REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: miRNA; cardiomyocytes; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 10 May 2018 (05:44:24 CEST)
Study of micro-RNA regulatory networks (known as miRNA’s or miR’s), during development and in known pathologies have been the basis of study over the past decades. Herein, we recapitulate these findings in order to highlight the best underlying mechanisms found to date. We also seek to elucidate how miRNA dysregulation can be associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, we discuss miR regulation mechanism during in early development in vivo and invitro. Since many of the miR’s are precursors to transcriptional regulation, we relate back to their molecular control as we can then look together at the fundamental disease they might be exacerbating by this dysregulation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0380.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: neem extracts; nutritional components; systemic diseases
Online: 31 May 2019 (08:44:25 CEST)
Plant-based alternative medicine is normally grounded on empiric cultural perception, as the main objective, these practices intent to either maintain good health or to provide a route to turn-the-tide on a specific disease or ailment. Amongst the thousands of plants that have been used and studied, Neem (Azadirachta indica) seems to have a very interesting tale to tell, since its properties to ward-off certain diseases have overtime, and in a rigorous way, been proven. The preceding concise review is a collection of some of the most relevant studies today, not only focusing on the health benefits obtained by its use, but digging into the molecular mechanisms of how the properties come about. In particular, we take a look over antioxidant properties and how these mediate and mitigate important molecules such as IL-6 and TNF-, leading the way in reducing systematic damage by oxidative stress. Further, we relate this oxidative reduction to other systemic diseases such as cancer and diabetes, as these are currently becoming the most rampant killers. As of yet not all is known about the different ways of extracting or the total composition of an extract, as these may be from different parts of the plant. Therefore, we also allude to an important cautionary view where toxicological effects and conflicting outcomes arise. Overall, presented results show a great potential for the different extracts of Neem as their antioxidant activity can be taken advantage off, and potentially used in modern medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0619.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: COVID-19 Mexico; stress in healthcare professionals; COVID-19 stress scale
Online: 26 September 2020 (08:07:00 CEST)
The world is currently, subjected to the worst health crisis documented in modern history; an epidemic led by the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the epicenter of this crisis, healthcare professionals continue working to safeguard our well-being. To the regular high levels of stress, COVID new heights even more to healthcare professionals so depending on the area, specialty, and type of work. Here we investigated what are the tendencies, or areas most affected. Through an adaptation of the original COVID-stress scale, we developed a remote, fast test designed for healthcare professionals of the Northeastern part of Mexico, an important part of the country with economic and cultural ties to the US. Our results showed 4 key correlations as highly dependent: Work area – Xenophobia (p < 0.045), Work with COVID patients - Traumatic stress (p < 0.001) and Total number of COVID patients per day – Traumatic stress (p < 0.027), and Total number of COVID patients - Compulsive checking and reassurance. Overall concluding that normal levels of stress have increased (mild – moderate). Additionally, we further determine that the fear of being an asymptomatic patient (potential to spread without knowing) continues being a concern.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0406.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Adapted COVID-Stress Scales; Stress in Academic Professionals; Resilience to COVID stress in Academia
Online: 20 January 2021 (16:37:25 CET)
To mitigate the COVID-19 infection, many world governments endorsed the cessation of non-essential activities, such as the school attendance. Thereby, forcing the evolution of the teaching model to the virtual classroom. In the present work we show the application of a modified version of the adapted COVID-19 stress scales (ACSS) which also included teaching anxiety and preparedness, and resilience for academic professionals in Mexico, during the unprecedented transformation of the education system undergone in the COVID-19 quarantine. Most of the studied variables: gender, age, academic degree, household occupants, having a disease, teaching level, teaching mode, work hours, resilience, teaching anxiety and preparedness, and fear of being an asymptomatic patient (FOBAP), showed significant statistical correlation between each other (p<0.050) and to the 6 areas of the ACSS (danger, contamination, social economical, xenophobia, traumatic stress and compulsive checking). Our results further showed that the perceived stress and anxiety, fell into the category of absent to mild with only the danger section of the ACSS falling into the moderate category. Finally, resilience generated throughout the quarantine, seems to be a predictor of the adaptation the academic professional has undergone to cope with stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0212.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; Krüppel -like factors; Transcription factor regulation
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:13:14 CET)
KLFs seem to associate with congenital heart disease-linked syndromes, malformations because of autosomal diseases, mutations that relate to protein instability, and/or loss functions such as atheroprotective activities. Ischemic damage also relates to KLF dysregulation because of differentiation of cardiac myofibroblasts or a modified fatty acid oxidation, related to the formation of a dilated cardiomyopathy; myocardial infarctions, left ventricular hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathies. MicroRNA have been involved in certain regulatory loops of KLFs as they may function as critical modulators of vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis, in heart failure and as markers of endothelial damage in acute myocardial infarction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0305.v1
Online: 23 March 2022 (03:12:40 CET)
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiovascular diseases complication can give rise to myocardial infarction which produces cell death by blockage of blood flow, leading to loss of heart function. Current treatments directed at heart repair have several disadvantages such as the lack of donors for heart transplantation or the use of non-bioactive inert materials for replacement of the damage tissue. New treatment strategies involve stimulation of heart tissue regeneration with the use of bioactive materials like chitosan, in combination with cells and biochemical factors. Chitosan scaffolds have the necessary proprieties of biocompatibility, porosity, and biodegradation, that imitates the heart extracellular matrix. Chitosan scaffolds physical proprieties, such as electrical conductivity and mechanical proprieties, can be improved by different preparation techniques and by the functionalization with other materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Cardiology Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; Mexico COVID-19; Mexico metropolitan area
Online: 14 June 2022 (03:11:35 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD´s) continue as the primary cause of death worldwide. During the past couple of years, and with the surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, deaths linked to CVD´s were -slightly overshadowed by those deaths related to COVID-19, albeit during the highest peaks of the pandemic. The present study derived form understanding the correlation between both diseases, from the standpoint of patients already diagnosed with CVD´s (n = 41883) and what comorbidities had the highest influence on overall patient death (n = 3637). Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are all linked to worsening the outcome of COVID-19 positive patients, hence they were considered when looking at the overview of all CVD positive patients. Our finding showed that 1697 deaths were related to diabetes (p < 0.001), 987 deaths were related to obesity (p < 0.001), and lastly 2499 deaths were attributed to hypertension (p < 0.001) individually. Using logistic regression modeling, we found diabetes (OR: 1.744, p < 0.001) and hypertension (OR: 2.179, p < 0.001) had a high impact on patient deaths. Hence, having a CVD diagnosis, with hypertension and/or diabetes seems to increase the likely-hood of complication leading to death in COVID-19 positive patients.