REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease (AD); aggregation; autophagy; aggresome; autophagosomes; aggrephagy
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:35:17 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevailing neurodegenerative diseases in the world, which is characterized by memory dysfunction and the formation of tau and amyloid β (Aβ) aggregate in multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus and cortex. The formation of senile plaques involving tau hyperphosphorylation, fibrillar Aβ, and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are used as pathological markers of AD, and eventually produces aggregation or misfolded protein. Importantly, it has been found that failure to degrade these aggregate-prone proteins leads to pathological consequences, such as synaptic impairment, cytotoxicity, neuronal atrophy, and memory deficits associated with AD. Recently, increasing evidences have been suggested that autophagy pathway plays a role as a central cellular protection system to prevent the toxicity induced by aggregate or misfolded proteins. Moreover, it has also been related that AD-related protein aggresomes could be selectively degraded by autophagosome and lysosomal fusion through autophagy pathway which is known as aggrephagy. Therefore, the regulation of autophagy might be served as a useful approach to modulate the formation of aggresome associated in AD. This review focuses on the recent improvements in the application of natural compounds and small molecules as a potential therapeutic approach for AD prevention and treatment via aggrephagy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0324.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Toxic heavy metal; neurological conditions; mitochondrial dysfunction; proteostasis; environmental chemicals; phytochemicals.
Online: 14 July 2021 (11:26:40 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most prevailing neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by memory dysfunction and the presence of hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β (Aβ) aggregate in multiple brain regions, including the hippocampus and cortex. The exact etiology of AD has not yet been confirmed. However, epidemiological reports suggest that populations who were exposed to environmental hazards are more likely to develop AD than those who were not. Arsenic (As) is a naturally occurring environmental risk factor abundant in the Earth’s crust and human exposure to As predominantly occurs through drinking water. Convincing evidence suggests that As causes neurotoxicity and impairs memory and cognition although the hypothesis and molecular mechanism of As-associated pathobiology in AD are not clear yet. However, exposure to As and its metabolites leads to various pathogenic events such as oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunctions, ER stress, apoptosis, impaired protein homeostasis, and abnormal calcium signaling. Evidence has indicated that As exposure induces alterations that coincide with most of the biochemical, pathological, and clinical developments of AD. Here, we overview existing literature to gain insights into the plausible mechanisms that underlie As-induced neurotoxicity and the subsequent neurological deficits in AD. Prospective strategies for the prevention and management of arsenic exposure and neurotoxicity have also been discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0059.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; mitochondrial dysfunctions; phytochemicals; reactive oxygen species (ROS); autophagy
Online: 2 December 2020 (11:14:07 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a decline in cognitive function with neuronal damage. Although the precise pathobiology of AD is still elusive, accumulating evidences suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the underlying causes of AD. Mutations of mitochondrial or nuclear DNA that encode mitochondrial constituents may cause mitochondrial dysfunctions. In particular, dysfunction of electron transport chain complexes along with interactions of mitochondrial pathological proteins are associated with mitochondrial dysfunctions in AD. Mitochondrial dysfunction causes an imbalance in reactive oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress (OS) and vice-versa. Neuroinflammation is another potential contributory factor to induce mitochondrial dysfunction. Phytochemicals or other natural compounds have the potential to scavenge oxygen free radicals and enhance cellular antioxidant defense system, and thereby protect against OS-mediated cellular damage. Phytochemicals can also modulate other cellular processes, including autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis. Pharmacological intervention through neuroprotective phytochemicals can, therefore, be a potential strategy to combat mitochondrial dysfunctions as well as AD. This review focuses on the role of phytochemicals to mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction in the therapy of AD pathogenesis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0612.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Gastric cancer; natural products; autophagy; apoptosis; angiogenesis; metastasis; chemo-resistance.
