ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0536.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Aridity indices; Climate change; Projections; EURO-CORDEX
Online: 22 June 2021 (09:24:26 CEST)
The assessment of aridity conditions is a key factor for water management and the implementation of mitigation and adaptation policies in agroforestry systems. Towards this aim three aridity indices were computed for the Iberian Peninsula (IP): the De Martonne Index (DMI), the Pinna Combinative Index (PCI), and the Erinç Aridity Index (EAI). These three indices were first computed for the baseline period 1961‒1990, using a gridded observational data (E-OBS), and, subsequently, for the periods 2011‒2040 (short-range) and 2041‒2070 (medium-range) using an ensemble of six Regional Climate Models (RCMs) experiments generated by the EURO-CORDEX project. Two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were analyzed, an intermediate anthropogenic radiative forcing scenario (RCP4.5) and a fossil-intensive emission scenario (RCP8.5). Overall, the three indices disclose a strengthening of aridity and dry conditions in central and southern Iberia until 2070, mainly under RCP8.5. Strong(weak) statistically significant correlations were found between these indices and the total mean precipitation (mean temperature) along with projected significant decreasing(increasing) trends for precipitation(temperature). The prevalence of years with arid conditions (above 70% for 2041‒2070 under both RCPs) are projected to have major impacts in some regions, such as southern Portugal, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, Comunidad de Madrid, Andalucía, Región de Murcia, Comunidad Valenciana, and certain regions within the Aragón province. The projected increase in both the intensity and persistence of aridity conditions in a broader southern half of Iberia will exacerbate the exposure and vulnerability of this region to climate change, while the risk of multi-level desertification should be thoroughly integrated into regional and national water management and planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0188.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CMIP6; Temperature; Projections; Trends; Pakistan; JJA; DJF
Online: 11 January 2021 (12:30:55 CET)
The present study analyzed seasonal (i.e., Dec-Jan [DJF] and June – August [JJA]) temperature change for the near (2025-2054) and far future (2070-2099) under SSP245, SSP370, and SSP585 scenarios over Pakistan. The anomalies, Mann-Kendall trend tests, Sequential Mann-Kendall trend test (SQMK), and probability density frequency (PDF) analysis were used to investigate future mean temperature variations. The DJF season projected higher increase in temperature in the northern (3.8 oC, 5.1 oC and 6.5 oC), followed by central regions (3.8 oC, 4.9 oC and 6.4 oC) under SSP245, SSP370 and SSP585 scenarios, respectively. The central region is likely to record significant increase in JJA (3.0 oC, 4.4 oC and 5.4 oC) mean temperature in far future under the given SSP scenarios. Compared to historical (PDF), the far future DJF temperature changes revealed significant higher warming over northern, central and then over southern regions under most of SSP scenarios. The southern regions are projected to possible rise in far future JJA temperatures by 2.7 oC, 3.3 oC and 4.3 oC, under SSP245, SSP370 and SSP585, respectively. The PDFs for JJA further verify the highest positive abrupt shift in temperature across the central region and then southern region. The future diverse seasonal temperature changes supports further examination of the associated mechanisms and factors responsible for temperature changes to address climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0044.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: climate projections; integrated modeling; flood modeling; nonstationarity
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:15:12 CEST)
Flooding is a prevalent natural disaster with both short and long-term social, economic, and infrastructure impacts. Changes in intensity and frequency of precipitation (including rain, snow, and rain on snow) events create challenges for the planning and management of resilient infrastructure and communities. While there is general acknowledgement that new infrastructure design should account for future climate change, no clear methods or actionable information is available to community planners and designers to ensure resilient design considering an uncertain climate future. This research used climate projections to drive high-resolution hydrology and flood models to evaluate social, economic, and infrastructure resilience for the Snohomish Watershed, WA, U.S.A. The proposed model chain has been calibrated and validated. Based on the established model chain, the peaks of precipitation and streamflows were found to shift from spring and summer to earlier winter season. The nonstationarity of peak discharges was discovered with more frequent and severe flood risks projected. The peak discharges were also projected to decrease for a certain period in the near future, which might be due to the reduced rain-on-snow events. This research was expected to provide a clear method for the incorporation of climate science in flood resilience analysis and to also provide actionable information relative to the frequency and intensity of future precipitation events.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0228.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: open source; climate indices; emissions scenarios; climate projections
Online: 12 January 2023 (13:49:09 CET)
