensity, indicating that the heat stimulus was effective in inducing pain. Furthermore, subjects were slower in initiating the pain stimulus during the first five trials, but no time difference was found during the 15 remaining trials. No correlation was found between psychopathic traits and pain-related variables, with the exception of inconsistent results within the Fearless Dominance factor. Findings are discussed in terms of improvement for a larger scale study involving psychopathic individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0554.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: eudaimonic well-being; psychological inflexibility; fear of death; young adults
Online: 31 March 2023 (15:12:48 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the mental health, adjustment, and psychological well-being of young adults. Despite extensive research conducted in this area, eudaimonic well-being, one specific form of psychological well-being focusing on self-knowledge and self-realization within existential challenges, has received comparatively less attention. The current study aimed to investigate the potential linkages between two key psychological factors, psychological inflexibility and fear of death, with eudaimonic well-being among young adults in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic. One year after the outbreak, 317 young Italian adults (18-34 yrs.) participated in an online survey, including measures of psychological inflexibility (AAQ-II), fear of death (CL-FODS), and eudaimonic well-being (PWB). Results showed that psychological inflexibility was negatively associated with all the dimensions of Ryff’s model of eudaimonic well-being, while fear of death of others was found to be associated with three of these dimensions (autonomy, environmental mastery, and self-acceptance). Results also indicated a mediation role of psychological inflexibility in the association between fear of death and eudaimonic well-being. These findings expand our knowledge of the potential factors that may influence eudaimonic well-being and provide insights for clinical work with young adults challenged by uncertain times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0252.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Fear extinction; Fear Conditioning; Medial Prefrontal Cortex; RNA sequencing; Differential Gene Expression; Electrophysiological Recordings; Excitatory Post-Synaptic Currents; Spinogenesis; Fear-related Disorders
Online: 10 December 2020 (11:38:50 CET)
Fear extinction requires coordinated neural activity within the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Any behavior has a transcriptomic signature that is modified by environmental experiences, and specific genes are involved in functional plasticity and synaptic wiring during fear extinction. Here, we investigated the effects of optogenetic manipulations of prelimbic (PrL) pyramidal neurons on amygdala gene expression to analyze the specific transcriptional pathways involved in adaptive and maladaptive fear extinction. To this aim, transgenic mice were (or not) fear-conditioned and during the extinction phase they received optogenetic (or sham) stimulations over PrL pyramidal neurons. At the end of behavioral testing, electrophysiological (neural cellular excitability and Excitatory Post-Synaptic Currents) and morphological (spinogenesis) correlates were evaluated in the PrL pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, transcriptomic cell-specific RNA-analyses (differential gene expression profiling and functional enrichment analyses) were performed in amygdala pyramidal neurons. Our results show that the optogenetic activation of PrL pyramidal neurons in fear-conditioned mice induces fear extinction deficits, reflected in an increase of cellular excitability, excitatory neurotransmission, and spinogenesis of PrL pyramidal neurons, and in strong modifications of the transcriptome of amygdala pyramidal neurons. Understanding the electrophysiological, morphological and transcriptomic architecture of fear extinction may facilitate the comprehension of fear-related disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0297.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: Fear; Hospitalization; Psychometric properties; Emergencies; Surgery
Online: 16 November 2022 (07:43:42 CET)
PurposeThis study was designed to characterize the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Fear of Hospitalization Scale (P-FHS).Design and methodsIn order to evaluate the validity and reliability of the translated scale, a cross-sectional design was employed. Ten experts evaluated the content validity of the Fear of Hospitalization Scale (FHS) after it had been back-translated into Persian. With 612 patients having emergency surgery, construct validity was assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The STROBE checklist for cross-sectional studies was followed.FindingsThe results of EFA (n = 306) showed that the fear of hospitalization had three factors. These three factors accounted for 45.28% of the total variance. Also, these factors were confirmed by CFA (n = 306) (root-mean-square error of approximation = (90%. confidence interval) = 0.050 [0.041, 0.058], goodness-of-fit index = 0.945, comparative fit index = 0.968, Non-Normal Fit Index = 0.948, incremental fit index = 0.968, Tucker-Lewis Index = 0.959). The coefficients of Cronbach’s alpha, McDonald’s omega, composite reliability, and maximum reliability for all three factors were greater than 0.7, demonstrating satisfied internal consistency.Practice implicationAccording to the published results, the P-FHS is effective at measuring hospitalization anxiety in patients undergoing emergency surgery. It is advised that nurses in Iranian culture use a legitimate and trustworthy technique to pinpoint the causes of hospitalization anxiety in patients undergoing emergency surgery to give optimal care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0028.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: social media; addiction; anxiety; fear; health issues