Online: 27 July 2021 (22:20:18 CEST)
Gastric cancer, also known as stomach cancer, is a cancer which develops from the lining of the stomach. Accumulated evidences and epidemiological studies have been indicated that natural products play an important role in gastric cancer prevention and treatment, although its mechanism of action did not elucidate yet. Particularly, experimental studies have been showed that natural products displayed a protective effect against gastric cancer via numerous molecular mechanisms such as suppression of cell metastasis, anti-angiogenesis, inhibition of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and modulation of autophagy. Although chemotherapy remains the standard treatment for advanced gastric cancer along with surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy and immunotherapy, but its adverse side effects including neutropenia, stomatitis, mucositis, diarrhea, nausea, and emesis are well documented. Additionally, intake of naturally occurring phytochemicals could increase the efficacy of gastric chemotherapy and chemotherapeutics resistance. However, natural product structural stability and powerful bioactivity are important to develop novel treatments for gastric cancer that may minimize such adverse effects. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to summarize the potential therapeutic effects of natural products on prevention and treatment of gastric cancer with intensive molecular mechanisms of action, bioavailability, and safety efficacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Breast cancer; CCN proteins; Metastasis; Tumorigenesis
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:38:09 CET)
CCNs are specific type of matricellular proteins, which are essential signaling molecules, and play multiple roles in multicellular eukaryotes. This family of proteins consists of six separate members in mammals. The architecture of CCN proteins is multimodular and comprises four distinct motifs. CCN proteins achieve their specific physiological functions by binding to integrin receptors. The CCN family has been implicated in both cure and disease with impacts on biological interactions, such as cell adhesion, chemotaxis and migration, mitogenesis, cell survival, angiogenesis, differentiation, tumorigenesis, immune functions, chondrogenesis, and wound healing. Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer mortality among women triggered by atypical expression of CCNs. A favorable or unfavorable association between various CCNs has been reported in patients with breast carcinomas. Aberrant expression of CCN1 intensifies the proliferation of epithelial cells that line the lobes and ducts of the breast. Evidence also shows that the expression of CCN2 can ameliorate tumor growth and metastasis. However, CCN3 (NOV), CCN5 (WISP-2), and CCN6 (WISP-3) are consistent with neoplastic development and metastasis repression. Particular CCN members can develop tumors and cancer progression, whereas others can competitively counter the processes. Several studies have been conducted on CCN proteins and cancer in recent years. In our study, we intend to provide an overview of those research works while keeping breast carcinoma on focus. We believe that the importance of the CCN protein family in breast cancer should be reconsidered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0342.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: seaweed; metabolites; neuroprotection; Alzheimer’s disease; Parkinson’s disease; ischemic stroke; computer-aided drug discovery
Online: 21 May 2020 (09:49:29 CEST)
Beyond their significant contribution to the dietary and industrial supplies, marine algae are considered to be a potential source of some unique metabolites with diverse health benefits. The pharmacological properties, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cholesterol homeostasis, protein clearance and anti-amyloidogenic potentials of algal metabolites endorse their protective efficacy against oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired proteostasis which are known to be implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders and the associated complications after cerebral ischemia and brain injuries. As was evident in various preclinical studies, algal compounds conferred neuroprotection against a wide range of neurotoxic stressors, such as oxygen/glucose deprivation, hydrogen peroxide, glutamate, amyloid β, or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) and, therefore, hold therapeutic promise for brain disorders. While a significant number of algal compounds with promising neuroprotective capacity have been identified over the last decades, a few of them have had access to clinical trials. However, the recent approval of an algal oligosaccharide, sodium oligomannate, for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease enlightened the future of marine algae-based drug discovery. In this review, we briefly outline the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries for identifying the targets of pharmacological intervention, and then review the literature on the neuroprotective potentials of algal compounds along with the underlying pharmacological mechanism, and present an appraisal on the recent therapeutic advances. We also propose a rational strategy to facilitate algal metabolites-based drug development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0195.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Autophagy; Amyloid precursor protein (APP); β‐amyloid (Aβ); mTOR; Alzheimer’s disease (AD).