The paper presents the open source tool climdex-kit which includes utilities to compute, analyze and visualize climate indices based on the input data, target domain and temporal extent defined by the user. It is intended to support researchers as well as practitioners and decision makers to derive, handle and interpret meaningful information for climate change studies and sectoral applications. It currently includes the computation of 30 indices based on temperature and precipitation, describing both mean and extreme climate conditions, and it is designed to work with climate model projections. The tool is written in Python and integrates utilities from the well-established Climate Data Operators (CDO) and NetCDF Operators (NCO) libraries. The specific utilities for selecting, aggregating and visualizing data are thought to help users to produce tailored results improving understanding and communication of future climate change. In order to show the functionalities of the package as well as its potential integration in regional climate services, climdex-kit was applied to an ensemble of downscaled climate model projections up to 2100 for the region Trentino – South Tyrol (north-eastern Italian Alps). The projections for a selection of indices accounting for extreme temperature and precipitation conditions were derived and different visualization choices discussed. The package climdex-kit is developed in a way that allows users to implement additional routines for calculating other indices as well as for easily adapting the routines to handle with different data types and spatio-temporal targets defined by the specific application. Effective climate services can in fact be developed only if flexible tools and customizable climate information are integrated with a clear understanding of data features and limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0275.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: projections; CMIP6; climate; impacts; health; malaria; Malaria; Senegal
Online: 16 August 2022 (05:46:38 CEST)
Malaria is a constant reminder of the climate change impacts on health. Many studies have investigated the influence of climatic parameters on the of malaria transmission. Climate conditions can modulate malaria transmission through increased temperature, which reduces the duration of the parasite's reproductive cycle inside the mosquito. The intensity and frequency of the rainfall modulate the development of the mosquito population. In this study, the Liverpool Malaria Model (LMM) is used to simulate the spatio-temporal variation of the malaria incidence in Senegal. The simulations are based on the WATCH Forcing Data applied to ERA-Interim data (WFDEI) used as a point of reference, and biased-corrected CMIP6 models, separating historical and projections for 3 Shared Socio-economic Pathways scenarios (SSP126, SSP245 and SSP585). Our results highlight a strong increase in temperatures, especially towards eastern Senegal under the SSP245 but mainly the SSP585 scenarios. The ability of the LMM model to simulate the seasonality of malaria incidence is assessed. The model reveals a period of high malaria transmission between September and November with a maximum reached in October. Results indicate a decrease in malaria incidence in certain regions of the country for the far future and for the extreme scenario. This study is importance for the planning, prioritization, and implementation of control activities in Senegal.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0611.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Mean surface temperature; CMIP6; evaluation; projections; East Africa
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:35:29 CET)
This study evaluates the historical mean surface temperature (hereafter T2m) and examines how T2m changes over East Africa (EA) in the 21st century using CMIP6 models. An evaluation was conducted based on mean state, trends, and statistical metrics (Bias, Correlation Coefficient, Root Mean Square Difference, and Taylor skill score). For future projections over EA, five best performing CMIP6 models (based on their performance ranking in historical mean temperature simulations) under the shared socioeconomic pathways SSP2-4.5 and SSP5-8.5 scenarios were employed. The historical simulations reveal an overestimation of the mean annual T2m cycle over the study region with fewer models depicting underestimations. Further, CMIP6 models reproduce the spatial and temporal trends within the observed range proximity. Overall, the best performing models are as follows: FGOALS-g3, HadGEM-GC31-LL, MPI-ESM2-LR, CNRM-CM6-1, and IPSL-CM6A-LR. During the three-time slice under consideration, the Multi Model Ensemble (MME) project many changes during the late period (2080 – 2100) with expected mean changes at 2.4 °C for SSP2-4.5 and 4.4 °C for the SSP5-8.5 scenario. The magnitude of change based on Sen’s slope estimator and Mann-Kendall test reveal significant increasing tendencies with projections of 0.24°C decade-1 (0.65°C decade-1) under SSP2-4.5 (SSP5-8.5) scenarios. The findings from this study illustrate higher warming in the latest model outputs of CMIP6 relative to its predecessor, despite identical instantaneous radiative forcing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0065.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Shared Socioeconomic Pathways; climate change; vulnerability; projections; Europe
Online: 8 March 2018 (10:16:59 CET)
The Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) are the new global development trends that inform global and regional climate change research. They have the potential to foster the integration of socioeconomic scenarios within assessments of future climate-related health impacts. To date, such assessments have primarily superimposed climate scenarios on current socioeconomic conditions only. Until now, the few assessments of future health risks that employed the SSPs have focused on future human exposure—i.e., mainly future population patterns—neglecting future human vulnerability. This paper first explores the research gaps—mainly linked to the paucity of available projections—that explain such a lack of consideration of human vulnerability under the SSPs. It then highlights the need for projections of socioeconomic variables covering the wide range of determinants of human vulnerability, available at relevant spatial and temporal scales, and accounting for local specificities through sectoral and regional extended versions of the global SSPs. Finally, this paper presents two innovative methods of obtaining and computing such socioeconomic projections under the SSPs—namely the scenario matching approach and an approach based on experts’ elicitation and correlation analyses—and applies them to the case of Europe. They offer a variety of possibilities for practical application, producing projections at sub-national level of various drivers of human vulnerability such as demographic and social characteristics, urbanization, state of the environment, infrastructure, health status, and living arrangements. Both the innovative approaches presented in this paper and existing methods—such as the spatial disaggregation of existing projections and the use of sectoral models—show great potential to enhance the availability of relevant projections of determinants of human vulnerability. Assessments of future climate-related health impacts should thus rely on these methods to account for future human vulnerability—under varying levels of socioeconomic development—and to explore its influence on future health risks under different degrees of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0577.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: WASP-Index; Climate change; Projections; Extreme precipitation; Iberian Peninsula
Online: 21 April 2021 (12:17:36 CEST)
The WASP-Index is computed over Iberia for three monthly timescales in 1961-2020, based on an observational gridded precipitation dataset (E-OBS), and in 2021-2070, based on bias-corrected precipitation generated by a six-member climate model ensemble from EURO-CORDEX, under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. The WASP performance in identifying extremely dry or wet events, reported by the EM-DAT disaster database, is assessed for 1961–2020. An overall good agreement between the WASP spatial patterns and the EM-DAT records is found. The areolar mean values revealed an upward trend in the frequency of occurrence of intermediate-to-severe dry events over Iberia, which will be strengthened in the future, particularly for the 12m-WASP intermediate dry events under RCP8.5. Besides, the number of 3m-WASP intermediate-to-severe wet events is projected to increase, mostly the severest events under RCP4.5, but no evidence was found for an increase in the number of more persistent (12m-WASP) wet events under both RCPs. Despite important spatial heterogeneities, an increase(decrease) of the intensity, duration, and frequency of occurrence of the 12m-WASP intermediate-to-severe dry(wet) events is found under both scenarios, mainly in the southernmost regions of Iberia, thus becoming more exposed to prolonged and severe droughts in the future, corroborating the results from previous studies.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0047.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: map projections; coordinate systems; earth's 3D models; earth's 2D representation
Online: 2 May 2018 (13:29:41 CEST)
This work presents datasets that can be used for getting a good understanding of an essential geoscience content knowledge that describe earth’s coordinate systems. This include coordinate system used for spherical/spheroidal earth with latitudes and longitudes and their subsequent transformations to 2d maps on a variety of media (paper as well as digital) using the process of map projections. The datasets include PDF documents that are embedded with 3d models, animations and mathematical equations. The dataset has separate PDF documents for geographic (for spherical earth) and projected (2d) coordinate systems. Additionally, the data set include individual 3d models that can be used in various digital systems (including apps) and the animations in mp4 format that can be watched on most of the modern digital devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0326.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: air pollution; transportation policy; vehicle fleet projections; electric vehicles; exponential smoothing; Greece
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:26:52 CET)
This study provides a thorough review and analysis of the evolution of the Greek vehicle fleet over the last ~30 years, which is next used for the generation of high granularity fleet projections and for the estimation of relevant environmental benefits by 2030. The integrated methodology developed takes also into account vehicle clustering and the Brown’s Double Simple Exponential Smoothing technique that together with the adoption of COPERT based emission factors allow for the estimation of the anticipated emissions in 2030. Expected 2030 emissions levels suggest a reduction across all pollutants in comparison to 2018, ranging from 3.7% for PM10 to 54.5% for NMVOC (and 46% for CO, 14% for SO2, 28% for NOX and 21% for CO2). We find that Greece is on track with national goals concerning the reduction of air pollution from the transportation sector, stressing the positive contribution of EVs and new, "greener" vehicles, and setting new challenges for the further improvement of the sector beyond the 2030 outlook.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Global warming; projections; climate-fire relationship; FWI; burnt areas; forest fuels; Mediterranean forests.
