ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0016.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: conversational systems; chatbots; SotA
Online: 4 May 2022 (14:19:47 CEST)
We survey SoTA open-domain conversational AI models with the purpose of presenting the prevailing challenges that still exist to spur future research. In addition, we provide statistics on the gender of conversational AI in order to guide the ethics discussion surrounding the issue. Open-domain conversational AI are known to have several challenges, including bland responses and performance degradation when prompted with figurative language, among others. First, we provide some background by discussing some topics of interest in conversational AI. We then discuss the method applied to the two investigations carried out that make up this study. The first investigation involves a search for recent SoTA open-domain conversational AI models while the second involves the search for 100 conversational AI to assess their gender. Results of the survey show that progress has been made with recent SoTA conversational AI, but there are still persistent challenges that need to be solved, and the female gender is more common than the male for conversational AI. One main take-away is that hybrid models of conversational AI offer more advantages than any single architecture. The key contributions of this survey are 1) the identification of prevailing challenges in SoTA open-domain conversational AI, 2) the unusual discussion about open-domain conversational AI for low-resource languages, and 3) the discussion about the ethics surrounding the gender of conversational AI.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0479.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; bibliometrics; trustworthiness; artificial intelligence; chatbots
Online: 28 March 2023 (09:34:13 CEST)
The introduction of the AI-powered chatbot ChatGPT by OpenAI has sparked much interest and debate among academic researchers. Commentators from different scientific disciplines have raised many concerns and issues, especially related to the ethics of using these tools in scientific writing and publications. In addition, there has been discussions about whether ChatGPT is trustworthy, effective, and useful in increasing researchers’ productivity. Therefore, in this paper, we evaluate ChatGPT’s performance on tasks related to bibliometric analysis, by comparing the output provided by the chatbot with a recently conducted bibliometric study on the same topic. The findings show that there are large discrepancies and ChatGPT’s trustworthiness is low in this particular area. Therefore, researchers should exercise caution when using ChatGPT as a tool in bibliometric studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0070.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: encoder; decoder; seq2seq; LSTM; RNN; chatbots
Online: 3 March 2023 (10:08:32 CET)
Chatbots are extensively needed in customer services to handle customer inquiries, such as tracking orders or providing information about products and services. One of the most reliable implementations of chatbots is using the common architectures of LSTM networks named Seq2Seq networks. The networks are using an encoder and a decoder. Seq2Seq chatbot is a type of chat system that is professional enough to pass the Turing test. The Turing test is a way of deciding the accuracy of the machine by examining its response, it should appear like a human response. In this research, we will introduce a novel architecture that can pass the Turing test. The seq2seq Accuracy is improved by making incremental training to the chatbot. The new proposal provides higher accuracy and high similarity to human chat responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0344.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Familial hypercholesterolemia; identification; implementation outcomes; cascade screening; cascade testing; chatbots; direct contact
Online: 14 May 2021 (14:49:21 CEST)
Guided by the Conceptual Model of Implementation Research, we explored the acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility of: 1) automated screening approaches utilizing existing health data to identify those who require subsequent diagnostic evaluation for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) and 2) family communication methods including chatbots and direct contact to communicate information about inherited risk for FH. Focus groups were conducted with 22 individuals with FH (2 groups) and 20 clinicians (3 groups). These were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using deductive (coded to implementation outcomes) and inductive (themes based on focus group discussions) methods. All stakeholders described these initiatives as: 1) acceptable and appropriate to identify individuals with FH and communicate risk with at-risk relatives; and 2) feasible to implement in current practice. Stakeholders cited current initiatives, outside of FH (e.g., pneumonia protocols, colon cancer and breast cancer screenings), that gave them confidence for successful implementation. Stakeholders described perceived obstacles, such as nonfamiliarity with FH, that could hinder implementation and potential solutions to improve systematic uptake of these initiatives. Automated health data screening, chatbots, and direct contact approaches may be useful for patients and clinicians to improve FH diagnosis and cascade screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0808.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; AI; education; international students; personalized learning; adaptive learning; predictive analytics; chatbots
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:57:02 CEST)
The use of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in education has the potential to revolutionize the learning experience for international students, who face unique challenges when studying in a foreign country. This paper explores various examples of AI applications in education and their potential impact on international students. AI applications such as personalized learning experiences, adaptive testing, predictive analytics, and chatbots for learning and research are examined for their potential to improve learning efficiency and provide customized education support. It also explores the significant risks and limitations associated with AI technologies, such as privacy, cultural differences, language proficiency, and ethical implications. To maximize the potential benefits of AI applications in higher education, it is crucial to implement appropriate safeguards and regulations. This paper provides a starting point for research on the potential impact of artificial intelligence on international students’ educational experiences and how AI may be integrated into educational administration and learning processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0521.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; GPT-3; OpenAI; chatbots; digital health; artificial intelligence; automation; technological advancement; human-AI interaction; collaboration; open science
Online: 28 January 2023 (07:56:35 CET)
Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to revolutionize research by automating data analysis, generating new insights, and supporting the discovery of new knowledge. The top 10 contribution areas of AI towards public health were gathered in this feasibility study. We utilized the “text-davinci-003” model of GPT-3, using OpenAI playground default parameters. The model was trained with the largest training dataset any AI had, limited to a cut-off date in 2021. This study aimed to test the ability of GPT-3 to advance public health and to explore the feasibility of using AI as scientific co-author. The AI was asked for input including scientific quotations and the human authors reviewed responses for plausibility. We found that GPT-3 was able to assemble, summarize, and generate plausible text blocks relevant for public health concerns, elucidating valuable areas of application for itself. However, most quotations were invented by GPT-3 and thus, invalid. Ac-cording to today’s rules, we conclude that AI can contribute to public health research as a team member. Nevertheless, good scientific practice needs to be also followed for AI contributions, and a broad scientific discourse on AI contributions is needed. Policies for good scientific practice should be updated timely following this discourse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0474.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; GPT-3; global trends; OpenAI; chatbots; digital health; artificial intelligence; automation; technological advancement; human-AI interaction; collaboration