Online: 2 February 2022 (10:53:03 CET)
Social media addiction has attracted the attention of researchers especially during the COVID era because negative emotions generated from the pandemic may have increased social media addiction. The present study aimed to investigate the role of negative emotions and social media addiction on health problems during and after the COVID lockdown. A survey was conducted with 2926 participants aged between 25 and 45 years. The data collection period was between 2nd September and 13th October 2020. Partial Least Square Structural Equation Modeling was conducted for data analysis by controlling the respondents' working time, leisure time, gender, education, and age. Our study showed that social media addiction and time spent on social media impact health. Interestingly, while anxiety about COVID increased social media addiction, fear about COIVD reduced social media addiction. Also, long working hours contributed most to people’s health issues, and its impact on social media addiction and hours was much higher than negative emotions, where males faced more health challenges than females. The impacts of negative emotions generated by the COVID on social media addiction and health issues should be reconsidered. Government and employers' control of people's working time stress should prioritize solving social media addiction-related issues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0204.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Fear; Zebrafish; Alarm substance; Animal model; Serotonin
Online: 11 July 2018 (14:10:24 CEST)
Fear can sometimes paralyze us, and it can sometimes be exciting; for some people, fear is so crippling it can significantly mix up their lifes! We understand a little bit about how the brain acts when we are afraid, mainly by studying the brains of animals. Recently, surprising findings were made using a humble animal, the zebrafish – a small aquarium fish that in the past has helped scientists figure out how our organs develop. Zebrafish are useful because they develop quickly, reproduce richly, and have brains which are similar to ours. They also produce what we call an “alarm substance” that alerts shoalmates when one of them has been injured; when they smell this substance in the water they act as if they are very scared. When this happens, they release serotonin in their brains, a neurotransmitter that acts as a light switch, making them less afraid but more cautious – as if trying to figure out if a predator is there or not. Hopefully, finding more about how the zebrafish brains process this serotonin signal can help scientists develop better treatments for mental disorders that are associated with fear.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0332.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: fear; anxiety; aversive brain system; comparative neuroanatomy; teleost fish
Online: 8 October 2018 (09:40:20 CEST)
Defensive behavior is a function of specific survival circuits, the “aversive brain system”, that are thought to be conserved across vertebrates, and involve threat detection and the organization of defensive responses to reduce or eliminate threat. In mammals, these circuits involve amygdalar and hypothalamic subnuclei and midbrain circuits. The increased interest in teleost fishes as model organisms in neuroscience created a demand to understand which brain circuits are involved in defensive behavior. Telencephalic and habenular circuits represent a “forebrain circuit” for threat processing and organization of responses, being important to mounting appropriate coping responses. Specific hypothalamic circuits organize neuroendocrine and neurovegetative outputs, but are the less well-studied in fish. A “midbrain circuit” is represented by projections to interneurons in the optic tectum which mediate fast escape responses via projections to the central gray and/or the brainstem escape network. Threatening stimuli (especially visual stimuli) can bypass the “high road” and directly activate this system, initiating escape responses. Increased attention to these circuits in an evolutionary framework is still needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0053.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mental imagery; fear reactivity; emotion recognition; emotion regulation; propriosensitive
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:37:18 CET)
