REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0748.v1
Online: 10 May 2023 (11:20:49 CEST)
Virus infection is one of the most common etiologies of hearing loss. Hearing loss associated with viral infection can be unilateral or bilateral, mild or severe, sudden or progressive, and permanent or recoverable. Many viruses cause hearing loss in adults and children; however, the pathogenesis of hearing loss caused by viral infection is not fully understood. This review describes cytomegalovirus, the most common virus causing hearing loss, and other reported hearing loss-related viruses, along with their pathogenic characteristics and research progress on their pathology, hearing phenotypes, possible associated mechanisms, treatment and prevention measures, aiming to provide diagnostic and treatment assistance to clinical workers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0397.v1
Online: 18 October 2018 (04:49:15 CEST)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus, for which there is no vaccine or cure. This viral infection, once acquired, is life-long, residing latently in hematopoietic cells. However, latently infected individuals with weakened immune systems often undergo HCMV reactivation, which can cause serious complications in immunosuppressed and immunocompromised patients. Current anti-viral therapies target late stages of viral replication, and are often met with therapeutic resistance, necessitating the development of novel therapeutics. In this current study, we identified a naturally occurring flavonoid compound, deguelin, which inhibits HCMV lytic replication. Our findings reveal that nanomolar concentrations of deguelin significantly suppress the production of infectious virus. Further, we show that deguelin inhibits the lytic cycle during the phase of the replication cycle consistent with early (E) gene and protein expression. Importantly, our data reveal that deguelin inhibits replication of a ganciclovir-resistant strain of HCMV. Together, our findings identify a novel, naturally occurring compound that may prove useful in the treatment of HCMV replication.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: cytomegalovirus; cell culture; antibodies; adaptation
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:31:39 CEST)
Propagation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cultured cells results in genetic adaptations that confer improved growth in vitro and significant attenuation in vivo. Mutations in RL13 arise quickly during cell culture passage, while mutations in the UL128-131A locus emerge later during fibroblast passage and disrupt expression of a glycoprotein complex that is important for entry into epithelial and endothelial cells. As in vivo CMV replicates in the context of host antibodies, we reasoned that antibodies might mitigate the accumulation of adaptive mutations during cell culture passage. To test this, CMV in infant urine was used to infect replicate fibroblast cultures. One lineage was passaged in the absence of CMV-hyperimmuneglobulin (HIG) while the other was passaged with HIG in the culture medium. The former lost epithelial tropism and aquired mutations disrupting RL13 and UL131A expression, whereas the latter retained epithelial tropism and both gene loci remained intact after 22 passages. An epitheliotropic RL13+/ UL131A+ virus was isolated by limiting-dilution in the presence of HIG and expanded to produce a working stock sufficient to conduct cell tropism experiments. Thus, culture in the presence of antibodies may facilitate in vitro experiments using viruses that are genetically more authentic than has been previously possible.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0084.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Human Cytomegalovirus; miRNAs; Acute Aortic Syndrome
Online: 5 September 2023 (10:31:09 CEST)
Aortic dissection is a clinicopathological entity caused by rupture of the intima leading to a high mortality if not treated. Over time, diagnostic and investigative methods, antihypertensive therapy, and early referrals have resulted in improving outcomes according to registry data. Some data has also emerged from recent studies suggesting a link between Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection and aortic dissection. Furthermore, the use of microRNAs have also become increasingly widespread in the literature. These have been noted to play a role in aortic dissections with elevated levels noted in studies as early as 2017. This review aims to provide a broad and holistic overview of the role of miRNAs, while studying the role of HCMV infection in the context of aortic dissections. The role of long non-coding RNAs, circular RNAs and microRNAs are explored to identify changes in expression during aortic dissections. The use of such biomarkers may one day be translated into clinical practice to allow early detection and prognostication of outcomes and drive preventative and therapeutic options in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2154.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Cytomegalovirus; oncogenesis; oncoprotection; cancer; global; T cell
Online: 30 September 2023 (05:37:35 CEST)