Online: 26 January 2023 (08:37:22 CET)
This paper examines the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) to address societal megatrends, with a specific focus on OpenAI’s Generative Pre-Trained Transformer 3 (GPT-3). To do this, we con-ducted an analysis using GPT-3 in order to explore the benefits of AI for digitalization, urbanization, globalization, climate change, automation and mobility, global health issues and aging population. We also looked at emerging markets as well as sustainability in this study. Interaction with GPT-3 was done solely through prompt questions and generated responses were analyzed. Our results indicate that AI can significantly improve our understanding of these trends by providing insights into how they develop over time and what solutions could be implemented. Further research is needed to determine how effective AI will be in addressing them successfully but initial findings are encouraging. Our discussion focuses on the implications of our findings for society going forward and suggests that further investigation should be done into how best to utilize new technologies like GPT-3 when tackling these challenges. Lastly, we conclude that while there is still much work left to do before any tangible effects can be seen from utilizing AI tools such as GPT-3 on societal mega-trends; early indications suggest it may have a positive impact if used correctly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0418.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: keyword 1; chatbots 2; chatbot validation 3; bots 4; A Testing Framework for AI Linguistic Systems (testFAILS) 5; AIDoctor
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:26:58 CEST)
This paper presents an innovative testing framework, testFAILS, designed for the rigorous evaluation of AI Linguistic Systems, with a particular emphasis on various iterations of ChatGPT. Leveraging orthogonal array coverage, this framework provides a robust mechanism for assessing AI systems, addressing the critical question, "How should we evaluate AI?" While the Turing test has traditionally been the benchmark for AI evaluation, we argue that current publicly available chatbots, despite their rapid advancements, have yet to meet this standard. However, the pace of progress suggests that achieving Turing test-level performance may be imminent. In the interim, the need for effective AI evaluation and testing methodologies remains paramount. Our research, which is ongoing, has already validated several versions of ChatGPT, and we are currently conducting comprehensive testing on the latest models, including ChatGPT-4, Bard and Bing Bot, and the LLaMA model. The testFAILS framework is designed to be adaptable, ready to evaluate new bot versions as they are released. Additionally, we have tested available chatbot APIs and developed our own application, AIDoctor, utilizing the ChatGPT-4 model and Microsoft Azure AI technologies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0025.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: OpenAI; ChatGPT; GPT-3; text-davinci-003; chatbots; artificial intelligence; human-AI interface; collaboration; sustainability; social development; human development
Online: 1 March 2023 (14:17:24 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) experienced significant advancements in recent years, and its impact is already recognized across various industries. Yet, the rise of AI has led to a growing concern about its impact on meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The aim of this paper was to evaluate contributions and the potential impact of AI to sustainable development in the society domain. Furthermore, the study analyzed GPT-3 responses, as one of the largest language models developed by OpenAI, descriptively. We conducted a set of queries on the SDGs to gather infor-mation on GPT-3`s perceptions of AI impact on sustainable development. Analysis of GPT-3’s contribution potential towards the SDGs showcased its broad range of capabilities for contributing to the SDGs in areas such as education, health, and communication. The study findings provide valuable insights into the contributions of AI to sustainable development in the society domain and highlight the importance of proper regulations to promote the responsible use of AI for sustainable development. We plan subsequent research for effects on ecologic and economic domains of SDGs. We highlighted the potential for improvement in neural language processing skills of GPT-3 by avoiding imitating weak human writing styles with more mistakes in longer texts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0065.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: OpenAI; ChatGPT; GPT-3; text-davinci-003; chatbots; prediction; scenario planning; scenario generation; future research; artificial intelligence; human-AI interaction; collaboration
Online: 3 February 2023 (09:34:38 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the power to generate scenarios and make predictions through the use of advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques. OpenAI’s GPT-3 AI is a state-of-the-art language model that has been trained on a large dataset of text, which allows it to generate hu-man-like text, and it can generate scenarios for different fields. However, GPT-3 was trained on data available up until June 2021, had no access to more recent data nor was connected to the internet. In this study, we investigated the capability of OpenAI’s GPT-3 AI to predict the Ukrainian war es-calation, which started in 2022 and had massive geopolitical effects. We used GPT-3´s capability to generate future scenarios, to check those scenarios for internal consistency, and to create a proba-bility estimate. The results showed that although GPT-3 described an open war as one of the low probability scenarios, its capability on predicting the future was limited. Furthermore, it became evident that checking internal consistency of the generated scenarios could be improved. We ap-preciated GPT-3 as very useful and powerful for generating future scenarios, but also concluded that its prediction capabilities of real-world events are limited, should be used with caution, and require further development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0265.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: chatbot; conversational agents; human-computer dialogue system; social chatbots; ChatScript; conversational modelling; conversation systems; conversational system; conversational entities; embodied conversational agents
Online: 16 December 2021 (10:35:06 CET)
Chatbots are intelligent conversational computer systems designed to mimic human conversation to enable automated online guidance and support. The increased benefits of chatbots led to their wide adoption by many industries in order to provide virtual assistance to customers. Chatbots utilise methods and algorithms from two Artificial Intelligence domains: Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. However, there are many challenges and limitations in their application. In this survey we review recent advances on chatbots, where Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language processing are used. We highlight the main challenges and limitations of current work and make recommendations for future research investigation