Preprint Hypothesis Version 7 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

A Comprehensive Evolutionary Theory Deduced from Thermodynamics

Version 1 : Received: 30 September 2020 / Approved: 1 October 2020 / Online: 1 October 2020 (08:53:19 CEST)
Version 2 : Received: 2 October 2020 / Approved: 2 October 2020 / Online: 2 October 2020 (14:36:24 CEST)
Version 3 : Received: 3 November 2020 / Approved: 3 November 2020 / Online: 3 November 2020 (12:46:41 CET)
Version 4 : Received: 19 November 2020 / Approved: 20 November 2020 / Online: 20 November 2020 (11:30:48 CET)
Version 5 : Received: 27 November 2020 / Approved: 27 November 2020 / Online: 27 November 2020 (16:45:19 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 8 December 2020 / Approved: 9 December 2020 / Online: 9 December 2020 (11:01:03 CET)
Version 7 : Received: 27 January 2021 / Approved: 28 January 2021 / Online: 28 January 2021 (12:25:54 CET)

How to cite: Chen, J. A Comprehensive Evolutionary Theory Deduced from Thermodynamics. Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v7). Chen, J. A Comprehensive Evolutionary Theory Deduced from Thermodynamics. Preprints 2020, 2020100004 (doi: 10.20944/preprints202010.0004.v7).


Studies on evolution have made significant progress in multiple disciplines, but evolutionary theories remain incomplete, controversial and inadequate in explaining origin of life and macroevolution. Here we create the concept of carbon-based entities (CBEs) which include methane, amino acids, proteins, bacteria, animals, plants, and other entities containing carbon atoms. From thermodynamics, we deduce the driving force, the progressive mechanisms, and the major steps of CBE evolution, and hence establish a comprehensive evolutionary theory termed the CBE evolutionary theory (CBEET). CBEET highlights that evolution is driven hierarchy-wise by thermodynamics and favors fitness and diversity. It provides novel explanations for origin of life (abiogenesis), macroevolution, natural selection, sympatric speciation, and animal group evolution in a comprehensive and comprehensible way. It elucidates that collaboration, altruism, obeying rules with properly increased freedom are important throughout the CBE evolution. It refutes thoroughly the notion that negative entropy (negentropy) leads to biological order which is distinct from thermodynamic order. It integrates with research advances in multiple disciplines and bridges laws of physics, evolution in biology, and harmonious development of human society.

Subject Areas

carbon-based entity; driving force; energy; evolution; fitness; mechanism; natural selection; speciation; thermodynamics; theory

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 28 January 2021
Commenter: Ji-Ming Chen
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: The author affiliation was changed, and a few sentences were revised. Figure 1 was also modified a little bit. 
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