Online: 9 October 2020 (11:07:53 CEST)
Autophagy refers to the degradation of cytoplasmic constituents by a lysosomal-mediated pathway, which plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Importantly, dysregulation of autophagy has been implicated in multiple neurodegenerative disorders. Previous studies reported that autophagy affects the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP), thus stimulating β‐amyloid (Aβ) production in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) eventually. Although the mechanism of autophagy modulation on APP processing and its pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated at the molecular level, but modulation of autophagy has received considerable attention as a promising approach for the treatment of AD. In the early stage of AD, Aβ may prompt autophagy to facilitate its removal via mTOR‐independent as well as-dependent pathways. However, a recent study proposed that autophagy processes are not properly regulated as AD continues to progress, and consequently, the production of Aβ tends to accumulate rapidly. Meanwhile, a number of autophagy-related genes (Atg) as well as APP genes are also thought to influence the development of AD, which may serve as a bi‐directional link to autophagy and AD pathology. In this review, we summarized current observations related to autophagy regulation and APP processing, focusing on their dynamic modifications associated with the progression of AD. Recent findings together highlight the essential role of autophagy in the removal and clearance of APP and Aβ deposition in the pathological condition of AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0564.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Neurological activity; GC-MS; ADMET profile; Molecular Docking; Beta-amyloid precursor protein; Alzheimer’s disease
Online: 26 July 2021 (10:27:40 CEST)
Medicinal plants possess a surplus of novel and biologically active secondary metabolites that are responsible for counteracting diseases. Traditionally, Gomphandra tetrandra (Wall.) Sleumer is used to treat mental disorders. The present research was designed to explore phytochemicals from the ethanol leaf extract of Gomphandra tetrandra (Wall.) Sleumer to identify the potential pharmacophore(s) in the treatment of neurological disorders. The chemical compounds of the experimental plant were identified through GC-MS analysis. Besides, in-vitro antioxidant activity was assessed using different methods. Furthermore, in-vivo neurological activity was assessed in Swiss-albino mice. Computer aided analysis was appraised to determine the best-fit phytoconstituent of a total of fifteen identified compounds in the experimental plant extract against beta-amyloid precursor protein. The experimental extract revealed fifteen compounds in GC-MS analysis and the highest content was 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid (Z, Z, Z). Also, the extract showed potent anti-oxidant activity in in-vitro assays. Furthermore, in in-vivo neurological assays, the extract disclosed significant (p<0.05) neurological activity. The most favorable phytochemicals as neurological agents were selected via ADMET profiling and molecular docking was studied with beta-amyloid precursor protein. Moreover, in the computer aided study, 1, 5-Diphenyl-2H-1, 2, 4-triazoline-3-thione (Pub Chem CID: 2802516) was more active than other identified compounds with strong binding affinity to beta-amyloid precursor protein. The present in vivo and in silico studies revealed neuropharmacological features of G. tetrandra leaves extract as a natural agent against neurological disorders, especially Alzheimer’s disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0123.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Genistein; Estrogen receptor; BRCA-1; Cell cycle; Tumor suppressor gene; Molecular pharmacology; Synergistic activity.
