REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1784.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ecmo; impella; unloading; iabp; cardiogenic shock
Online: 25 August 2023 (07:24:33 CEST)
Impressively increasing availability of the mechanical circulatory/cardiac support systems (MCS) worldwide, together with the deepening of the knowledge of critical care medical practitioners, have inevitably led to the discussion about further improvements of intensive care associated to MCS. An appealing topic of the left ventricle (LV) overload related to VA ECMO support endangering myocardial recovery is being widely discussed within the scientific community. Unloading of LV leads to the reduction of LV end-diastolic pressure, reduction of pressure in the left atrium and decrease of the LV thrombus formation risk. Consequently, better conditions for myocardial recovery, with comfortable filling pressures and better oxygen delivery/demand ratio are achieved. The combination of VA ECMO and Impella device, also called ECPELLA seems to be a promising strategy which may bring the improvement of CS mortality rates. The series of presented trials and meta-analyses clearly showed potential benefits of this strategy. However, the ongoing research has brought a series of new questions, as whether Impella itself is the only appropriate unloading modality, or any other approach to unload LV would be beneficial in the same way? Benefits and potential risks of LV unloading and its timing are being discussed in current review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1266.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ECMO; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; Plasma biomarker; Brain injury; neuromonitoring
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:03:46 CEST)
Background: Early diagnosis of acute brain injury (ABI) is critical for patients on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) to guide anticoagulation strategy; however, neurological assessment in ECMO is often limited by patient sedation. Methods: In this pilot study of adults from June 2018 to May 2019, plasma samples of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament light chain (NFL), and Tau were collected daily after VA-ECMO cannulation and measured using a multiplex platform. Primary outcomes were the occurrence of ABI, assessed clinically, and neurologic outcome, assessed by modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Results: Of 20 consented patients (median age=48.5 years; 55% female), 8 (40%) had ABI and 15 (75%) had unfavorable neurologic outcomes at discharge. 10 (50%) patients were centrally cannulated. The median duration on ECMO was 4.5 days (IQR: 2.5-9.5). Peak GFAP, NFL, and Tau levels were higher in patients with ABI vs. without (AUC = 0.77; 0.85; 0.57, respectively) and in patients with unfavorable vs. favorable neurologic outcomes (AUC = 0.64; 0.59; 0.73, respectively). GFAP elevated first, NFL elevated to the highest degree, and Tau showed limited change regardless of ABI. Conclusion: Plasma biomarkers may facilitate early detection of ABIs in VA-ECMO where neurological exam is limited and assist timely clinical decision-making.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; respiratory failure; ARDS; ventilation; ECMO
Online: 24 July 2020 (04:44:14 CEST)
The rapidly evolving understanding of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) respiratory failure pathogenesis, limited disease-specific evidence and demand-resource imbalances have posed significant challenges for intensive care clinicians. In this single-centre retrospective cohort study we describe the outcomes of COVID-19 patients admitted to Guy’s and St. Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust (GSTT) critical care service. Patients were managed according to a local respiratory failure management pathway that was predicated on timely invasive ventilation when indicated and tailored ventilatory strategies according to pulmonary mechanics. Between 2nd March and 25th May 2020 GSTT critical care service admitted 316 patients with confirmed COVID-19. Of the 201 patients admitted directly through the Emergency Department with a completed critical care outcome, 71.1% survived to critical care discharge. These favourable outcomes may serve to inform the wider debate on the optimal ventilatory management in COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0568.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; respiratory failure; ARDS; ventilation; MODS; ECMO
Online: 24 July 2020 (04:00:50 CEST)
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in a significant surge of critically ill patients and an unprecedented demand on intensive care services. The rapidly evolving understanding of pathogenesis, limited disease specific evidence and demand-resource imbalances have posed significant challenges for intensive care clinicians. COVID-19 is a complex multisystem inflammatory vasculopathy with a significant mortality implication for those admitted to intensive care. Institutional strategic preparation and meticulous intensive care support are essential to maximising outcomes during the pandemic. The significant mortality variation observed between institutions and internationally, despite a single aetiology and uniform presentation, highlights the potential influence of management strategies on outcome. Given that optimal organ support and adjunctive therapies for COVID-19 have not yet been well defined by trial-based outcomes, strategies are predicated on existing literature and experiential learning. This review outlines the relevant pathophysiology and management strategies for critically ill patients with COVID-19, and shares some of the collective learning accumulated in a high volume Severe Respiratory Failure centre in London.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0433.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: ECLS; ECMO; animal model; rodent; rat; mouse; hamster; CPB; in-vivo; oxygenator