The oncogenicity of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is debated to this day. In recent years, mounting evidence addresses an anti-cancer effect via T cell-mediated CMV-targeted tumor de-struction. However, the data mostly comes from single-center studies and in vitro experiments. Broad geographic coverage is required to offer a global perspective. This study examined the correlation between country-specific CMV seroprevalence (n=73) and age-standardized inci-dence rates for 34 tumors using data obtained from the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization. The association between CMV and cancer incidences in 10-year age increments was also analyzed. The study revealed a worldwide inverse correlation between CMV seroprevalence and incidences of 88.2% tumors. Notably, this inverse link persists for all cancers combined (Spearman’s ρ= -0.732, p= 0.001). An antithetical and significant correlation is also observed in particular age groups for the vast majority of tumors. Our results corroborate the conclusions of previous studies and indicate that this phenomenon holds true on a global scale. It applies to a wide spectrum of cancer histologies, suggesting a common under-lying mechanism – CMV-stimulated T cell tumor targeting. Although these results further advance the notion of CMV-based therapies, further in-depth investigation of host-virus interactions is warranted.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1906.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Congenital cytomegalovirus; hypothermia; status epilepticus; universal screening
Online: 31 May 2023 (08:46:42 CEST)
Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection resulting from non-primary maternal infection or reactivation during pregnancy can cause serious fetal-neonatal sequelae. We describe a male newborn born at term, with signs of perinatal asphyxia, and intractable acute provoked seizures, in the context of severe cCMV infection. The newborn was delivered in a referral hospital by emergency caesarean section due to fetal distress. Due to signs of asphyxia at birth and clinical moderate encephalopathy (Sarnat 2), he was transferred to our center for therapeutic hypothermia. Continuous full video-electroencephalography monitoring showed no seizures during the first 72 hours, however, soon after rewarming, he presented refractory status epilepticus. Cranial ultrasonography revealed bilateral ventricular and intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Routine infectious screen-ing on urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and nasopharyngeal secretions revealed positive CMV DNA Polymer-ase Chain Reaction (PCR) on all samples. The CMV DNA performed on the bloodspot (Guthrie) card taken at birth yielded a positive result, confirming the intrauterine transmission and congenital origin of the infection. Maternal non-primary CMV infection in pregnancy is transmitted to the fetus in 0.5-2% of cases. When transmitted, it may cause serious fetal abnormalities, complications in the immediate neonatal period, and se-vere sequelae later in childhood. During pregnancy, it is useful to monitor maternal serology for CMV, even in previously immunized mothers, to identify signs of new infection or viral reactivation and implement measures to prevent neonatal sequelae. The possible advantages of standardized CMV screening of all newborns are a pertinent discussion point, as this may enable us to identify affected neonates timeously and prevent long term disabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0565.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus; seronegative; NK cells; viral IL-10
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:32:17 CEST)
The majority of adults in the world (around 83%) carry antibodies reactive with HCMV and are thought to retain inactive or latent infections lifelong. The virus is transmitted via saliva so infection events are likely to be common. Indeed it is hard to imagine a life without exposure to HCMV. From 45 seronegative individuals (13 renal transplant recipients, 32 healthy adults), we present seven cases who had detectable HCMV DNA in their blood and/or saliva, or a CMV-encoded homologue of IL-10 (vIL-10) in their plasma. One case displayed NK cells characteristic of CMV infection, and HCMV DNA became undetectable. In other cases, the infection may persist with seroconversion blocked by vIL-10. Future research should seek mechanisms that can prevent an individual from seroconverting despite a persistent HCMV infection, as HCMV vaccines may not work well in such people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0865.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; invasive pulmonary aspergillosis; critically ill; cytomegalovirus; ards
Online: 13 October 2023 (08:36:47 CEST)
Introduction and Aims: COVID-19-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is common and is associated with poor outcomes in critically ill patients. This prospective observational study aimed to explore the association between CAPA development and the incidence and prognosis of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Materials and Methods: We included all consecutive critically ill adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection who were admitted to three COVID-19 intensive care units (ICUs) in an Italian hospital from February 25, 2020, to May 8, 2022. A standardized procedure was employed for early detection of CAPA. Risk factors associated with CAPA and CMV reactivation and the association between CMV recurrence and mortality were estimated using adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results: CAPA occurred