This study investigated the associations of imageability with fear reactivity. Imageability ratings of four word classes: positive and negative (i) emotional and (ii) propriosensitive, neutral and negative (iii) theoretical and (iv) neutral concrete filler, and fear reactivity scores – degree of fearfulness towards different situations (TF score) and total number of extreme fears and phobias (EF score), were obtained from 171 participants. Correlations between imageability, TF and EF scores were tested to analyze how word categories and their valence were associated with fear reactivity. Imageability ratings were submitted to recursive partitioning. Participants with high TF and EF scores had higher imageability for negative emotional and negative theoretical words. The correlations between imageability of negative emotional words and negative theoretical words for EF score were significant. Males showed stronger correlations for imageability of negative emotional words for EF and TF scores. High imageability for positive emotional words was associated with lower fear reactivity in females. These findings were discussed with regard to negative attentional bias theory of anxiety, influence on emotional systems, and gender-specific coping styles. This study provides insight into cognitive functions involved in mental imagery, semantic competence for mental imagery in relation to fear reactivity, and a potential psycholinguistic instrument assessing fear tendency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: medical fear; children; psychometric properties; cross-cultural adaptation; Spanish
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:33:48 CET)
Having valid and reliable tools that help health professionals to assess fear in children undergoing medical procedures is essential to offer humanized and quality of care in the paediatric population. The aim of this study was to develop the cross-cultural adaptation and the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the “Child Medical Fear Scale” in its shortened version (CMFS-R). The design consisted of two phases, first of cross-cultural adaptation and second of the psychometric validation of the CMFS-R with a sample of 262 children from Spain. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess construct validity and the Cronbach alpha and the adjusted item-total score correlation coefficients were performed to study reliability. The results confirmed internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the CMFS-R, indicating that the scale has an acceptable level of validity and reliability. Therefore, this study brings a new version of the scale to assess fear related to medical procedures for use in the Spanish paediatric population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0184.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: wind turbine; noise annoyance; fear; worry; noise sensitivity; noise management
Online: 8 June 2022 (12:31:13 CEST)
Wind energy in Europe is aimed to grow at a steady, high pace, but opposition from residents to local wind farm plans is one of the obstacles to further growth. A large body of evidence shows that local populations want to be involved and respected for their concerns, but in practice this is a complex process that cannot be solved with simple measures such as financial compensation. The visual presence and the acoustic impact of a wind farm is an important concern for residents. Generally environmental noise management aims to reduce the exposure of the population, usually based on acoustics and restricted to a limited number of sources (such as transportation or industry) and sound descriptors (such as Lden). Individual perceptions are taken into account only at an aggregate, statistical level (such as percentage of exposed, annoyed or sleep-disturbed persons in the population). Individual perceptions and reactions to sound vary in intensity and over different dimensions (such as pleasure/fear or distraction). Sound level is in fact a weak predictor of the perceived health effects of sound. The positive or negative perception of and attitude to the source of the sound is a better predictor of its effects. This article aims to show how the two perspectives (based on acoustics and on perception) can lead to a combined approach in the management of a wind farm aimed to reduce annoyance, not primarily of sound level. An important aspect in this approach is what the sound means to people: is it associated with the experience of having no say in plans, does it lead to anxiety or worry, is it appropriate? The available knowledge will be applied to wind farm management: planning as well as operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0282.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: environmental cues; fear of crime spots; sense of safety; social cues
Online: 1 February 2018 (07:59:02 CET)
