REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Human Attribute Recognition; Imbalanced Learning; Pedestrian Recognition; Privacy Concerns; Clothing Attributes; Soft Biometrics; Appearance-Based Learning; Deep Learning
Online: 5 July 2020 (08:21:00 CEST)
Over the last decade, the field of Human Attribute Recognition (HAR) has dramatically changed, mainly due to the improvements brought by deep learning solutions. This survey reviews the progress obtained in HAR, considering the transition from the traditional hand-crafted to deep-learning approaches. The most relevant works on the field are analyzed concerning the advances proposed to address the HAR's typical challenges. Furthermore, we outline the applications and typical evaluation metrics used in the HAR context. Finally, we provide a comprehensive review of the publicly available datasets for the development and evaluation of novel HAR approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0113.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pedestrian; traffic; ultrafine particles; school; children; exposure
Online: 26 October 2016 (10:31:30 CEST)
Walking School Buses (WSBs) provide a safe alternative to being driven to school. Children benefit from the contribution the exercise provides towards their daily exercise target, it gives children practical experience with respect to road safety and helps to relieve traffic congestion around the entrance to their school. Walking routes are designed largely based in road safety considerations, catchment need and the availability of parent support. However, little attention is given to the air pollution exposure experienced by children during their journey to school, despite the commuting microenvironment being an important contributor to a child’s daily air pollution exposure. This study aims to quantify the air pollution exposure experienced by children walking to school and those being driven by car. A school was chosen in Bradford, UK. Three adult participants carried out the journey to and from school each carrying a P-Trak ultrafine particle (UFP) count monitor. One participant travelled the journey to school by car while the other two walked, each on opposite sides of the road for the majority of the journey. Data collection was carried out over a period of two weeks, for a total of five journeys to school in the morning and five on the way home at the end of the school day. Results of the study suggest that car commuters experience lower levels of air pollution dose due to lower exposures and reduced commute times. The largest reductions in exposure for pedestrians can be achieved by avoiding close proximity to traffic queuing up to intersections, and, where possible, walking on the side of the road opposite the traffic, especially during the morning commuting period. Major intersections should also be avoided as they were associated with peak exposures. Steps to ensure that the phasing of lights is optimized to minimize pedestrian waiting time would also help reduce exposures. If possible, busy roads should be avoided altogether. By the careful design of WSB routes, taking into account air pollution, children will be able to experience the benefits that walking to school brings while minimizing their air pollution exposure during their commute to and from school.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Pedestrian navigation; ZUPT; Zero Velocity Detection; Plantar Pressure
Online: 7 October 2020 (08:31:29 CEST)
The zero velocity update(ZUPT) algorithm is the core of a foot-mounted pedestrian navigation system. The zero velocity detection method is the premise and guarantee of the effective application of the ZUPT algorithm. To make ZUPT work properly, it is necessary to detect zero velocity intervals correctly. The detection accuracy of the existing zero velocity detection methods is easy to be affected by users and environment. A novel zero velocity detection method based on the plantar pressure is proposed in this paper, which has higher detection accuracy and better environmental adaptability. First, the paper analyzes the motion characteristics of foot during walking. Second, the inherent relationship between the plantar pressure and the gait change during walking is studied based on the pressure sensor. Then, the model of the zero velocity detection method using the plantar pressure is established. Finally, the indoor and outdoor multi-scene experiments show that this method not only has a high detection accuracy, but also has good adaptability to users and walking environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0081.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: air pollution; particulate; PM2.5; open market; pedestrian traffic
Online: 4 August 2020 (08:20:44 CEST)
Market air quality is very important to the economic lives of the people which is rarely researched, however, market activities particularly pedestrian traffic releases particulates which is detrimental to the health of the users and stakeholders. Thermo scientific MIE pDR-1500 particulate was used to monitor the quality of air within the market for eight (8) weeks, air pollutant of concern is PM2.5. ten (10) sample points were located in the market which covers ten (10) sample points for pedestrian traffic to represent the entire market environment spectrum. The analysis of PM2.5 measured daily during dry and wet season shows a clear seasonal variation of this particular pollutant as elevated concentration was measured during the dry season than the wet season. The assessment of PM2.5 concentration shows exceedances of the standards stated by WHO and NAAQS during the dry season which ranges from 47.9 μg/m3- 231.88 μg/m3 in the morning and 65.17 μg/m3- 1806.33 μg/m3 in the afternoon. From the findings, pedestrian traffic contributes immensely to air pollution in an open market, with this elevated concentration, prolonged exposure is highly detrimental to health. This study creates awareness to the pedestrians in an open market about air pollution and informs policy changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0216.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Built environment; pedestrian volume; stepwise regression; principal component analysis; Melbourne
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:34:00 CEST)
