ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0471.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: carbon sequestration; evolutionary game theory; organic fertilizer; food security
Online: 29 August 2022 (07:29:22 CEST)
The application of organic fertilizers plays a crucial role in achieving carbon sequestration in the agricultural sector. This paper discusses how farmers can more smoothly promote organic fertilizer extension services. An evolutionary game model is developed to describe the conflicting interests of Chinese farmers and local governments in organic fertilizer extension services, and the dynamic evolution of the game players and the influence of parameter adjustment on the strategic choices of both parties is presented. In this paper, the game model and the main results are validated with the help of simulation tools, and a sensitivity analysis of the selected parameters is performed. The results show that (1) the implementation of subsidy policy is less helpful for organic fertilizer extension services; (2) The ideal event probability of the game was found to be positively related to the cost of applying inorganic fertilizers, additional benefits to farmers, political returns to local governments, and penalties for not using organic fertilizers; (3) This is important for improving the performance of local governments, reducing government regulatory costs, improving policy support for organic fertilizer extension services, and reducing the cost of implementing organic fertilizer extension services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0336.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; sea ice; machine learning
Online: 21 May 2020 (05:59:34 CEST)
In this paper, we focus on developing a novel method to extract sea ice cover (i.e., discrimination/classification of sea ice and open water) using Sentinel-1 (S1) cross-polarization (vertical-horizontal, VH or horizontal-vertical, HV) data in extra wide (EW) swath mode based on the machine learning algorithm support vector machine (SVM). The classification basis includes the S1 radar backscatter coefficients and texture features that are calculated from S1 data using the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM). Different from previous methods where appropriate samples are manually selected to train the SVM to classify sea ice and open water, we proposed a method of unsupervised generation of the training samples based on two GLCM texture features, i.e. entropy and homogeneity, that have contrasting characteristics on sea ice and open water. We eliminate the most uncertainty of selecting training samples in machine learning and achieve automatic classification of sea ice and open water by using S1 EW data. The comparison shows good agreement between the SAR-derived sea ice cover using the proposed method and a visual inspection, of which the accuracy reaches approximately 90% - 95% based on a few cases. Besides this, compared with the analyzed sea ice cover data Ice Mapping System (IMS) based on 728 S1 EW images, the accuracy of extracted sea ice cover by using S1 data is more than 80%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0984.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Thyroid papillary carcinoma; Bilateral total lobectomy; Unilateral total lobectomy plus isthmectomy; Thyroid function; Treatment efficacy
Online: 14 August 2023 (07:14:36 CEST)
Objective: To examine the effect of bilateral total lobectomy and unilateral total lobectomy on improving thyroid function in patients with thyroid micropapillary carcinoma treated with euthyrox. Methods: The study was conducted on 68 patients with thyroid micro papillary carcinoma treated with euthyroxwho had been surgically treated with euthyrox in our hospital between January 2018 and December 2019. On the basis of random number grouping, they were divided into control groups (n = 34, bilateral total lobectomy) and observation groups (n = 34, unilateral total lobectomy plus isthmectomy). Thyroid function, free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid hormone (TSH), and voice function (VHI score) of the two groups were compared.Results: In comparison to the control group, the observation group had shorter incision lengths, shorter operation times, and shorter hospital stays, as well as less intraoperative bleeding and drainage volume, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05); As compared with the control group, the observation group had higher FT4 and FT3 levels as well as lower TSH levels, a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05).VHI scores of emotions, function, physiology, and other voice functions were significantly lower among the observation group than those of the control group (P < 0.05).Conclusion: A unilateral total lobectomy with adjacent isthmus resection in patients with thyroid micro papillary carcinoma can yield ideal results, accelerate the time taken for surgical rehabilitation, improve thyroid function, thereby improving voice quality, as well as improve the overall prognosis of the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0382.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Robotic Grasp; Transformer; attentional mechanism
Online: 13 March 2023 (04:00:50 CET)