Online: 25 October 2019 (11:35:28 CEST)
Wildfire is the main disturbance in forested ecosystems of southern Europe and is due to complex interactions between climate-weather, fuels and people. Warmer and drier conditions projected in this region are expected to profoundly affect wildfires, which will impact ecosystems and humans. We review the scientific literature addressing the assessment of climate change impacts on wildfires in southern Europe, with a twofold objective: (i) report the trends in wildfire danger and activity projected under warming climate in southern Europe and (ii) discuss the limitations of wildfire projections under the specific biogeographical context of southern Europe.We identified 22 projection studies that examined future wildfire danger or wildfire activity at local, regional or continental scale. Under the scenario with the highest greenhouse gas emissions, we found that projections studies estimate an increase in future fire danger and burnt areas varying, on average, from 2 to 4 % and from 15 to 25 % per decade, respectively. Fire-prone area expansion to the north and to Mediterranean mountains is a concern, while climate-induced burnt area increase might be limited by fuel availability in the most arid areas. While all studies agreed on the direction of changes, further comparisons on the magnitude of increase remained challenging because of heterogeneous methodological choices between projections studies (climate models, projection period, spatial scale and fire metrics). We then described three main sources of uncertainty that may affect the reliability of wildfire projections: climate projections, climate-fire models, and the influences of fuel load/structure and human related factors on the climate-fire relationships. We finally suggest research directions to address some of these issues for the purpose of refining fire danger and fire activity projections in southern Europe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0201.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Tobacco harm reduction; tobacco heating products; THP; HTP; population health; Japan projections; nicotine; system dynamics
Online: 8 December 2020 (12:44:24 CET)
Few data are available on the health impact of tobacco heating products (THPs) at the population level. We used systems dynamics modelling to estimate effects in the established THP market in Japan. We projected effects of THP use in overall mortality up to 2100 and compare those projections against a baseline scenario based on smoking rates pre-THP launch, i.e., smoking only. The model was informed using data from publicly available sources and the literature, including population size, yearly deaths and smoking prevalence with initialisation year (2004) and, births and migration from 2004 to 2065. Transitions between products were estimated from cross-sectional population surveys in Japan. Potential life-years saved with the introduction of THPs was 13 million by 2100 compared with smoking only. In worst-case scenario, population health gains would be seen with THPs risk 10–50% lower risk than smoking. Assuming equal risk for dual use and smoking, THP risk would need to be at least 10% lower than smoking to achieve a population health benefit by 2100. In credible scenarios, substantial population health gains will follow the introduction of THPs in Japan in a relatively short time frame.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0291.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Effective Drought Index (EDI); meteorological drought; climate change; GCMs under RCP scenarios; future drought projections; Bangladesh
Online: 26 September 2019 (03:49:09 CEST)
The impacts of climate change on precipitation and drought characteristics over Bangladesh were examined by using the daily precipitation outputs from 29 bias-corrected general circulation models (GCMs) under the representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. A precipitation-based drought estimator, namely, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), was applied to quantify the characteristics of drought events in terms of the severity and duration. The changes in drought characteristics were assessed for the beginning (2010–2039), middle (2040–2069), and end of this century (2070–2099) relative to the 1976–2005 baseline. The GCMs were limited in regard to forecasting the occurrence of future extreme droughts. Overall, the findings showed that the annual precipitation will increase in the 21st century over Bangladesh; the increasing rate was comparatively higher under the RCP8.5 scenario. The highest increase of rainfall is expected to happen over the drought-prone northern region. The