ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0263.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: Brick kiln emission; Ecological & environmental impacts; Human health impacts; Socio-economic consequences
Online: 3 November 2023 (16:29:42 CET)
The brick manufacturing sector in Bangladesh is experiencing rapid growth, leading to notable environmental and health concerns. The primary objective of this research is to examine the Savar Upazila, a region of significant economic significance owing to its favorable brick manufacturing conditions and proximity to Dhaka city. Brick kilns, among other sources, constitute significant contributors to air pollution. The study utilized primary and secondary data to examine brick kiln emissions' effects on the surrounding area's environment and public health. The collection of primary data was conducted in multiple zones within Savar Upazila, which is home to a significant number of brick kilns. The utilization of secondary data provided valuable insights regarding the toxic pollutants discharged by these kilns and the corresponding health risks they pose. The participants provided accounts of various health ailments, such as dermatological conditions, optical difficulty, and respiratory complications, further aggravated by brick kilns' incidents. The prevalence of crop losses, soil degradation, and reduced agricultural yields was confirmed by 74% of the respondents. The trees and crops in the surrounding area experienced adverse effects due to the deposition of dust particles. During periods of inactivity, the concentrations of sulfur oxide (SOx) were between 6 and 9 times lower compared to periods of operation. Similarly, nitrogen oxide (NOx) levels were observed to be 4 to 6 times lower during non-operational phases. The degradation of water quality in adjacent bodies has been attributed to the deposition of dust and ash originating from brickfields, resulting in substantial repercussions on aquaculture. A significant proportion of participants indicated experiencing diverse health issues, notwithstanding the employment prospects generated by brick kilns, thereby underscoring the adverse consequences on both the environment and the local economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0336.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Poa crymophila; cold stresses; physiology; transcriptome analysis; weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA); molecular mechanisms
Online: 6 November 2023 (10:33:41 CET)
Poa crymophila is a perennial, cold-tolerant, native grass species, widely distributed to the Qing-hai-Tibet Plateau. However, the molecular mechanism behind the cold stress tolerance and role of key regulatory genes and pathways of P. crymophila are poorly understood yet. Therefore, the present study investigated the physiological and transcriptome responses of P. crymophila’s roots, stems, and leaves under cold stress to explore the molecular mechanism of cold tolerance. Results of the present study suggested that cold stress significantly changed the physiologic characteristics of roots, stems, and leaves of P. crymophila. In addition, the transcriptome results showed that 4434, 8793, and 14942 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in roots, stems, and leaves, respectively; however, 464 DEGs were commonly identified in these three tissues. The Gene On-tology (GO) results showed that a large numbers of DEGs were significantly enriched in the pho-tosynthetic related categories in leaves. In addition, the “response to stimulus” category was sig-nificantly enriched in roots and stems. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) results showed that DEGs involved in “phenylpropanoid biosynthesis” were significantly enriched in roots, “photosynthesis” and “circadian rhythm-plant” pathways significantly enriched in stems and leaves, starch and sucrose metabolism, and galactose metabolism were pathways significantly enriched in three tissues. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) identified Hub genes involved in P. crymophila cold response. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the cold tolerance of P. crymophila belowground and aboveground tissues. In addition, specific genes involved in Ca2+ signaling, ROS scavenging system, hormones, circadian clock, photosynthesis, and transcription factors (TFs) were identified in P. crymophila. The identi-fication of key genes may provide valuable resources for further functional genomic and breeding studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0676.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: environmental; social and governance (ESG); individual investor’s behavioral factors; theory of planned behaviour (TPB)
Online: 12 October 2023 (14:31:14 CEST)
The present study investigates the decision-making process of investors on the Pakistan Stock Exchange with regard to portfolio construction, explicitly focusing on the incorporation of ESG concerns. The present study employed SmartPLS and structural equation modeling (SEM) to quantitatively assess data received from a sample of 393 out of 400 respondents. Based on the available data, investors participating in the Pakistan Stock Exchange are notably impacted by ESG aspects. The findings of this study hold significance for emerging economy firms, regulators, and investors, both in terms of theoretical and practical ramifications. The study's findings demonstrate a clear indication of investors' significant emphasis on ESG matters. Furthermore, it provides valuable insights for stakeholders who are involved in the ever-evolving realm of sustainable finance within developing countries
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0139.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Leukemia; Metabolomics; IDH; OXPHOS
Online: 9 June 2022 (08:29:40 CEST)
