ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0110.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: causality; deep learning; machine learning; counterfactual; explainable AI; blended cognition; mechanisms; system
Online: 8 July 2019 (08:10:29 CEST)
Causality is the most important topic in the history of Western Science, and since the beginning of the statistical paradigm, it meaning has been reconceptualized many times. Causality entered into the realm of multi-causal and statistical scenarios some centuries ago. Despite of widespread critics, today Deep Learning and Machine Learning advances are not weakening causality but are creating a new way of finding indirect factors correlations. This process makes possible us to talk about approximate causality, as well as about a situated causality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0252.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Audio-Visual Technologies; Blended Learning; Pedagogy; Virtual Learning Environments; Virtual Reality
Online: 17 March 2022 (11:05:27 CET)
The Covid-19 pandemic caused a shift in teaching practice towards blended learning for many Higher Education institutions. This led to the rapid adoption of certain digital technologies within existing teaching structures as a means to meet student access needs and facilitate learning. Integration of these technologies caused numerous challenges for practitioners and often provided mixed results. This paper is an attempt to summarise and extend pre-Covid pedagogical research to leverage digital immersive technologies for blended teaching in the post-pandemic era. Focus is given towards the evolution of Virtual Learning Environments through elements of immersive audio-visual technologies, which are shown to be effective when coupled in a blended approach. It is both a review of these methodologies and a case study of the I-Ulysses: Virtual Learning Environment as a point of comparison for evaluating the review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0293.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: representations; prior knowledge; blended learning; scaling up; innovation and entrepreneurship
Online: 16 November 2021 (14:32:24 CET)
Education on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (I&E) has increased in the last two decades, specially, through MOOCs. Lately, these reusable online alternatives have tended to be revalorized by HEIs into blended learning activities, posing new challenges for instructors, specially, on how to bridge prior knowledge with in-class activities. Adopting a discursive approach to knowledge, our proposal aims to meet this challenge by identifying student’s ‘representations’, i.e., patterned constructions on disciplinary knowledge. Representations can be found across different cohorts and thus further complemented by instructors. To test this assumption and build our proposal, we analysed student’s representations in two observations. We mapped students’ representations over key I&E definitions (e.g., ‘start-up’) and, to know how prior knowledge may be complemented by instructors, we identified students’ alignment with expert disciplinary knowledge. Firstly, we found that the two cohorts tended to express representations by turning attention to several dimensions, e.g., referring to different types of features or finalities associated with concepts. Secondly, the disciplinary alignment description revealed that students tended to focus on the same components present in experts’ definitions, but with a greater level of generality. Our results have been packaged into a proposal that aims to help instructors scale their blended activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0333.v1
Online: 15 September 2020 (06:13:10 CEST)
At the start of 2020 the rapid onset of the coronavirus pandemic forced higher education institutions across the world to pivot from face to face to remote teaching. For teaching methods that involve the transmission and dissemination of verbal/visual information between academic staff and students, video technologies provided immediate methods to respond to the restricted access to campus. Practical activities, that usually involve interaction with equipment, presented a greater challenge to adapt for remote delivery. With restrictions on higher education being partially lifted, many institutions worldwide intend to offer blended learning, prioritizing in-person activities that are troublesome to deliver online, such as practicals. Social distancing measures are reducing capacity and placing increased pressure on space, creating a need to optimise limited time students have in the lab and strategies to determine which activities can best utilize this limited resource. Time is constrained, leaving little opportunity to make radical changes to learning and teaching structures. In this publication, The department of Mulicdipalnary Engineering Education (MEE) at the University of Sheffield, utilise their experiences in practical teaching to provide simple, implementable ideas for blended practicals which maximize students’ learning and experiences within the envelope of available resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0182.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: practical engineering education; remote practicals; blended learning
Online: 14 June 2020 (15:29:04 CEST)
Multidisciplinary Engineering Education (MEE) at the University of Sheffield is dedicated to delivering, at scale, practical teaching to students in the Faculty of Engineering. The COVID-19 pandemic initiated the sudden suspension of face to face teaching required MEE to translate over 600 in-lab practicals to a remote delivery format. With little opportunity to coordinate, academic staff independently adopted a variety of tactics to ensure practical learning outcomes were maintained. Following the reactive response, a proactive reflection was conducted and six categories of tactics for remote practicals have been established. These categories are Provide digital artefacts; Simulated practicals; Synchronous remote participation; Asynchronous participation by proxy; Perform procedure in alternative environment; Remote staff support. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these categories is discussed and it is suggested which tactics are appropriate for particular learning outcomes or operational and environmental outcomes of equivalent in-lab practicals. Further work to comprehensively align outcomes to tactics is proposed and lasting benefit from the analysis can be realized by adopting a principle of Remote Enhanced Practicals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0010.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: digital teaching competence; information and communication technology; blended-learning; COVID-19.