Streets are primary elements through which the character of urban neighborhoods are experienced and expressed. The “sense of safety” in neighborhood streets is paramount to social and psychological wellbeing of its residents and visitors. The intention of this study was to explore environmental and social cues of a neighborhood, which evoke fear of crime, which will help designers to prevent the generation of such negative feelings and promote more safe and comfortable spaces in our cities. This study used interviews, group discussions and observations to identify fear-generating factors with a sample of participants in the multi ethnic neighborhood of Kotahena in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Field data was analyzed through visual documentation and photographic surveys. Moreover, group discussions, interviews and personal observations were used to synergize the study objectives. The findings inform that fear of crime on streets is influenced by both environmental and social cues to varying degrees. Feelings of fear were associated with gender, ethnicity and less familiarity with the place as participants were from an ethnic minority within the community. Literature has emphasized that fear of crime has a connection to actual crime locations. The research findings, however, indicate that fear of crime spots identified by the residents do not have a direct relationship to the actual crime locations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0051.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: posttraumatic stress disorder; deep brain stimulation; fear extinction; amygdala; prefrontal cortex
Online: 8 December 2017 (07:21:28 CET)
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common debilitating psychiatric condition for which pharmacological therapy is not always solvable. Various treatments have been suggested for these patients. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently under investigation for patients affected by PTSD. 2) Methods: We review the neurocircuitry and up to date clinical concepts that may be of relevance for the implementation of DBS in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). 3) Results: The role of DBS in treatment-refractory PTSD patients has been investigated relying on both preclinical and clinical studies. 4) Conclusions: DBS for PTSD is in its preliminary phases and likely to provide hope to patients with medical refractory PTSD following the results of randomized controlled studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0422.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Perinatal Mental Health; Anxiety Disorders; Perinatal Anxiety; Fear of Childbirth; Screening
Online: 27 January 2022 (13:21:05 CET)
Background: Perinatal anxiety and related disorders are common (20%), distressing and impairing. Fear of childbirth (FoB) is a common type of perinatal anxiety associated with negative mental health, obstetrical, childbirth and child outcomes. Screening can facilitate treatment access for those most in need. Objectives: The purpose of this research was to evaluate the accuracy of the Childbirth Fear Questionnaire (CFQ) and the Wijma Delivery Expectations Questionnaire (W-DEQ) of FoB as screening tools for specific phobia, FoB. Methods: A total of 659 English-speaking pregnant women living in Canada and over the age of 18 were recruited to the study. Participants completed an online survey of demographic, current pregnancy, and reproductive history information, as well as the CFQ and the W-DEQ, and a telephone interview to assess specific phobia FoB. Results: Symptoms meeting full and subclinical diagnostic criteria for specific phobia, FoB were reported by 3.3% and 7.1% of participants, respectively. The W-DEQ met or exceeded the criteria for a “good enough” screening tool across several analyses, whereas the CFQ only met these criteria in one analysis, and came close in three others. Conclusions: The W-DEQ demonstrated high performance as a screening tool for specific phobia, FoB, with accuracy superior to that of the CFQ. Additional research, to ensure the stability of these findings, is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0461.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: EEG, Psychophysiological responses, Landscape Evaluation, Nightscapes, Sustainable Landscape Design, Fear, Night Pollution
Online: 24 September 2018 (14:39:10 CEST)
As the necessity for safety and aesthetic of nightscape have arisen, the importance of nightscapes (i.e., nighttime landscape) planning has garnered the attention of mainstream consciousness. Therefore, this study is to suggest the guideline for nightscape planning using electroencephalography (EEG) technology and survey for recognizing the characteristics of a nightscape. Furthermore, we verified the EEG method as a tool for landscape evaluation. This study analyzed the change of relative alpha power and relative beta power and self-reporting of participants in order to investigate the correlation between EEG and fear according to twelve nightscape settings. Our findings indicated the corresponding measures of fear vary accordance with whether there was people or not, and the environmental settings (Built Nightscape Images; BNI vs Natural Nightscape Images; NNI). Based on our physiological EEG experiment, we provided a new analytic view of the nightscape. The approach we utilized enables a deeper understanding of emotional perception and fear among human subjects by identifying the physical environment which impacts how they experience nightscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0474.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: COVID-19; fear of COVID-19; mental health; emotional distress; social effects
Online: 18 March 2021 (11:01:24 CET)
