Chu, J.; Guo, Y.; Xu, G.; Zhang, Q.; Zuo, Z.; Li, Q.; Wang, Y.; He, C. Chlamydia psittaci Triggers the Invasion of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus by Impairing the Functions of Chicken Macrophages. Animals2020, 10, 722.
Chu, J.; Guo, Y.; Xu, G.; Zhang, Q.; Zuo, Z.; Li, Q.; Wang, Y.; He, C. Chlamydia psittaci Triggers the Invasion of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus by Impairing the Functions of Chicken Macrophages. Animals 2020, 10, 722.
We investigated the effect of C. psittaci and H9N2 coinfection on HD11 cells in vitro, expecting to find the potential pathogenesis of airsacculitis caused by co-infection of C. psittaci and H9N2. HD11 cells were infected with C. psittaci and/or H9N2 in a different order, and effects of the co-infection on iNOS expression and activity, NO synthesis, cell phagocytosis, and cytokines levels in HD11 cells were determined. Results showed that C. psittaci and H9N2 can significantly aggravate the mortality of HD11 cells compared to the effects of infection with one pathogen alone. In addition, infection with C. psittaci can increase the replication of H9N2 in HD11 cells, whereas decrease the iNOS level and enzyme activity as well as NO concentration of HD11 cells by H9N2 infection. We also found that C. psittaci infection alone can significantly decrease the phagocytosis of HD11 cells, compared to H9N2 infection alone. Furthermore, infection with C. psittaci can increase the mRNA expressions of type Th2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10 of HD11 cells by H9N2 infection. All the above data indicated that primary C. psittaci infection is able to aggravate H9N2 invasion by down-regulating functions of HD11 cells
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