Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

State-of-the-art in Open-domain Conversational AI: A Survey

Version 1 : Received: 30 April 2022 / Approved: 4 May 2022 / Online: 4 May 2022 (14:19:47 CEST)

How to cite: Adewumi, T.; Liwicki, F.; Liwicki, M. State-of-the-art in Open-domain Conversational AI: A Survey. Preprints 2022, 2022050016 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202205.0016.v1). Adewumi, T.; Liwicki, F.; Liwicki, M. State-of-the-art in Open-domain Conversational AI: A Survey. Preprints 2022, 2022050016 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202205.0016.v1).

Abstract

We survey SoTA open-domain conversational AI models with the purpose of presenting the prevailing challenges that still exist to spur future research. In addition, we provide statistics on the gender of conversational AI in order to guide the ethics discussion surrounding the issue. Open-domain conversational AI are known to have several challenges, including bland responses and performance degradation when prompted with figurative language, among others. First, we provide some background by discussing some topics of interest in conversational AI. We then discuss the method applied to the two investigations carried out that make up this study. The first investigation involves a search for recent SoTA open-domain conversational AI models while the second involves the search for 100 conversational AI to assess their gender. Results of the survey show that progress has been made with recent SoTA conversational AI, but there are still persistent challenges that need to be solved, and the female gender is more common than the male for conversational AI. One main take-away is that hybrid models of conversational AI offer more advantages than any single architecture. The key contributions of this survey are 1) the identification of prevailing challenges in SoTA open-domain conversational AI, 2) the unusual discussion about open-domain conversational AI for low-resource languages, and 3) the discussion about the ethics surrounding the gender of conversational AI.

Keywords

conversational systems; chatbots; SotA

Subject

MATHEMATICS & COMPUTER SCIENCE, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics

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