general trends of drought frequency, duration, and intensity are likely to decrease in the 21st century over Bangladesh under both RCP scenarios, except for the maximum drought intensity during the beginning of the century, which is projected to increase over the country. The extreme and medium-term drought events did not show any significant changes in the future under both scenarios except for the medium-term droughts, which decreased by 55% compared to the base period during the 2070s under RCP8.5. However, extreme drought days will likely increase in most of the cropping seasons for the different future periods under both scenarios. The spatial distribution of changes in drought characteristics indicates that the drought-vulnerable areas are expected to shift from the northwestern region to the central and the southern region in the future under both scenarios due to the effects of climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0697.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: heating degree-day (HDD), cooling degree-day (CDD), climate change, projections, energy demand of residential buildings, Portugal
Online: 26 April 2021 (21:18:06 CEST)
Climate change is expected to influence cooling and heating energy demand of residential buildings and affect overall thermal comfort. Towards this end, the heating degree-day (HDD), the cooling degree-day (CDD) and the HDD+CDD were computed from an ensemble of 7 high-resolution bias-corrected simulations attained from EURO-CORDEX under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5. These three indicators were analyzed for 1971-2000 (from E-OBS) and 2011-2040 and 2041-2070, under both RCPs. Results show that the overall spatial distribution of HDD trends for the 3 time-periods points out an increase of energy demand to heat internal environments in Portugal's northern-eastern regions, most significant under RCP8.5. It is projected an increase of CDD values for both scenarios; however, statistically significant linear trends were only found for 2041-2070 under RCP4.5. The need for cooling is almost negligible for the remaining periods, though linear trend values are still considerably higher for 2041-2070 under RCP8.5. By the end of 2070, higher amplitudes for all indicators are depicted for southern Algarve and Alentejo regions, mainly under RCP8.5. For 2041-2070 the Centre and Alentejo (North and Centre) regions present major positive differences for HDD(CDD) under RCP4.5(RCP8.5), within the 5 NUTS II regions predicting higher heating(cooling) requirements for some locations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0244.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land Managers; Conservation; Resource Management; Climate Adaptation; Climate Change; Transformation; Biodiversity; Ecosystems; Projections; Uncertainty; Complexity; Scenario Planning; Species; SSA
Online: 15 November 2021 (10:39:13 CET)
How robust is our assessment of impacts to ecosystems and species from a rapidly changing climate during the 21st century? We examine the challenges of uncertainty, complexity and constraints associated with applying climate projections to understanding future biological responses. This includes an evaluation of how to incorporate the uncertainty associated with different greenhouse gas emissions scenarios and climate models, and constraints of spatiotemporal scales and resolution of climate data into impact assessments. We describe the challenges of identifying relevant climate metrics for ecological models and evaluate the usefulness and limitations of different methodologies of applying climate change to both quantitative and qualitative ecological response models. We discuss the importance of incorporating extreme climate events and their stochastic tendencies in assessing ecological impacts and transformation, and provide recommendations for better integration of complex climate-ecological interactions at relevant spatiotemporal scales. We further recognize the compounding nature of uncertainty when accounting for our limited understanding of the interactions between climate and biological processes. Given the inherent complexity in ecological processes and their interactions with climate, we recommend integrating quantitative modeling with expert elicitation from diverse disciplines and experiential understanding of recent climate-driven ecological processes to develop more robust understanding of ecological responses under different scenarios of future climate change. Inherently complex interactions between climate and biological systems also provide an opportunity to develop wide-ranging strategies that resource managers can employ to prepare for the future.