Online: 1 July 2021 (11:06:33 CEST)
The education system has become even more complex following the global pandemic, which saw face-to-face teaching transition to virtual teaching. To cope with this abrupt transition, it is essential that teachers had a sufficient level of digital teaching competence. This article aims to increase awareness of teachers' self-perception of their digital teaching competences in the educational field. Specifically, this study explores Spanish secondary school teachers’ knowledge and use of different ICT tools by evaluating their competence based on different areas proposed by The National Institute of Technology and Professional Development (Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado, INTEF), Madrid, Spain. From the results of the questionnaires, we have determined that teachers consider themselves to have an upper intermediate level of digital teaching competence, although there are still shortcomings that need to be addressed in order to improve this level of competence, and its true integration in the teaching–learning process.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hematite nanoparticles; fly ash blended cement; cement hydration; compressive strength; workability
Online: 19 March 2021 (15:30:18 CET)
Several types of hematite nanoparticles (α-Fe2O3) have been investigated for their effects on the structure and properties of fly ash (FA) blended cement. All synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical shape, but of different particle sizes from 10 to 195 nm depending on the surfactant used in their preparation. The cement hydration with time showed 1.0% α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was an effective accelerator for FA blended cement. Moreover, adding α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in FA blended cement enhanced the compressive strength and workability of cement. Nanoparticle size and size distribution were important for optimal filling of various size of pores within the cement structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0323.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Hydrogel; Blended paper; Slow-release fertilizer; Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose; polyvinyl alcohol
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:48:48 CEST)
In this study, a slow-release urea fertilizer hydrogel was synthesized from hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose, polyvinyl alcohol and glycerol blends with paper (blended paper) as second layer. The fertilizer hydrogel was characterized by SEM, XRD and FTIR. Its retention in sandy soil, swelling behavior in distilled and tap water as well as slow-release behavior to urea were investigated. The results indicated that the fertilizer had good slow-release properties and ability to retain water in soil. However, the addition of blended paper as a second layer matrix was found to help improve the release properties of the fertilizer. The swelling kinetic of the hydrogel followed the Schott’s Second order model. The release kinetics of urea in water was best described by the Zero order model signifying that the release behavior was independent of fertilizer concentration
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0284.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: blended wing body (BWB); aircraft conceptual design; engineering flight simulator; flying and handling qualities; aircraft stability
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:28:27 CET)
The Blended Wing Body (BWB) configuration is considered to have the potential of providing significant advantages when compared to conventional aircraft designs. At the same time, numerous studies have reported that technical challenges exist in many areas of its design, including stability and control. This study aims to create a novel BWB design to test its flying and handling qualities using an engineering flight simulator and as such, to identify potential design solutions which will enhance its controllability and manoeuvrability characteristics. This aircraft is aimed toward the commercial sector with a range of 3,000 nautical miles, carrying a payload of 20,000kg. In the engineering flight simulator a flight test was undertaken; first, to determine the BWB design’s static stability through a standard commercial mission profile, and then to determine its dynamic stability characteristics through standard dynamic modes. Its flying qualities suggested its stability with a static margin of 8.652% of the Mean Aerodynamic Chord (MAC) and consistent response from the pilot input. In addition, the aircraft achieved a maximum lift-to-drag ratio of 28.1; a maximum range of 4,581 nautical miles; zero-lift drag of 0.005; and meeting all the requirements of the dynamic modes.