Online: 7 September 2021 (11:59:15 CEST)
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common type of cancer in both men and women alike, but it is more prevalent in women. Natural compounds that can modulate the oncogenic process can be considered a significant anti-cancer agent for treating BC. These natural compounds are more effective than synthetic drugs, which have profound side effects on the normal cell and resistance to cancer cells. Genistein is a type of dietary phytoestrogen included in the flavonoid group with a similar structure of estrogen that might provide a strong alternative and complementary medicine to existing chemotherapeutics drugs. Several research studies demonstrated that it can target the estrogen receptor (ER), Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), and Breast cancer gene-1 (BRCA-1) in multiple BC cell lines, as well as sensitize cancer cell lines to this compound when used at an optimal inhibitory concentration. Genistein effectively showed anti-cancer activities through apoptosis induction, arresting cell cycle, inhibiting angiogenesis with metastasis, reducing inflammation, mammosphere formation, tumor growth, up-regulating tumor suppressor gene, and downregulating oncogene in suppressing cancer progression in vitro and animal model study. In addition, research studies have also suggested that these phytochemicals synergistically reverse the resistance mechanism of chemotherapeutic drugs, increasing the efficacy of some chemoinformatics drugs. Our review article aims to unbox and validate the molecular pharmacology in breast tissue, cell-specific anti-cancer mechanism with synergistic activity, and possible pharmacokinetic parameters of Genistein as a potential alternative therapeutic option for the treatment of BC.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0007.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: TSH disorder; IDA; TIBC; ferritin; FT4; Calcitriol mediated regulation; reproductive and non-reproductive women; quantitative serological assessment
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:32:58 CEST)
Anemia and thyroid disorders are global health issues that affect all ages but are more apparent in women. In this case, some serological components responsible for IDA and TSH disorders in women have been found actively regulated through a complex steroidal-calcitriol mediated pathway. This research has been investigated the correlation between Calcitriol and the serological components responsible for IDA and TSH disorders in childbearing and non-child-bearing women of different health conditions. Experimental sampling from 452 women suffering from both IDA and TSH disorders were taken, aged between 0 and 70 years. Serological parameters, such as iron, total iron-binding capacity and ferritin, were assessed for IDA profiling, whereas thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxin were for TSH profiling based on the individual’s serum calcitriol status. The resulted serological data were interpreted using sophisticated computer programming language and algorithms for quantitative biochemical analysis. The study resulted in a significant correlation between FT4 and Calcitriol (P<0.0001) for all age groups. TSH also showed strong interactions with the fluctuation of calcitriol level (P<0.0001), except for the children aged below 10 years (P<0.063). The iron, TIBC, TSH, and FT4 showed phenomenal regulation with the steroidal-calcitriol concentration for congenital patients. Unlike the others, ferritin has a substantial connection with Calcitriol (P<0.0064) fluctuation in the serum. To ratify, the concentrations of TSH, FT4, iron, TIBC, and ferritin were found to be significantly interconnected in terms of serum calcitriol level in women suffering from IDA and TSH disorders simultaneously. To understand the accuracy and efficacy of the Calcitriol in IDA and TSH disorders, some other inflammatory markers and parathyroid hormone analysis are need in future studies, besides a large number of samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0142.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy; Cancer Vaccine; Cancer Antigens; CRISPR-Cas9; Engineered T Cells.
Online: 7 May 2021 (11:10:13 CEST)
The mechanisms involved in immune responses to cancer have been extensively studied for several decades and, considerable attention has been paid to harnessing the immune system's therapeutic potential. Cancer immunotherapy has established itself as a promising new treatment option for a variety of cancer types. Various strategies including cancer vaccines, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), adoptive T-cell-cancer therapy and immune test therapy have gained prominence through immunotherapy. However, it remains to be accomplished the full potential of cancer immunotherapy. In spite of having startling aspects, the cancer immunotherapies have some difficulties including the inability to effectively targeting the cancer antigens and the abnormalities in patient response. With the advancement of technology, this system has changed the genome-based immunotherapy process in the human body including generation of engineered T cells. Due to its high specificity, CRISPR-Cas9 has become a simple and flexible genome-editing tool to target nearly any genomic locus. Recently, the CD19-mediated CAR-T cell (chimeric antigen receptor T cell) therapy has opened a new avenue for the treatment of human cancer, though low efficiency is a major drawback of this process. Thus, increasing the efficiency of the CAR-T cell (engineered T cells that induce the chimeric antigen receptor) by using CRISPR-Cas9 technology could be a better weapon to fight against the cancer. In this review, we have broadly focused on the use of CRISPR-Cas9 technology for the modification of the T-cell, which can specifically recognize cancer cells and be used as immune therapeutics against cancer. We have also demonstrated the other potential strategies for the treatment of cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0211.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Colorectal cancer; SYK; Prognostic Significance; Genetic Alteration; Molecular dynamics simulations