Leukemia represents as one of the most common primary malignancies of the hematologic system in both children’s and adults and remains a largely incurable or relapse disease. The elucidation of disease subtypes based on mutational profiling, has not improved clinical outcomes. IDH1/2 are key enzymes of TCA cycle that produces α-ketoglutarate (αKG), however their mutated version, are well reported in various cancer types including leukemia, produces D-2 hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), an oncometabolite. Recently, some studies have shown that wild type IDH1 is highly expressed in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), primary glioblastomas (GBM) and several hematological malignancies and corelates with disease progression. In this work, we have showed treatment of wild type IDH1 leukemia cells with specific IDH1 inhibitor switched leukemic cells towards gly-colysis from oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) phenotype. We also noticed reduction in αKG in treated cells possible suggesting inhibition of IDH1 enzymatic activity. Further, we found that IDH1 inhibition reduces the metabolites related to one carbon metabolism, essential to maintain global methylation in leukemic cells. Finally, we observed that metabolic alteration in IDH1 inhibitor treated leukemic cells promotes reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation along with loss of mito-chondrial membrane potential, leading towards apoptosis in leukemic cells. Overall, we showed that wild type IDH1 targeting in leukemic cells promote metabolic alterations that can be exploited for combination therapies for better outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0386.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: physical vapor deposition; magnetron-sputtering; AlN/Al coating; silicon substrate; residual stresses; wafer curvature method; Nano-scale residual stress profiling; indentation failure modes; nanoindentation adhesion
Online: 17 October 2018 (12:36:39 CEST)
Compressive residual stresses in thin films can inhibit crack propagation under normal or sliding contact loading, with associated enhancement of the coating apparent toughness, load bearing capacity and wear resistance. This study investigates the influence of residual stress distributions on the thin film/substrate adhesion using a nanoindenter coupled with scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations of indentation induced failure modes. Reactive and un-reactive magnetron sputtering with ion plating was used to coat a (100) silicon substrate with aluminum nitride (AlN) with and without an aluminum (Al) adhesion layer. The presence of an Al bond layer gives additional interfacial tensile stress because of the difference in thermal expansion coefficient. Additionally, a different magnitude of residual stresses in the AlN coating was achieved by changing the applied bias voltage onto the substrate. Wafer curvature method and incremental focused ion beam (FIB) milling, combined with high-resolution in situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and full field strain analysis by digital image correlation (DIC), were used to measure the average and in-depth stress residual stress distribution in the produced coatings. The adhesion energy was then quantified by using a nanoindentation based model. Results demonstrate that the additional tensile residual stress in the aluminum adhesion layer decrease significantly the coating adhesion, even in presence of a higher compressive stress state in the AlN top-layer. Therefore, the coatings without Al-layer showed better adhesion because of a more homogeneous compressive residual stress in comparison with the coating having Al layer, even though both groups of coatings are produced under same bias voltage. Results are discussed, and some general suggestions are made on the correlation between coating/substrate property combination and the adhesion energy of multilayer stacks. The results suggested that Al bond-layer and inhomogeneous residual stresses affected the adhesion of AlN negatively to a substrate like silicon.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: congenital cataract; consanguineous; circadian; mutation
Online: 6 August 2018 (10:04:11 CEST)
In mice, mutations or targeted disruptions of the core circadian gene Bmal1 have been implicated in early onset of ocular pathologies, including premature/congenital cataract development. The aim of the present study was to analyze probands of consanguineous Pakistani cataract families to identify the novel pathogenic variants in the BMAL1 gene. We have studied 21 congenital cataract families. Ophthalmic examination was performed for the probands and available family members. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood. PCR and Sanger sequencing was performed for the entire coding region of the BMAL1 gene. Targeted Sanger sequencing of BMAL1 revealed a heterozygous variant c.41A>T; p.(Asp14Val) in one proband, but it did not co-segregate with the disease phenotype in the family. In addition, a nonsynonymous variant (rs2290037) was identified in five probands. Our study is the first one to analyze the role of BMAL1 gene mutations in humans for their association with congenital cataract. Although we were unable to find the variants associated with congenital cataract families from Pakistan, more studies from other populations will be informative to further prove the role of BMAL1 with the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Genetics; Epidemiology; Theranostics; Vaccines and Preventive Infectiology
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:00:35 CEST)
Four new zoonotic coronaviruses outbreak occurred in the past two decades. The first coronavirus outbreak happened in 2003 and was named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1), followed by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2013, and by Swine Acute Diarrhoea Syndrome (SADS) in 2017. In late December 2019, a patient from Wuhan Seafood Wholesale Market, China, was admitted to Huang's hospital with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of apparently unknown etiology, which later was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2-induced coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 was identified from another clade within the subgenus Sarbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus. This new CoV variant showed 96.2% similarity at whole-genome level to bat coronavirus. Based on genetic studies, pangolin, bats, and snakes are suspected to be a possible intermediate host of this virus, but further research is in progress to determine how this virus appeared and what is the exact source of infection. The SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has higher transmissibility, contagiosity and pathogenicity compared to that of SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 swiftly spread from continent to continent and is persistently causing a shocking global public health concern albeit the rate of infected cases and mortality is relatively decreasing over time. In this review, we provide an update on the origin, transmissibility, etiology, epidemiology, and evolution of COVID-19. We also highlight the current diagnostics, therapies, and prognostics for SARS-CoV-2. Eventually, we report and provide our humble opinion about the preventive strategies to control the ongoing related pandemic situation at global and individual levels, considering the international public health emergency and possible future epidemics and pandemics.