Previous studies have mostly examined how sustainable cities try to promote non-motorized travel by creating a walking-friendly environment. Such existing studies provide little research that identifies how the built environment affects pedestrian volume in high-density areas. This paper presents a methodology that combines person correlation analysis, stepwise regression, and principal component analysis for exploring the internal correlation and potential impact of built environment variables. To study this relationship, cross-sectional data in the Melbourne central business district were selected. Pearson’s correlation coefficient confirmed that visible green index and intersection density were not correlated to pedestrian volume. The results from stepwise regression showed that land-use mix degree, public transit stop density, and employment density could be associated with pedestrian volume. Moreover, two principal components were extracted by factor analysis. The result of the first component yielded an internal correlation where land-use and amenities components were positively associated with the pedestrian volume. Component 2 presents parking facilities density, which negatively relates to the pedestrian volume. Based on the results, existing street problems and policy recommendations were put forward to suggest diversifying community service within walking distance, improving the service level of the public transit system, and restricting on-street parking in Melbourne.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0029.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: pedestrian detection; Unified Deep Net; two-stream nets; network training
Online: 4 January 2020 (06:08:39 CET)
Pedestrian detection is the core of driver assistance system, which collects the road conditions through the radars or cameras on the vehicle, judges whether there is a pedestrian in front of the vehicle, supports decisions such as raising the alarm, automatically slowing down or emergency stopping to keep pedestrians safe, and improves the security when the vehicle is moving. Suffered from weather, lighting, clothing, large pose variations and occlusion, the current pedestrian detection still has a certain distance from the practical applications. In recent years, deep networks have shown excellent performance for image detection, recognition and classification. Some researchers employed deep network for pedestrian detection and achieve great progress, but deep networks need huge computational resources which make it difficult to put into practical applications. In real scenarios of autonomous vehicle, the computation ability is limited. Thus, the shallow networks such as UDN (Unified Deep Networks) is a better choice since it performs well on consuming less computation resources. Base on UDN, this paper proposes a new deep network model named as two-stream UDN, which augments another branch for solving traditional UDN’s indistinction of the difference between trees / telegraph poles and pedestrians. The new branch accepts the upper third part of the pedestrian image as input, and the partial image has less deformation, stable features and more distinguished characters from other objects. For the proposed two-stream UDN, multi-input features including HOG feature, Sobel feature, color feature and foreground regions extracted by GrabCut segmentation algorithms are fed. Compared with the original input of UDN, the multi-input features are more conducive for pedestrian detection since the fused HOG features and significant objects are more significant for pedestrian detection. Two-stream UDN is trained through two steps: First, the two sub-networks are trained until converge; then we fuse results of the two subnets as the final result and feed it back to the two subnets to fine tune network parameters synchronously. To improve the performance, Softplus is adopted as activation function to obtain faster training speed, and positive samples are mirrored and rotated with small angle to make positive and negative samples more balanced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0405.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Eye-tracking; distraction; pedestrian behavior; glance behavior; reaction time; signalized crossings.
Online: 16 March 2021 (09:23:11 CET)
Smartphones have become an integral part of our everyday lives and keep us busy while doing other primary activities such as driving, cycling or walking in traffic. The problem of digital distraction among drivers has been largely addressed, and interest is growing also on vulnerable road users as well: In fact, high percentages of pedestrians and cyclists are accustomed to checking their devices while moving in traffic. This research links to the presented theme and aims to investigate the extent to which digital distraction in the form of social media app checking influences pedestrian behavior. The focus of the study is specifically on signalized intersections. An outdoor, eye-tracking experiment was conducted on a specific route consisting of various elements typical of urban areas. Participants were asked to walk the predefined route twice, en-countering three signalized intersections: the first time they were asked to walk with their smartphone in hand, the second time without. The recordings of each participant's route were then analyzed, examining reaction time, crossing time and speed, fixations, and gaze paths. The results show a clear impact of digital devices on pedestrians' attention by increasing their reaction and crossing times and decreasing crossing speeds. In addition, the analysis of fixations found that 82.54% of the time was devoted to the smartphone, while interest in other street ele-ments decreased from 16.64% to 4.03%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0105.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: High-Rise Building; Wind Comfort; Building Arrangement; Pedestrian Level; CFD; Tehran
Online: 6 March 2020 (04:35:48 CET)
High-Rise buildings with their particular features can affects on surrounding environment and makes new microclimates. In the windy conditions, the spaces that are between building blocks changes to passages and affects on the wind velocity, intensity and it’s other parameters.The importance of this effect is different in each level of building height. The Pedestrian-Level is the lowest and one of important areas. Markets, playgrounds and pedestrian access had located in this area and any unwanted microclimate changes like high velocity and turbulence in this level can makes discomfort and dangerous condition for residents. So this research tries to consider the pedestrian- level wind comfort in some High-Rise building complexes arrangement that had located in Tehran district 22 with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling and reaching to a suitable arrangement pattern. It had collected the required data through field study and librarian databases and then compared them with standard guidelines and analyzed them by comparative comparison method. As a result a linear arrangement that placed crossover to wind direction for providing wind comfort and preventing wind danger is been suggested in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0035.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: pedestrian safety; crash severity; crash factors; ordered probit model; random parameter model