The aim of the article is to determine the predictors of mental health among Polish society. Research was conducted after the first wave of the pandemic. Due to such an approach, it was possible to determine whether secondary effects of the pandemic have impact on mental health, apart from socio-demographic and psychological factors. In order to gather the research material, the CAWI on-line survey method was applied and carried out within the framework of the Ariadna Research Panel on the sample of 1079 Poles aged 15 and over. The FCV-19S scale, which is used to measure the fear of COVID-19 was applied in the measurement. It is a verified diagnostic instrument used to measure mental health in a lot of countries. The results of a hierarchical regression analysis have shown that the factors which increase the level of fear of COVID-19 are demographic, social and psychological features as well as attitudes towards the pandemic. The results of research indicate the significance of social context in the analysis and explanation of the effects of disasters and cataclysms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0136.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; health personnel; fear to COVID-19
Online: 8 February 2023 (02:34:46 CET)
The aim of this study was to estimate the association between fear of COVID-19 and risk perception with preventive behavior in health professionals from three Latin American countries. An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted. Health professionals with on-site care in Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Peru were surveyed. Information was collected through an online self-report questionnaire. The main variables were preventive behavior as the dependent variable and fear of COVID-19 and risk perception as independent variables. Linear regression was used, and Beta coefficients and p-values were calculated. 435 health professionals were included, the majority were aged 42 years or older (45.29%, 95%CI: 40.65%-50.01%) and female (67.82%, 95%CI: 63.27%-72.05%). It was shown that the greater the fear of COVID-19, the greater the preventive behavior of COVID-19 infection (B=2.21, p=0.002 for total behavior; B=1.12, p=0.037 for additional protection at work; B=1.11, p<0.010 for hand washing). The risk perception of COVID-19 infection had a slight direct relationship with preventive behaviors (B=0.28, p=0.021 for total behavior; B=0.13, p=0.015 for hand washing), with the exception of the preventive behavior of using additional protection at work (p=0.339). We found that fear and risk perception are associated with increased practice of hand washing and use of additional protection at work. Further studies are required on the influence of working conditions, job performance and the occurrence of mental health problems in frontline personnel with regard to COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0186.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: Gait; Pain; Back disorder; Outcome evaluations; Daily activity; Fear of pain
Online: 9 August 2018 (11:26:15 CEST)
Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of paravertebral spinal injection (PSI), utilizing both subjective and objective assessments in chronic low back pain (LBP) associated with facet joint arthrosis over a one-month duration. Subjective questionnaires included the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, Oswestry Disability Index, Health Survey SF-12, and the short Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). Objective assessments included in-clinic gait and timed-up-and-go (TUG) tests using wearable sensors, as well as 48-hour daily physical activity (DPA) monitored using a chest-worn tri-axial accelerometer. Subjective and objective measures were performed prior to treatment, immediately after the treatment, and one-month afterthe treatment. Eight LBP patients were recruited for this study (mean age = 54±13 years, body mass index = 31.41±6.52 kg/m2, 50% males). Results show significant decrease in pain (~55%, p<0.05) and disability (Oswestry scores, ~21%, p<0.05). In-clinic gait and TUG were also significantly improved (~16% and ~18% faster walking and shorter TUG, p<0.05); however, DPA (including percentage of physical activities (walking and standing) and the number of steps) showed no significant change after PSI (p>0.25; effect size≤0.44). We hypothesize that DPA may continue to be truncated by conditioned fear-avoidance, a psychological state that may prevent increase in daily physical activity to avoid pain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0169.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: adolescents; diabetes type I; quality of life; family conflicts; fear of injecting
Online: 10 May 2021 (10:54:28 CEST)
A good management of diabetes requires at the same time self-regulation behaviour and a balanced involvement of family components. This study’s aims were: understanding fear of injections and perceptions of family conflicts in preadolescents and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their mothers, comparing their perceptions, and identifying the risk factors impacting patients’ quality of life. Participants were one hundred and two patients (Mean age = 14.63, SD = 2.43; age range = 10-19 years; Females = 52) and their mothers (Mean age = 46.94, SD = 6.2, age range = 27-63 years), who filled in self and proxy-report questionnaires. Twenty % of patients and 14.7% of their mothers reported clinical score for fear of self-injection and blood testing. Mothers reported higher fear of injecting and family conflicts compared with the patients. Age, fear of injecting and family conflicts impacted significantly on patients’ quality of life perceptions. Clinical consideration and recommendations are given basing on the empirical results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Psychological distress; Fear; Coping; COVID-19; Bangladesh; Dental; Mental health