in 96 patients (16,6%) of the 579 patients analyzed. Among the CAPA population 40 (41,7%) patients developed CMV blood reactivation with a median time of 18 days (IQR 7-27). The CAPA+CMV group did not exhibit a significantly higher 90-day mortality rate (62.5% vs. 48.2%) than the CAPA alone group (p=0.166). The CAPA+CMV group had a longer ICU stay, fewer ventilation-free days, and a higher rate of secondary bacterial infections than the control group of CAPA alone. In the CAPA population, prior immunosuppression was the only independent risk factor for CMV reactivation (HR 2.33, 95% C.I. 1.21-4.48, p=0.011). Conclusions: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, CMV reactivation is common in those with a previous CAPA diagnosis. Basal immunosuppression before COVID-19 appeared to be the primary independent variable affecting CMV reactivation in patients with CAPA. Furthermore, the association of CAPA+CMV versus CAPA alone appears to impact ICU length of stay and secondary bacterial infections but not mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1087.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Cytomegalovirus; prophylaxis; allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation; real-world data
Online: 15 August 2023 (09:28:45 CEST)
Prevention and management of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation is important to improve outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) recipients. The aim of this study was to analyze real-world data for incidence and characteristics of CMV infections until 1-year after allo-HCT under 100-day letermovir prophylaxis. A single-center retrospective study was conducted between November 2020 and October 2021. During the study period, 358 patients underwent allo-HCT, 306 of whom received letermovir prophylaxis. Cumulative incidence of clinically significant CMV infection (CS-CMVi) was 11.4%, 31.7%, and 36.9% at 14-weeks, 24-weeks, and 1-year post-HCT, respectively. In multivariate analysis, risk of CS-CMVi increased with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) ≥ grade 2 (adjusted odds ratio 3.640 [2.036–6.510]; P < 0.001). One-year non-relapse mortality was significantly higher in letermovir breakthrough CS-CMVi patients than those with subclinical CMV reactivation who continued letermovir (P = 0.002). There were 18 (15.9%) refractory CMV infection in this study population. In summary, letermovir prophylaxis is effective in preventing CS-CMVi until day 100, which increased after cessation of letermovir. GVHD is still a significant risk factor in letermovir prophylaxis era. Further research is needed to establish individualized management strategies especially in patients with significant GVHD or letermovir breakthrough CS-CMVi.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0262.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cytomegalovirus (CMV); definitions of cytomegalovirus disease; logarithmic phase infection; innate immune response; CD14; monocytes; nonclassical monocytes; HLA-DR; adaptive immune response; interferon; monocytosis
Online: 13 October 2020 (08:52:11 CEST)
It has recently been discovered that mere cell contact by human cytomegalovirus (CMV) particles leads to profound modulation of cellular gene expression. Reduced monocyte human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) expression is a novel biomarker of severity and outcome in many diseases. Modulation of CD14 protein by CMV was shown in vitro, but little is known about the phenomenon in vivo (during active cytomegalovirus disease). Therefore, we investigated monocyte CD14 and HLA-DR expression in CMV infected patients in relation to logarithmic phase of infectious process. Samples from patients with active CMV replication (exponential growth of CMV viremia) were tested. After CD45/SSC gating monocyte CD14 and HLA-DR expression were determined by double-color flow-cytometry. Significant monocytosis and poor correlation between CMV replication and CD14+HLA-DR(-) cells prompted CD14 investigation. During logarithmic phase of CMV infection increased count and percentage of CD14low monocytes were observed which correlated with viral replication in several clinical situations except when there was a rapid recovery without relapse. Furthermore, most of CD14low monocytes are HLA-DR+. The increase of CD14low monocytes is also observed under the influence of high dose of glucocorticoids (20 mg of dexamethasone). The reduction in CD14 induced by CMV and dexamethasone indicates that the monocyte balance is disturbed between the classical and non-classical phenotype. A high percentage of CD14lowHLA-DR+ probably gives rise to adaptive and a decrease of innate immune response. In light of the logarithmic increase of viral load (with exponent between 3,23 and 5,77), high monocytosis above 1200 / µl is a hallmark of CMV replication.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0638.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Polymyositis; Cytomegalovirus infection; Hashimoto`s thyroiditis, association, coexistence, autoimmune diseases
Online: 11 September 2023 (09:31:53 CEST)