We introduce a novel hybrid Transformer-CNN architecture for robotic grasp detection, designed to enhance the accuracy of grasping unknown objects. Our proposed architecture has two key designs. Firstly, we develop a hierarchical transformer as the encoder, incorporating the external attention to effectively capture the correlation features across the data. Secondly, the decoder is constructed with cross-layer connections to efficiently fuse multi-scale features. Channel attention is introduced in the decoder to model the correlation between channels and to adaptively recalibrate the channel correlation feature response, thereby increasing the weight of the effective channels. Our method is evaluated on the Cornell and Jacquard public datasets, achieving an image-wise detection accuracy of 98.3% and 95.8% on each dataset, respectively. Additionally, we achieve object-wise detection accuracy of 96.9% and 92.4% on the same datasets. A physical experiment is also performed using the Elite 6Dof robot, with a grasping accuracy rate of 93.3%, demonstrating the proposed method's ability to grasp unknown objects in real-world scenarios. The results of this study show that our proposed method outperforms other state-of-the-art methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0401.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: robot grasp detection; cross-modality fusion; channel interaction
Online: 23 February 2023 (06:53:53 CET)
In the field of vision-based robot grasping, effectively leveraging RGB and depth information to accurately determine the position and pose of a target is a critical issue. To address this challenge, we propose a tri-stream cross-modal fusion architecture for 2-DoF visual grasp detection. This architecture facilitates the interaction of RGB and depth bilateral information and is designed to efficiently aggregate multiscale information. Our novel modal interaction module (MIM) with spatial-wise cross-attention algorithm adaptively captures cross-modal feature information. Meanwhile, the channel interaction modules (CIM) further enhance the aggregation of different modal streams. In addition, we efficiently aggregate global multiscale information through a hierarchical structure with skipping connections. To evaluate the performance of our proposed method, we conduct validation experiments on standard public datasets and real robot grasping experiments. We achieve the image-wise detection accuracy of 99.4% and 96.7% on Cornell and Jacquard datasets respectively. The object-wise detection accuracy reaches 97.8% and 94.6% on the same datasets. Furthermore, physical experiments using the 6-DoF Elite robot demonstrate a success rate of 94.5%. These experiments highlight the superior accuracy of our proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0337.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Graph embedding; Link prediction; Mutual information; Subgraph
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:47:29 CET)
The prediction of drug--target interactions is always a key task in the field of drug redirection. However, traditional methods of predicting drug--target interactions are either mediocre or rely heavily on data stacking. In this work, we merged heterogeneous graph information and obtained effective node information and substructure information based on mutual information in graph embeddings. We then learned high quality representations for downstream tasks, and proposed an end--to--end auto--encoder model to complete the task of link prediction. Experimental results show that our method outperforms several state--of--art models. The model can achieve the area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve of 0.959 and area under the precise recall curve (AUPR) of 0.848. We found that the mutual information between the substructure and graph--level representations contributes most to the mutual information index in a relatively sparse network. And the mutual information between the node--level and graph--level representations contributes most in a relatively dense network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1966.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Reconfigurable battery; Balancing; Integrated converter; State of charge (SOC)
Online: 29 May 2023 (04:45:02 CEST)
This paper proposes a new battery balancing control strategy based on state of charge (SOC) for addressing the problem of cell-to-cell differences in lithium-ion battery systems. The strategy utilizes a reconfigurable converter system to transfer energy from high-SOC battery modules to low-SOC battery modules and allows balancing the battery modules while they are powering the load. A MATLAB/Simulink simulation model with five batteries was built to validate the effectiveness of the proposed balancing strategy under unloaded and loaded conditions. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed strategy achieves more efficient and accurate battery module balancing compared to the previous balancing modes, thus increasing the overall lifespan and safety of the battery pack.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0352.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: lithologic heterogeneity; rock-mechanical property; mixed carbonate; tight reservoirs; Qaidam basin
Online: 24 October 2022 (07:12:09 CEST)