Online: 6 December 2021 (15:22:59 CET)
Background: Psychological sufferings are observed among dental students during their academic years, which had been intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic. Objectives: This study assessed the levels and identified factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping experienced by dental undergraduate students in Bangladesh. Methods: A cross sectional online survey was conducted during October-November, 2021. The Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S) and Brief Resilient Coping Scale (BRCS) were used in order to assess psychological distress, fear and coping strategies respectively. Results: A total of 327 students participated; the majority (72%) were 19-23 years old and females (75%). One in five participants were infected with COVID-19 and 15% reported contact with COVID-19 cases. Negative financial impact (AOR 3.72, 95%CIs 1.28-10.8), recent or past COVID-19 infection, contact with COVID-19 cases were associated with higher levels of psychological distress; but being a 3rd year student (0.14, 0.04-0.55) and being satisfied about current social life (0.11, 0.03-0.33) were associated with lower levels of psychological distress. Being a 3rd year (0.17, 0.08-0.39) and a 4th year student (0.29, 0.12-0.71) were associated with lower levels of fear. Health care service use and feeling positive about life were associated with medium to high resilience coping. Conclusions: This study iden-tified dental students in Bangladesh who were at higher risk of psychological distress, fear and coping during the ongoing pandemic. Development of mental health support system within dental institution should be considered in addition to the academic and clinical teaching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0059.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: fear of victimization, violence, crime, geography of crime, women, informal settlements, Kenya
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:58:56 CEST)
Around one billion people live in informal settlements, globally, including over half of Nairobi, Kenya’s three million residents. The purpose of this study was to explore women’s fear of victimization within Mathare, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya and how fear of victimization influences behavior. Fifty-five in-depth interviews were conducted with women in 2016. A modified grounded theory approach guided data collection and analysis. Findings suggest fear of victimization is a serious concern in informal settlements. Women have found ways to adopt their behaviors that allow them to continue to function and protect their children despite fearing victimization, but at a potential cost to their health and well-being. Thus, there is a critical need for more research focused on social, economic, structural, community, infrastructure, technological, and individual strategies to prevent violence, enhance residents’ sense of safety, and, subsequently, minimize women’s fear of victimization in informal settlements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: anuran; competition; disruptive selection; diversification; fear; phenotypic plasticity; resource polymorphism; specialization
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:17:07 CET)
Disruptive selection arises when extreme phenotypes have a fitness advantage compared to more intermediate phenotypes. Theory and evidence suggest that intraspecific resource competition is a key driver of disruptive selection. However, while competition can be indirect (exploitative) or direct (interference), the role of interference competition in disruptive selection has not been tested, and most models of disruptive selection assume exploitative competition. We experimentally investigated whether the type of competition affects the outcome of competitive interactions using a system where disruptive selection is common: Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles develop into alternative resource-use phenotypes: carnivores, which consume fairy shrimp and other tadpoles, and omnivores, which feed on algae and detritus. Tadpoles intermediate in phenotype have low fitness when competition is intense, as they are outcompeted by the specialized tadpoles. Our experiments revealed that the presence of carnivores significantly decreased foraging behavior in intermediate tadpoles, and that intermediate tadpoles had significantly lower growth rates in interference competition treatments with carnivores but not with omnivores. Interference competition may therefore be important in driving disruptive selection. As carnivore tadpoles are also cannibalistic, the ‘fear’ effect may have a greater impact on intermediate tadpoles than exploitative competition alone, similarly to non-consumptive effects in predator-prey or intraguild relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0403.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: visual perception; emotion; emoji; emoticon; sex differences; anger; fear; emotional communication; texting