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:20:54 CEST)
Background: Colorectal cancer is considered the third most fetal among all type of cancer. Spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) is a non-receptor type tyrosine-protein that plays crucial role in signaling mediated via immune receptor. We adopted an onco-informatics analysis to evaluate the SYK expression and prognostic value of SYK in colorectal cancer, and identification of potential phytochemicals which may inhibit overexpression of SYK protein as well as minimized colorectal cancer. Materials & Methods: Differential expression of SYK gene was analyzed using the several transcriptomic databases including Oncomine, UALCAN, GENT2 and GEPIA2. The server, cBioPortal was used to analyze mutation and copy number alterations whereas GENT2, GEPIA, OncoLnc and PrognoScan were employed to examine the survival rate. A protein-protein interaction network of SYK and co-expressed genes of SYK was conducted via GeneMANIA. Considering SYK gene encoding protein as drug target, selected phytochemicals were assessed by molecular docking using PyRx 0.8 packages. YASARA molecular dynamics simulators were applied for the post validation of the molecular docking data. Results: We have observed significant overexpression of mRNA expression levels of SYK gene colorectal adenocarcinoma (COAD) samples compared with normal tissues. Significant methylation level and various genetic alterations are assembled in SYK gene which can lead to the development of colorectal cancer. As a result, lower level of SYK expression was related to the more chances of patients’ survival by which all the outcomes from the multiple bioinformatics platforms and web resources have demonstrated the significant evidences that the SYK kinsase can possess as a potential biomarker for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Here, aromatic phytochemicals namely, Kaempferol and Glabridin targeting SYK showed more stability compared to controls and may be useful for the treatment of colorectal cancer. Conclusion: Our study showed dysregulated expression of SYK in colorectal cancer and potentiality to act as a biomarker for the prognosis of CRC. Moreover, we have shown phytochemicals (Kaempferol and Glabridin) target SYK as potential treatment strategies and drug repositioning potentiality in colorectal cancer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0042.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: HbA1c biomarker; type 2 diabetes; cancer risk profiling; serological diagnosis; oncoinformatic screening; genetic overexpression; promoter methylation
Online: 2 August 2022 (06:04:42 CEST)
This research aimed to figure out the applications of HbA1c protein and HbA1 gene as the prognostic biomarkers for assessing the risks of different cancers among male T2D patients in Bangladesh considering their serological and oncoinformatic parameters. Depending on the concentrations of HbA1c (%) of the T2D patients (n=300), their individual FBS (mmol/L); THABF (mmol/L); creatinine (mg/dl); SC (mg/dl); STGs (mg/dl); HDLC (mg/dl); and LDLC (mg/dl) were estimated. The values of the patients were compared with the control (n=60) group as the serological analysis. Besides, HbA1 gene (encoding hBA1c protein) overexpression and promotor methylation responsible for BLCA, BRCA, CHOL, COAD, LUAD, LUSC, PAAD, and PRAD cancers in the male T2D patients were profiled as the oncoinformatic parameters based on the sample types; caner stages; racial footprints; gender; age; nodal metastasis; p53 methylations; pancreatitis; diabetes status; smoking behaviors; and overall/disease-free survivability. Finally, the ‘HbA1 gene strings’ responsible for genetic coexpression; endophytic vesicle regulation; antioxidant regulation; oxygen species metabolic regulation; and gene-mediated response to the reactive oxygen molecules were studied comprehensively. A strong correlation between BMI and FBS was observed in both the patients and the control (P<0.0001). Similarly, the values of FBS, THABF, and creatinine resulted in equal significance (P<0.0001) as compared to the HbA1c concentrations of all the T2D and control individuals. The SC, STGs, HDLC, and LDLC concentrations regulated ardently in both the control (P<0.0001), and patients group (P<0.0001), while HbA1c ranged from 3.8-5.8%, and 5.11-15.8% respectively. HbA1 gene is found downregulating with cancer progressed in most of the oncoinformatic parameters. According to the DA, CS, EI, CE, PC, NC, GF, H, and AT profiles; the HbA1 gene interacts with 8 other genes responsible for creating a protein cluster comprising- AHSP, HBA1, HBA2, HBB, HBD, HBE1, HBG2, RPS12, and RPS19 proteins for cancer formation. To recapitulate, HbA1c protein and HbA1 gene can be used as the prognostic serological and molecular biomarkers respectively for determining the risks of cancers among male chronic T2D patients.