Polymyositis is a rare condition with an unknown etiology occurring more frequently in adult women. There is a lack of evidence on the coexistence of PM and CMV infection in a patient with Hashimoto Thyroiditis hypothyroidism. However, the increasing incidence of CMV infection and autoimmune diseases overlapping points out a relationship, while the association direction remains unclear. Case outline: A 32-year-old woman recently treated for HT hypothyroidism was admitted to the hospital two weeks after being treated for common flu by the family doctor, complaining about a worsening condition with muscle pain, weakness, frequent falls, and fatigue. The first tests showed a normalized thyroid function, with elevated values of troponin and serum creatinine kinase (KC). The immunological tests revealed the presence of a high titer of CMV IgG antibodies and raised levels of CMV DNA. Pelvis MRI images demonstrated markedly elevated signals on the STIR sequences in the pelvis, thighs, and calves, indicating active and severe multifocal myositis. The diagnosis of PM was confirmed with the muscle biopsy on day 7 of hospitalization. The patient showed significant improvements within two weeks after the medical therapy and physiotherapy.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: mucormycosis; cytomegalovirus infection; coronavirus infection; diabetes mellitus; corticosteroid therapy; amphotericin B
Online: 1 November 2023 (12:16:06 CET)
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that is increasingly affecting patients with Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). This connection is particularly pronounced in specific populations, including individuals with diabetes or those who have recently undergone corticosteroid therapy. Additionally, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a frequent complication among COVID-19 patients who have previously received corticosteroid or other immune-modulatory treatments. In this case report, we present the clinical details of a 56-year-old male who developed post-COVID pneumonia complicated by both cutaneous mucormycosis and CMV infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0026.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: cytomegalovirus; alanine transaminase; aspartate transaminase alkaline phosphatase; γ-glutamyltranspeptidase; liver function
Online: 5 December 2016 (11:08:57 CET)
Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major pathogen that cause remarkable rate of morbidity and mortality, especially in immunocompromised patients. It is important to find risk factors associated with CMV viremia. We studied the differences in CMV seropositivity in relation to liver function biomarkers in male and female Saudi population in an attempt to understand the variation in the CMV seroprevalence with sex and find the risk factor to develop liver dysfunction or hepatocellular carcinoma. Material and subjects: The CMV- IgG and IgM were screened in serum samples of 150 non- A-G hepatities patients with elevation of liver profiles (ALT, AST, ALP and GGT) and categorized as males and females. Samples were collected from different general hospitals and polyclinic in KSA from March 2014 to June 2015. A correlation between CMV seropositivity measured with both antibodies and liver enzymes were tested. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis and multiple regressions were done for the obtained data. Results: Our study shows that females had much higher IgG and IgM compared to age-matching males. A significant correlation between both antibodies and liver enzymes (AST, ALT) was recorded. Less significant correlation of both IgG and IgM with GGT was also observed. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis revealed that both IgG and IgM can be used as excellent predictive markers for CMV infection as both recorded 100% specificity and sensitivity together with area under the curve of 1 in males and females. Multiple regression analysis ascertain the correlation between both antibodies as dependent variables and liver enzymes as independent variables with ALT being the most affected enzyme with CMV seropositivity especially in females. Conclusion:he data discussed above This study shows that CMV is capable of initiating and accelerating liver dysfunction in both sexes. The high seroprevalence in females at reproductive age is especially important as they can transmit the virus to their developing fetus. Prevention of CMV infection in young girls 11-14 years old, through counseling on hygiene or possible future vaccination, may lead to a decrease of congenital CMV infections with the concomitant risk of developing liver dysfunction or hepatocellular carcinoma. Keywords: Cytomegalovirus, Alanine transaminase, Aspartate transaminase Alkaline phosphatase, γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase, liver function.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human cytomegalovirus; progenitor cell; hematopoietic stem cell transplant; myelosuppression; hematopoiesis; humanized mice
Online: 12 March 2020 (04:26:12 CET)
Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a serious complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients due to virus-induced myelosuppression and impairment of stem cell engraftment. Despite the clear clinical link between myelosuppression and HCMV infection, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which the virus inhibits normal hematopoiesis because of the strict species specificity and the lack of surrogate animal models. In this study, we developed a novel humanized mouse model system that recapitulates the HCMV-mediated engraftment failure after hematopoietic cell transplantation. We observed significant alterations in the hematopoietic populations in peripheral lymphoid tissues following engraftment of a subset of HCMV+ CD34+ HPCs within the transplant suggesting that a small proportion of HCMV-infected CD34+ HPCs can profoundly affect HPC differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment. This model will be instrumental to gain insight into the fundamental mechanisms of HCMV myelosuppression after HSCT and provides a platform to assess novel treatment strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0378.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: viral entry; glycoproteins; receptors; cytomegalovirus; herpesviruses; HCMV; CMV; pentamer; trimer; gH/gL
Online: 11 December 2018 (07:36:44 CET)
The past few years have brought substantial progress toward understanding how human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) enters the remarkably wide spectrum of cell types and tissues that the virus infects. Neuropilin-2 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRa) were identified as receptors, respectively, for the trimeric and pentameric glycoprotein H/glycoprotein L (gH/gL) complexes that in large part govern HCMV cell tropism, while CD90 and CD147 were also found to play roles during entry. X-ray crystal structures for the proximal viral fusogen, glycoprotein B (gB), and for the pentameric gH/gL complex (pentamer) have been solved. A novel virion gH complex consisting of gH bound to UL116 instead of gL was described, and findings supporting the existence of a stable complex between gH/gL and gB were reported. Additional work indicates that the pentamer promotes a mode of cell-associated spread that resists antibody neutralization, as opposed to the trimeric gH/gL complex (trimer), which appears to be broadly required for the infectivity of cell-free virions. Finally, viral factors such as UL148 and US16 were identified that can influence the incorporation of the alternative gH/gL complexes into virions. We will review these advances and their implications for understanding HCMV entry and cell tropism.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0095.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus; primary tree shrew dermis fibroblasts; cross-species infection; lytic replication.
Online: 5 November 2018 (09:43:16 CET)
As a universal pathogen leading to neonatal defects and transplant failure, Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has strict species specificity that the inability to using this virus in animals has hampered its pathogenesis study. However, the mechanism of cross-species barrier remains elusive that no non-human cell model has been established to fill this knowledge gap. We observed that primary dermis fibroblasts (TSDF) isolated from the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a small laboratory animal with close affinity to primates, were permissive to HCMV replication. In TSDF infected with GFP-expressing HCMV, the green fluorescence and cytopathic effect were observed and the expression of 3 kinetic genes and replication of viral genome were detected. The cell-free viruses produced in TSDF reached 103 pfu/mL at 96 hpi, which were 10-fold lower than in primary human foreskin fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that TSDF supported low level of lytic replication of HCMV. The TSDF model provides a useful platform for the mechanism study of species barrier of HCMV.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0013.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: viral dissemination; innate immune cells; cytomegalovirus; pathogenesis; chemokines; Fenner hypothesis; neutrophils; monocytes
Online: 2 July 2018 (13:14:05 CEST)
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a β-herpes virus that is a significant pathogen within immune compromised populations. HCMV morbidity is induced through viral dissemination and inflammation. Typically, viral dissemination is thought to follow Fenner’s hypothesis where virus replicates at the site of infection, followed by replication in the draining lymph nodes, and eventually replicating within blood filtering organs. Although CMVs somewhat follow Fenner’s hypothesis, they deviate from it by spreading primarily through innate immune cells as opposed to cell free virus. Also, in vivo CMVs infect new cells via cell to cell spread and disseminate directly to secondary organs through novel mechanisms. We review the historic and recent literature pointing to CMV’s direct dissemination to secondary organs and the genes that it has evolved for increasing its ability to disseminate. We also highlight aspects of CMV infection for studying viral dissemination when using in vivo animal models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Keywords: Herpesvirus; Herpes Simplex virus Type 1; Human cytomegalovirus; Vestibular neuritis; Celler processes
Online: 1 November 2023 (10:57:40 CET)
Herpesvirus is a prevalent pathogen that primarily infects human epithelial cells and has the ability to reside in neurons. In the field of otolaryngology, herpesvirus infection primarily leads to hearing loss and vestibular neuritis, and is considered the primary hypothesis regarding the pathogenesis of vestibular neuritis. Individuals afflicted with vestibular neuritis experience diz-ziness, which significantly impacts their daily lives. The impact of herpes virus infection on host cell processes and the targeted clearance of infected host cells by immune cells are likely the primary pathogenic mechanisms underlying vestibular neuritis. In this review, we provide a summary of the effects of herpes virus on cellular processes in both host cells and immune cells, with a focus on HSV-1 and HCMV as illustrative examples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1218.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: aging; immunosenescence; cytomegalovirus; inflammaging; CMV latency; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; long COVID; age-related diseases