In order to understand the impact of lithologic heterogeneity of continental mixed fine-grained sedimentary rocks on reservoir brittleness in western Qaidam basin, the mechanical properties of the rocks and their correlation with mineral composition and petrographic characteristics were studied by measns of mineralogy, petrography and triaxial stress test. The results show that the reservoir rocks can be divided into 5 different types according to the mechanical properties of the reservoir (characteristics of stress-strain curves), among them Type I and III belong to similar elastoplastic failure model, type II shows a special pulse failure mode for plastic material, type IV shows a failure mode of mixed characteristics, and type V exhibits a typical plastic failure model. The correlation between minerals and mechanical properties indicates that quartz and feldspar, which are often considered brittle minerals, do not contribute much to the brittleness of continental fine-grained sedimentary rocks. The main minerals affecting reservoir brittleness are dolomite and clay minerals, and their contributions to reservoir brittleness are positive and negative, respectively. The petrographic analysis results prove that the abnormal correlation between rock mechanical properties and quartz and feldspar is caused by the different rock fabrics. When dolomite forms a rock skeleton, it typically exhibits greater strength, brittleness and physical properties than other minerals. Based on the results, a brittleness evaluation standard for continental fine-grained sedimentary rock reservoir is proposed, and the validity of the standard is verified by the spatial correlation between the lithology probability model and the micro-seismic monitoring data, indicating that the spatial heterogeneity of dolomite-rich rock is the main controlling factor for the development of ‘sweet spot’ in the Cenozoic continental fine-grained sedimentary rock reservoir in the Western Qaidam Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0288.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Layered double hydroxides; grease; antioxidant; oxidative induction time
Online: 13 April 2023 (03:28:21 CEST)
In this paper, MgAl Layered double hydroxides (LDH) were synthesized by co-precipitation method using a colloid mill and characterized by XRD, IR and SEM. The LDHs was repeatedly tested and compared with different bearing lifetime tester in lithium base grease, and it was found that the environmental-friendly LDHs had greater performance than the traditional antioxidant, and it was the development direction of a new generation of environmental-friendly antioxidants in the future. By adding LDHs into large electric shovel greats (GRK-A) in open-pit coal mine, it can be seen by PDSC evaluation that the service lifetime of grease is extended by 20% while the overall performance of grease is not affected. With the increase of LDHs addition, the grease sample gets the greater activation energy, the stronger thermal oxidation and decomposition resistance. Comparing the energy storage modulus and flow transition index at different temperatures, it can be seen that adding the right amount of LDHs needs close attention for the system oxidation resistance and viscoelasticity. For the electric shovel grease system, the best oxidation resistance and rheological properties can be achieved by adding 2% of LDHs. The rheological viscosity-temperature curves show that the grease samples with different ratios of solid LDHs have better low-temperature properties than the mine grease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0203.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Chlamydia psittaci; H9N2 avian influenza virus; Coinfection; HD11 cells; immune function
Online: 12 March 2020 (09:01:04 CET)
We investigated the effect of C. psittaci and H9N2 coinfection on HD11 cells in vitro, expecting to find the potential pathogenesis of airsacculitis caused by co-infection of C. psittaci and H9N2. HD11 cells were infected with C. psittaci and/or H9N2 in a different order, and effects of the co-infection on iNOS expression and activity, NO synthesis, cell phagocytosis, and cytokines levels in HD11 cells were determined. Results showed that C. psittaci and H9N2 can significantly aggravate the mortality of HD11 cells compared to the effects of infection with one pathogen alone. In addition, infection with C. psittaci can increase the replication of H9N2 in HD11 cells, whereas decrease the iNOS level and enzyme activity as well as NO concentration of HD11 cells by H9N2 infection. We also found that C. psittaci infection alone can significantly decrease the phagocytosis of HD11 cells, compared to H9N2 infection alone. Furthermore, infection with C. psittaci can increase the mRNA expressions of type Th2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 of HD11 cells by H9N2 infection. All the above data indicated that primary C. psittaci infection is able to aggravate H9N2 invasion by down-regulating functions of HD11 cells
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0015.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: school sports facility; assessment; t-sne; fuzzy c mean; unsupervised learning
Online: 3 December 2019 (05:24:26 CET)
The aim of this study is (a) to develop, test, and employ a combined method of unsupervised machine learning to objectively assess the condition of sports facility in primary schools (PSSFC) and (b) examine the examine the geographical and typological association with PSSFC. Based on the Sixth National Sports Facility Census (NSFC), six PSSFC indicators (indoor and outdoor facility included) were selected as the measurements and decomposed by using the t-stochastic neighbor embedding (t-SNE). Thereafter, the Fuzzy C-mean (FCM) algorithm was used to cluster the same type of PSSFC with selecting the optimum numbers of evaluation level. Overall 845 primary schools in Shanghai, China were recruited and tested by this combined approach of unsupervised machine learning. In addition, the two-way analysis of covariance was used to examine the location and types of school associated with PSSFC variables in each level. The combined method was found to have acceptable reliability and good interpretability, differentiating PSSFC into five gradient levels. The characteristics of PSSFC differ by the location and school type of individual school. Our findings are conducive to the regionalized and personalized intervention and promotion on the children’s physical activity (PA) upon the practical situation of particular schools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0114.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Hydrochemcial characteristics; water-rock interaction; multivariate statistical analysis; mixing model; δD and δ18O isotopes; natural water system; Kangding County