Online: 27 February 2023 (02:41:38 CET)
The survival rate of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) remains overall at 60 %. Research and development is slow, partly due to the lack of sophisticated experimental models. This publication introduces a dedicated rodent oxygenator (“RatOx”) and shows preliminary in vitro classification tests. The RatOx has an adaptable fiber module size for various rodent models. Gas transfer performance over the fiber module for different blood flows and fiber module sizes were tested according to DIN EN ISO 7199.At the maximum possible amount of effective fiber surface and a blood flow of 100 ml/min, the oxygenator performance has been tested to a maximum of 6.27 ml O2/min and 8.2 ml CO2/min, respectively. The priming volume for this the largest fiber module is 5.4 ml, while the smallest possible configuration with a single fiber mat layer has 1.1 ml of priming volume. The novel RatOx ECLS system has been evaluated in-vitro to comply to a high degree with all predefined functionality criteria for rodent sized animal models. We intend for the RatOx to become a standard testing platform for scientific studies on ECLS therapy and technology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2112.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ongenital heart disease; extracorporeal life support; ECMO; single ventricle; complications; risk factors; mortality
Online: 30 June 2023 (03:41:18 CEST)
For children born with congenital heart defects (CHD), extracorporeal life support may be necessary. This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), focusing on various risk factors, including the type of CHD. The study was conducted as a retrospective single-center analysis at the Children's Hospital Zurich. All patients with CHD who required ECMO (veno-arterial or veno-venous) between 2009 and 2019 were included. Among the 88 patients, 36 (41%) had a single ventricle heart defect while 52 (59%) had a biventricular heart defect. Out of the total patients, 25 (28%) survived, with 7 (8%) having a single ventricle heart defect and 18 (20%) having a biventricular heart defect. Statistical analysis with a p-value of 0.19 revealed no significant difference in survival rates between the two groups. At the one-year follow-up, all children who survived to discharge were still alive. The rate of complications on ECMO was higher in children with a single ventricle (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.67 - 3.7). The occurrence of a second ECMO run was more frequent in patients with a single ventricle compared to those with a biventricular physiology (22% vs. 9.6%). Although the study did not identify a significant difference in survival rates, it did indicate that patients with a single ventricle faced a higher risk of complications during ECMO and a greater likelihood of requiring a second ECMO run.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0509.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: bleomycin; ECMO; pulmonary fibrosis; pulmonary toxicity; veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; lung transplant
Online: 28 February 2023 (06:46:44 CET)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be a life-saving intervention in cases of potentially reversible refractory respiratory failure. One such indication can be bleomycin-induced lung injury. However, in some cases, the injury can be so severe that it becomes irreversible and creates complex medical decisions regarding life support and the continuation of care when no additional therapeutic options are feasible, particularly in cases of patients who were young and fully functional prior to an acute illness. In cases of full pulmonary replacement with mechanical support and the degree of functionality that can be attained utilizing modalities such as ECMO can obscure the true severity of illness and make end-of-life decisions significantly harder for families and caregivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: ECMO; ECLS; ECCO2R; ARDS; respiratory failure, LTx, DIN EN ISO 7199; Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, acute respiratory distress syndrome, animal model
Online: 8 December 2021 (14:16:25 CET)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an established rescue therapy for patients with chronic respiratory failure waiting for lung transplantation (LTx). The therapy inherent immobilization may result in fatigue, consecutive deteriorated prognosis and even lost eligibility for transplantation. We conducted a feasibility study on a novel system designed for the deployment of a mobile ECMO device, enabling physical exercise of awake patients prior to LTx. The system comprises a novel mobile oxygenator with a directly connected blood pump, a double lumen cannula, gas blender and supply, as well as control, and energy management. In-vitro experiments included tests regarding performance, efficiency, and blood damage. A reduced system was tested in vivo for feasibility using a novel large animal model. Six anesthetized pigs were first positioned in supine position, followed by a 45° angle, simulating an upright position of the patients. We monitored performance and vital parameters. All in-vitro experiments showed good performance for the respective subsystems and the integrated system. The acute invivo trials of 8h duration confirmed the results. The novel mobile ECMO-system enables adequate oxygenation and decarboxylation sufficient for, e.g., physical exercise of designated LTx-recipients. These results are promising and suggest further preclinical studies on safety and efficacy to facilitate translation into clinical application.