Online: 23 January 2023 (08:43:06 CET)
Emojis are colorful ideograms resembling stylized faces commonly used for expressing emotions in instant messaging, in social network sites and in email communication. Notwithstanding their increasing and pervasive use in electronic communication, they are not much investigated in terms of their psychological properties and communicative efficacy. Here we presented 112 different human facial expressions and emojis (expressing neutrality, joy, surprise, sadness, anger, fear and disgust) to a group of 96 female and male university students engaged in the recognition of their emotional meaning. Both Analysis of Variance and Wilcoxon tests showed that men were significantly better than women at recognizing emojis (especially negative ones) while women were better than men at recognizing human facial expressions. Quite interestingly, men were better at recognizing emojis than human facial expressions per se. These findings are in line with more recent evidences suggesting how men may be more competent and inclined to use emojis to express their emotions in messaging (especially sarcasm, tease and love) than previously thought. Finally, the data indicate how emojis are less ambiguous than facial expressions (except for neutral and surprise emotions), possibly because of the limited number of fine-grained details, and the lack of morphological features conveying facial identity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; virus’ transmission; fear of contagion; breathing difficulty; healthy adolescents; emotion awareness; anxiety-state
Online: 15 August 2020 (08:25:22 CEST)
The COVID-19 appears as a catastrophic health risk with psychological, emotional, social and relational implications. From the early stages of the virus spread, the elderly population was identified as the most vulnerable and the health authorities have rightly focused on such frailest population. Conversely, less attention was paid to emotional and psychological dimension of children and adolescents. Actually, they were less at risk quoad vitam or quoad valetudinem, nevertheless they had to face a reality of anxiety, fears and uncertainties. The current study investigated state anxiety and emotion awareness in a healthy sample of older adolescents, 84 females and 64 males, aged 17 to 19, during the pandemic lockdown, using Self-rating Anxiety Scale and the Italian Emotion Awareness Questionnaire. An unexpected anxious phenomenology, impacting the anxiety ideo-affective domain, was found, while the somatic symptomatology appeared to be less severe. The highest anxiety symptom were the breathing difficulties. These findings supported the hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic may be a risk condition for an increased state anxiety in older adolescents and suggest the need to provide 1. an effective, empathic communication system with the direct participation of older adolescents, 2. a psychological counseling service for stress management of adolescents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0306.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Fear of missing out; FoMO; social media; Social networking sites; addiction; depression; anxiety; sleep; exercise
Online: 29 April 2022 (13:50:46 CEST)
The fear of missing out (FoMO) is characterized in the literature as a fear that others are having rewarding experiences while one is missing out, and a constant need to keep connected with one’s social network. Driven by Social Determination Theory (SDT) FoMO has been linked with Problematic Social Networking Sites use (PSNSU), negative affectivity (NA), self-esteem (SE) and sleep disturbances. The present study reports findings from 512 individuals (79.1% women, mean age 30.5 years, SD= 8.61). Structural equation modelling (SEM) suggests that the duration of SNSs use and the numbers of SNSs platforms actively used partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and PSNSU. In turns, PSNSU partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA. Furthermore, the present study has extended the literature by incorporating the Vulnerability Model in the FoMO concept, identifying that SE partially mediated the relationship between FoMO and NA, while NA fully mediated the relationship between FoMO and sleeping disturbances. Accordingly, the present has extended previous research findings in showing exercise as a potential protective factor to prevent against FoMO. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0173.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fear of missing out (FOMO), Parental control, Problematic Social Media Use (PSMU), Social Media Addiction, Social Media Intrusion
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:23:46 CEST)