Online: 17 November 2017 (12:34:26 CET)
The utilization for water resource has been of great concern to human life. To assess the natural water system in Kangding County, the integrated methods of hydrochemcial analysis, multivariate statistics and geochemical modelling were conducted on surface water, groundwater and thermal water samples. Surface water and groundwater were dominated by Ca-HCO3 type, while thermal water belonged to Ca-HCO3 and Na-Cl type. The analyzing results concluded the driving factors that affect hydrochemical components. Following the results of the combined assessments, hydrochemcial process was controlled by the dissolution of carbonate and silicate minerals with slight influence from anthropogenic activity. The mixing model of groundwater and thermal water was calculated using silica-enthalpy method, yielding cold-water fraction of 0.56-0.79 and estimated reservoir temperature of 130-199 oC, respectively. δD and δ18O isotopes suggested surface water, groundwater and thermal springs were of meteoric origin. Thermal water should have deep circulation through the Xianshuihe fault zone, while groundwater flows through secondary fractures where it recharges with thermal water. Those analytical results were used to construct a hydrological conceptual model, providing a better understanding of the natural water system in Kangding County.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0768.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: silybin; prostate cancer; 2,3-dehydrosilybin; cell proliferation; cell apoptosis.
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:16:29 CET)
As part of our ongoing silybin project, this study aims to introduce a basic nitrogen-containing group to 7-OH of 3,5,20-O-trimethyl-2,3-dehydrosilybin or 3-OH of 5,7,20-O-trimethyl-2,3-dehydrosilybin via an appropriate linker for in vitro evaluation as potential anti-prostate cancer agents. The synthetic approaches to 7-O-substituted-3,5,20-O-trimethyl- 2,3-dehydrosilybins through a five-step procedure and to 3-O-substituted-5,7,20-O-trimethyl-2,3- dehydrosilybins via a four-step transformation have been developed. Thirty-two nitrogen-containing derivatives of silybin have been achieved through these synthetic methods for the evaluation of their antiproliferative activities towards both androgen-sensitive (LNCaP) and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3 and DU145) using WST-1 cell proliferation assay. These derivatives exhibited greater in vitro antiproliferative potency than silybin. Among them, 11, 29, 31, 37, and 40 were identified as five optimal derivatives with IC50 values in the range of 1.40–3.06 µM, a 17- to 52-fold improvement in potency as compared with silybin. All these five optimal derivatives can arrest the PC-3 cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase and promote PC-3 cell apoptosis. Derivatives 11, 37, and 40 are more effective than 29 and 31 in activating PC-3 cell apoptosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0059.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: fine particulate matter (PM2.5); aerosol optical depth; community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) model; data fusion; exposure assessment
Online: 16 February 2017 (08:58:09 CET)
Estimating ground surface PM2.5 with fine spatiotemporal resolution is a critical technique for exposure assessments in epidemiological studies of its health risks. Previous studies have utilized monitoring, satellite remote sensing or air quality modeling data to evaluate the spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 concentrations, but such studies rarely combined these data simultaneously. We develop a three-stage model to fuse PM2.5 monitoring data, satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) and community multi-scale air quality (CMAQ) simulations together and apply it to estimate daily PM2.5 at a spatial resolution of 0.1˚ over China. Performance of the three-stage model is evaluated using a cross-validation (CV) method step by step. CV results show that the finally fused estimator of PM2.5 is in good agreement with the observational data (RMSE = 23.00 μg/m^3 and R2 = 0.72) and outperforms either AOD-retrieved PM2.5 (R2 = 0.62) or CMAQ simulations (R2 = 0.51). According to step-specific CVs, in data fusion, AOD-retrieved PM2.5 plays a key role to reduce mean bias, whereas CMAQ provides all-spacetime-covered predictions, which avoids sampling bias caused by non-random incompleteness in satellite-derived AOD. Our fused products are more capable than either CMAQ simulations or AOD-based estimates in characterizing the polluting procedure during haze episodes and thus can support both chronic and acute exposure assessments of ambient PM2.5. Based on the products, averaged concentration of annual exposure to PM2.5 was 55.75 μg/m3, while averaged count of polluted days (PM2.5 > 75 μg/m3) was 81, across China during 2014. Fused estimates will be publicly available for future health-related studies.