Online: 20 November 2023 (05:14:11 CET)
Aging induces numerous physiological alterations, with immunosenescence emerging as a pivotal factor. This phenomenon has attracted both researchers and clinicians, prompting pro-found questions about its implications for health and disease. Among the contributing factors, one intriguing actor in this complex interplay is human cytomegalovirus (CMV), a member of the herpesvirus family. Latent CMV infection exerts a profound influence on the aging immune system, potentially contributing to age-related diseases. This review delves into the intricate relationship between immunosenescence and CMV, revealing how chronic viral infection im-pacts the aging immune landscape. We explore the mechanisms through which CMV can im-pact both the composition and functionality of immune cell populations and induce shifts in in-flammatory profiles with aging. Moreover, we examine potential role of CMV in such pathol-ogies as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, COVID-19, and Long COVID. This review underlines the importance of understanding the complex interplay be-tween immunosenescence and CMV. It offers insights into the pathophysiology of aging and age-associated diseases, as well as COVID-19 outcomes among the elderly. By unraveling the connections between immunosenescence and CMV, we gain a deeper understanding of aging's remarkable journey and the profound role that viral infections play in transforming the human immune system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0040.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: unfolded protein response (UPR); integrated stress response (ISR); ATF6; IRE1; XBP1; PERK; ATF4; GADD34; herpesvirus; Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV); cytomegalovirus (CMV); herpes simplex virus (HSV)
Online: 4 December 2019 (04:38:02 CET)
Herpesviruses usurp cellular stress responses to avoid immune detection while simultaneously promoting viral replication and spread. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionarily conserved stress response that is activated when the protein load in the ER saturates its chaperone folding capacity causing an accrual of misfolded proteins. Through translational and transcriptional reprogramming, the UPR aims to restore protein homeostasis; however, if this fails the cell undergoes apoptosis. It is commonly thought that many enveloped viruses, including herpesviruses, may activate the UPR due to saturation of the ER with nascent glycoproteins and thus these viruses may have evolved mechanisms to evade the potentially negative effects of UPR signaling. Over the past fifteen years there has been considerable effort to provide evidence that different viruses may reprogram the UPR to promote viral replication. Here we provide an overview of the molecular events of UPR activation, signaling and transcriptional outputs, and highlight key findings that demonstrate that the UPR is an important cellular stress response that herpesviruses have hijacked to facilitate persistent infection.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0491.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: cytomegalovirus (CMV); infection, reactivation, epidemiology, host-virus interaction, CMV-specific IgG; protective IgG level, avidity, adoptive/acquired immune response, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); secondary immunodeficiency, Quantiferon, pentamer, β2-microglobulin/beta 2-Microglobulin
Online: 22 October 2018 (11:53:47 CEST)
Although the existing paradigm states that CMV reactivation is under control of cellular immune response, the role of humoral counterpart is underestimated. Anti-CMV positive woman after conditioning with Bu-Flu-ATG underwent stem cell transplantation from fully matched, seronegative sibling donor. In immunodeficient recipient fast and significant decrease of specific immune response was observed but reconstitution of marrow-derived B and NK cells was prior thymic origin T cells. The lowest CMV-IgG(89 U/ml) was observed just before CMV viremia. Noteworthy, the sole and exclusive factor of CMV-specific immune response is a residual recipient antibody class IgG. The CMV-quantiferon increase was observed later, but in the first phase immune reconstitution of the PHA-induced IFNγ release was significantly lower than that CMV-induced. It corresponds with NK cells increase at the top of lymphocyte reconstitution and undetected CMV-specific CD8 cells by pentamer technique. Most of NK cells are CD16+, thus are stimulated by residual IgG. In immunocompetent donor the cellular and humoral immune response increases in parallel manner but symptoms of CMV mononucleosis were observed till the increase of specific IgG. Our observations shed light on a unique host-CMV interaction: indicate that significant decrease of CMV-IgG is a good predictor for CMV reactivation during secondary immunodeficiency.