This study examines the relationship of fear of missing out (FOMO) with heavy social networking among Turkish university students (aged 17 - 55). The perception of the possible role of parental supervision on online activities is also investigated. Factor analysis of FOMO scale led us to evaluate the construct under two dimensions as (1) fear of missing experience and (2) fear of missing activity. The results revealed that fear of missing activity increases social media intrusion while fear of missing experience is found to have no significant effect. The reverse relationship is also valid: an urge to use social media predicts fear of missing out (activity and experience). Fear of missing experience is associated with problematic social media use (PSMU) and a high desire to use social media. The results additionally demonstrate that students aged 30 and older believe more in the requirement of parental control than those aged 17-22.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ultrasonic vocalization; social buffering; 50-kHz calls; 22-kHz calls; distress; emotional contagion; fear contagion; aversive state; communication
Online: 6 May 2021 (16:32:04 CEST)
Abstract: Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are one of the evolutionarily oldest forms of animal communication. In order to study the communication architecture in an aversive social situation, we used a behavioral model in which one animal, the observer, is witnessing as his cagemate, the demonstrator, is experiencing a series of mild electrical foot-shocks (aversive stimuli). We studied the effect of foot-shocks experience in the observer and the influence of a warning sound (emit-ted shortly before the shock is applied) on USVs communication. These experiments revealed that such a warning seems to increase the arousal level, which differentiates the responses depending on previous experience. It can be identified by the emission of characteristic, short 22-kHz calls, of a duration below 100 ms. Furthermore, by analyzing temporally overlapping USVs, we found that in ‘Warned’ pairs with a naive observer, 22-kHz were mixed with 50-kHz calls. This fact, combined with a high fraction of very high-pitched 50-kHz calls (over 75-kHz), suggests the presence of the phenomenon of social buffering. On the other hand, in ‘Warned’ pairs with an experienced observer, pure 22-kHz overlaps were mostly found, signifying possible fear contagion with dis-tress sharing. Hence the importance of differentiating 22-kHz calls to long and short.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Stress; fear; anxiety; aggression; veterinary visit; low-stress handling; counterconditioning; behaviour modification; anxiolytic medication; psychoactive drugs; dogs; cats
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:37:01 CET)
A high proportion of dogs and cats are fearful during veterinary visits, which in some cases may escalate into aggression. Here, we discuss factors that contribute to negative emotions in a veterinary setting and how these can be addressed. The set-up of the waiting area (e.g. spatial dividers; elevated places for cat carriers), tailoring the examination and the treatment to the individual, considerate handling (minimal restraint when possible, avoiding leaning over or cornering animals) and offering high-value food or toys throughout the visit can promote security and, ideally, positive associations. Desensitisation and counterconditioning are highly recommended both to prevent and address existing negative emotions. Some negative experiences such as short-term pain from injections can be minimised by using tactile and cognitive distractions. Preemptive analgesia is recommended for known painful procedures. Recommendations for handling fearful animals to minimise aggressive responses are discussed. However, anxiolytics or sedation should be used whenever there is a risk of traumatising an animal or for safety reasons. Stress-reducing measures can decrease stress and fear in patients and consequently their owners – thus strengthening the relationship with the clients as well as increasing the professional satisfaction of veterinary staff.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0440.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; coronavirus; subjective sleep quality; risk perception; fear of infection; rumination; perception of collective coordinated defense; collective efficacy beliefs
Online: 24 September 2021 (14:34:47 CEST)
Background: Only few studies have studied the link between risk perception and sleep in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates the effect of two distinct risk appraisals—risk perception and perception of collective coordinated defense (PCCD) on Chinese adults’ sleep quality during the COVID-19 pandemic, and tested COVID-19-related fear and rumination as potential mediators of the relationships. Methods: Data were collected using a self-report online questionnaire from a sample of 224 Chinese adults during the fourth wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hong Kong. Results: COVID-19 risk perception and PCCD were related to poor sleep quality. Mediation analysis showed that both fear and rumination mediated the relationship between risk perception and sleep quality, whereas only fear mediated the relationship between PCCD and sleep quality. The model showed an excellent fit to the data and accounted for 44% of the variance in sleep quality in Chinese adults. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the distinct perceptual processes—risk appraisals in particular—contributed to poor sleep quality in Chinese adults during the COVID-19 public emergencies. These findings would be helpful for policy makers to address the sleep problems induced by psychological consequences of the pandemic.