Online: 27 April 2018 (08:10:22 CEST)
Background: According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 116 pedestrians were killed in motor vehicle crashes in Ohio in 2015. However, no study to date has analyzed crashes in Ohio exploring the factors contributing to the pedestrian injury severity resulting from motor vehicle crashes. This study fills this gap by investigating the crashes involving pedestrians exclusively in Ohio. Materials and Methods: This study uses the crash data from the Highway Safety Information System, from 2009 to 2013. The explanatory factors include the pedestrian, driver, vehicle, crash, and roadway characteristics. Both fixed- and random-parameters ordered probit models of injury severity (where possible outcomes are major, minor, and possible/no injury) were estimated. Results: The model results indicate that being older pedestrian (65 and over), younger driver (less than 24), driving under influence (DUI), being struck by truck, dark-unlighted roadways, six-lane roadways, and speed limit of 40 mph and 50 mph were associated with more severe injuries to the pedestrians. Conversely, older driver (65 and over), passenger car, crash occurring in urban locations, daytime traffic off-peak (10 AM to 3:59 PM), weekdays, and daylight condition were associated with less severe injuries. Conclusion: This study provides specific safety recommendations so that effective countermeasures could be developed and implemented by the policy makers, which in turn will improve overall highway safety.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Indoor Localization; Sensor Fusion; Multimodal Deep Neural Network; Multimodal Sensing; WiFi Fingerprinting; Pedestrian Dead Reckoning
Online: 13 October 2021 (12:14:39 CEST)
Many engineered approaches have been proposed over the years for solving the hard problem of performing indoor localisation using smartphone sensors. However, specialising these solutions for difficult edge cases remains challenging. Here we propose an end-to-end hybrid multimodal deep neural network localisation system, MM-Loc, relying on zero hand-engineered features, learning them automatically from data instead. This is achieved by using modality-specific neural networks to extract preliminary features from each sensing modality, which are then combined by cross-modality neural structures. We show that our choice of modality-specific neural architectures is capable of estimating the location with good accuracy independently. But for better accuracy, a multimodal neural network fusing the features of early modality-specific representations is a better proposition. Our proposed MM-Loc solution is tested on cross-modality samples characterised by different sampling rates and data representation (inertial sensors, magnetic and WiFi signals), outperforming traditional approaches for location estimation. MM-Loc elegantly trains directly from data unlike conventional indoor positioning systems, which rely on human intuition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0476.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: pedestrian safety; Autonomous Emergency Braking AEB; Automatic Emergency Steering AES; collision reconstruction; probability of head injury severity ISP
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:08:35 CET)
Among the possible improvements of Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) systems, reducing the intensity of the automatic braking process by studying the kinematics and general behavior of the pedestrian while crossing is crucial to determine the progressiveness of the braking, or replacing part of the braking process by an evasive maneuver when a collision is imminent. This paper proposes the integration of an autonomous avoidance system (Automatic Emergency Steering, AES) that acts directly on the steering system to generate an evasive maneuver and avoid a possible pedestrian collision (OPREVU-AES system), as well as the assessment of its effectiveness compared to a commercial AEB system. OPREVU and VULNEUREA are research projects in which INSIA and CEDINT have cooperated to improve driving assistance systems and the safety of pedestrians and cyclists through Virtual Reality (VR) techniques. The analysis of the kinematic and dynamic response of the OPREVU-AES system is conducted in CarSim© software. The effectiveness evaluation procedure is based on the reconstruction of a sample of road vehicle-to-pedestrian crashes (INSIA-UPM database), using the PCCrash® software, and taking as an indicator the probability of head injury severity (ISP). The results show that the AEB system would have prevented part of the collisions, especially after the incorporation of the OPREVU-AES system. In most of the cases where avoidance is not possible, a significant reduction of the ISP is achieved.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (CITS); Vehicle to Pedestrian (V2P); Vulnerable 15 Road Users (VRU); GPS; smartphones; Inertial Measurement Units sensors
Online: 6 February 2020 (03:44:08 CET)
The field of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems and more specifically Pedestrians to Vehicles could be characterized as quite challenging, since there is a broad research area to be studied, with direct positive results to society. Pedestrians to Vehicles is a type of Cooperative Intelligent Transport System, within the group of Early Warning Collision/Safety System. In this article, we examine the research and applications carried out so far within the field of Pedestrians to Vehicles Cooperative Transport Systems by leveraging the information coming from Vulnerable Road Users’, smartphones. Moreover, an extensive literature review has been carried out in the fields of Vulnerable Road Users Outdoor Localisation via smartphones and Vulnerable Road Users Next Step/Movement Prediction, which are closely related to Pedestrian to Vehicle applications and research. We identify gaps that exist in these fields that could be improved/extended/enhanced or newly developed, while we address future research objectives and methodologies that could support the improvement/development of those identified gaps.